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HIV Course

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281. Modelling the effect of short-course multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modelling the effect of short-course multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global TB control. MDR-TB treatment regimens typically have a high pill burden, last 20 months or more and often lead to unsatisfactory outcomes. A 9-11 month regimen with seven antibiotics has shown high success rates among selected MDR-TB patients in different settings and is conditionally recommended by the World Health (...) Organization.We construct a transmission-dynamic model of TB to estimate the likely impact of a shorter MDR-TB regimen when applied in a low HIV prevalence region of Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) with high rates of drug resistance, good access to diagnostics and a well-established community-based MDR-TB treatment programme providing treatment to around 400 patients. The model incorporates acquisition of additional drug resistance and incorrect regimen assignment. It is calibrated to local epidemiology and used

2016 BMC Medicine

282. Consistent Condom Use by Female Sex Workers in Kolkata, India: Testing Theories of Economic Insecurity, Behavior Change, Life Course Vulnerability and Empowerment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Consistent Condom Use by Female Sex Workers in Kolkata, India: Testing Theories of Economic Insecurity, Behavior Change, Life Course Vulnerability and Empowerment Consistent condom use (CCU) is the primary HIV/STI prevention option available to sex workers globally but may be undermined by economic insecurity, life-course vulnerabilities, behavioral factors, disempowerment, or lack of effective interventions. This study examines predictors of CCU in a random household survey of brothel-based (...) female sex workers (n = 200) in two neighborhoods served by Durbar (the Sonagachi Project) in Kolkata, India. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that CCU was significantly associated with perceived HIV risk, community mobilization participation, working more days in sex work, and higher proportion of occasional clients to regular clients. Exploratory analyses stratifying by economic insecurity indicators (i.e., debt, savings, income, housing security) indicate that perceived HIV risk

2016 AIDS and behavior

283. Severe acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis with complete spontaneous resolution: The natural course Full Text available with Trip Pro

Severe acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis with complete spontaneous resolution: The natural course We report on a case of unilateral acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) with spontaneous resolution of the lesions, and discuss the role of an altered versus adequate immune response as the major pathogenic factor.We describe a case of acute loss of visual acuity (VA) in the left eye (LE) in a 55-year-old healthy man.The patient presented with VA of 20/20 (...) for two weeks with no treatment. When observed again, VA of the LE had recovered to 20/20 and the lesions had completely resolved. Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) tests results were positive and HIV antibody test titers negative. The diagnosis of ASPPC in the left eye was made. The patient accepted treatment with penicillin G only 45 days after the initial presentation. AV remained stable at 20/20 both eyes and no relapses

2016 GMS Ophthalmology Cases

284. Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia associated with rheumatoid arthritis during the course of treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia associated with rheumatoid arthritis during the course of treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case report Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is potentially fatal infectious complication in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during immunosuppressive therapy. Hospital survival due to human immunodeficiency virus-unrelated PCP reaches to 60%. The high mortality rate results from difficulties in establishing an early diagnosis

2016 BMC research notes

285. The Haiti Medical Education Project: development and analysis of a competency based continuing medical education course in Haiti through distance learning Full Text available with Trip Pro

) guidelines as references, a competency-derived syllabus was created for a Haitian continuing medical education program. The resulting educational goals were reviewed by a committee of Haitian and North American physician/medical education practitioners to reflect local needs. All authors reviewed lectures and then conferred to establish agreement on competencies presented for each lecture.Sixty-seven lectures were delivered. Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, ophthalmologic (...) The Haiti Medical Education Project: development and analysis of a competency based continuing medical education course in Haiti through distance learning Recent calls for reform in healthcare training emphasize using competency-based curricula and information technology-empowered learning. Continuing Medical Education programs are essential in maintaining physician accreditation. Haitian physicians have expressed a lack access to these activities. The Haiti Medical Education Project works

2016 BMC medical education

286. STUDY OF THE STATUS OF TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAM BASED ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT SHORT-COURSE STRATEGY (DOTS) Full Text available with Trip Pro

STUDY OF THE STATUS OF TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAM BASED ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT SHORT-COURSE STRATEGY (DOTS) Ascendant trend of tuberculosis in the world introduces this disease to be one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. So that every year, 9 million people are afflicted to active TB and about 5.1 million people die of the disease. As the HIV contaminated cases are increased, emergence and spread field of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

2016 Materia socio-medica

287. A Prospective Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Chemotherapy Combined With Short-course Radiotherapy Versus Conventional Neo-adjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Implemented by MDT

A Prospective Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Chemotherapy Combined With Short-course Radiotherapy Versus Conventional Neo-adjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Implemented by MDT A Prospective Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Chemotherapy Combined With Short-course Radiotherapy Versus Conventional Neo-adjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Implemented by MDT - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record (...) managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Prospective Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Chemotherapy Combined With Short-course Radiotherapy Versus Conventional Neo-adjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Implemented by MDT The safety and scientific

2016 Clinical Trials

288. A Study to Evaluate the Onset of Effect and Time Course of Change in Lung Function With Benralizumab in Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma Patients With Eosinophilic Inflammation

or drug abuse within 12 months prior to the date informed consent is obtained Positive hepatitis B surface antigen, or hepatitis C virus antibody serology, or a positive medical history for hepatitis B or C. Patients with a history of hepatitis B vaccination without history of hepatitis B are allowed to enroll A history of known immunodeficiency disorder including a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test Current smokers or former smokers with a smoking history of ≥10 pack years. A former (...) A Study to Evaluate the Onset of Effect and Time Course of Change in Lung Function With Benralizumab in Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma Patients With Eosinophilic Inflammation A Study to Evaluate the Onset of Effect and Time Course of Change in Lung Function With Benralizumab in Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma Patients With Eosinophilic Inflammation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search

2016 Clinical Trials

289. A Study to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of GSK Biologicals' Infanrix® -IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered as a Three-dose Vaccination Course at 3, 4.5 and 6 Months of Age and a Booster Dose at 18 Months of Age in Healthy Infants in Russia

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: 116194 2013-005577-43 ( EudraCT Number ) First Posted: August 8, 2016 Last Update Posted: June 1, 2018 Last Verified: May 2018 Keywords provided by GlaxoSmithKline: Primary dose Reactogenicity Immunogenicity Booster dose Combined vaccine Russian Infants Infanrix®-IPV/Hib Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Influenza, Human Hepatitis B Whooping Cough Tetanus Diphtheria Orthomyxoviridae Infections RNA Virus Infections Virus Diseases (...) Respiratory Tract Infections Respiratory Tract Diseases Hepadnaviridae Infections DNA Virus Infections Hepatitis, Viral, Human Hepatitis Liver Diseases Digestive System Diseases Bordetella Infections Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections Bacterial Infections Infection Clostridium Infections Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections Corynebacterium Infections Actinomycetales Infections Vaccines Immunologic Factors Physiological Effects of Drugs

2016 Clinical Trials

290. Addressing the under-reporting of adverse drug reactions in public health programs controlling HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: A prospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

that was designed to improve the reporting of ADRs in public health programs treating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria.A Structured Pharmacovigilance and Training Initiative (SPHAR-TI) model based on the World Health Organization accredited Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SOR-IT) model was designed and implemented over a period of 12 months. A prospective cohort design was deployed to evaluate the outcomes of the model. The primary outcomes were (...) Addressing the under-reporting of adverse drug reactions in public health programs controlling HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: A prospective cohort study. Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are a major clinical and public health problem world-wide. The prompt reporting of suspected ADRs to regulatory authorities to activate drug safety surveillance and regulation appears to be the most pragmatic measure for addressing the problem. This paper evaluated a pharmacovigilance (PV) training model

2018 PLoS ONE

291. A study on the dynamics of temporary HIV treatment to assess the controversial outcomes of clinical trials: An in-silico approach. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A study on the dynamics of temporary HIV treatment to assess the controversial outcomes of clinical trials: An in-silico approach. It is still unclear under which conditions temporary combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) results in a prolonged remission after interruption. Clinical trials have contradicting reposts about the effect of cART during primary HIV infection on the disease progression. Here we propose that the apparent contradiction is due the presence of a window of opportunity (...) for cART treatment observed in the in silico studies. We study non-linear correlations in the HIV dynamics over time using information theory. This approach requires a large dataset of CD4+ T lymphocytes and viral load concentrations over time. Since it is unfeasible to collect the required amount of data in clinical trials we use C-ImmSim, a clinically validated in silico model of the HIV infection, to simulate the HIV infection and temporary cART in 500 virtual patients for a period of 6 years post

2018 PLoS ONE

292. Malnutrition and lipid abnormalities in antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa: A cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malnutrition and lipid abnormalities in antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa: A cross-sectional study. Both under- and over-nutrition may occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and impact on the course of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its management due to the close interaction between immunity and nutrition. We investigated occurrence of undernutrition, excess weight and lipid abnormalities among antiretroviral naïve HIV (...) -infected adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study on 594 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV-infected adults was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa from February to September 2013. Hematological parameters (CD4+ T cell count and hemoglobin concentration), fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were determined. Information on socio-demographic, anthropometric and World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stages was collected from patient clinical

2018 PLoS ONE

293. Piloting very early infant diagnosis of HIV in Lesotho: Acceptability and feasibility among mothers, health workers and laboratory personnel. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Piloting very early infant diagnosis of HIV in Lesotho: Acceptability and feasibility among mothers, health workers and laboratory personnel. Mortality associated with in-utero HIV infection rises rapidly within weeks after birth. Very early infant diagnosis of HIV (VEID)-testing within 2 weeks of birth-followed by immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy has potential to avert mortality associated with in-utero transmission. However, our understanding of acceptability and feasibility (...) of VEID is limited.VEID was piloted in an observational prospective cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants in 13 Lesotho health facilities. Between March-July 2016, semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-positive women attending 6-week or 14-week postnatal visits and health workers (HWs) in 8 study facilities in 3 districts as well as with district and central laboratory staff. Interview themes included acceptability of birth and subsequent HIV testing and early treatment

2018 PLoS ONE

294. Factors associated with tuberculosis treatment delay in patients co-infected with HIV in a high prevalence area in Brazil. Full Text available with Trip Pro

a prospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with TB at the National Institute of Infectious Disease, at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil we conducted a survival analysis to identify factors associated with patient and health care treatment delay. In our analysis we included patients who were co-infected with TB and HIV (n = 201). Patients were followed during the course of their TB treatment and information regarding duration of symptoms, sociodemographics and clinical (...) Factors associated with tuberculosis treatment delay in patients co-infected with HIV in a high prevalence area in Brazil. Worldwide, about 11% of Tuberculosis (TB) cases occur in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and it is the leading cause of death in this population. An important step towards reducing the incidence and mortality of TB in PLHIV is to reduce the time from onset of symptoms to treatment. Factors related to TB treatment delay therefore need to be understood.Using data from

2018 PLoS ONE

295. Establishing trust in HIV/HCV research among people who inject drugs (PWID): Insights from empirical research. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Establishing trust in HIV/HCV research among people who inject drugs (PWID): Insights from empirical research. The establishment of trust between researchers and participants is critical to advance HIV and HCV prevention particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID) and other marginalized populations, yet empirical research on how to establish and maintain trust in the course of community health research is lacking. This paper documents ideas about trust between research participants (...) motivation, participants also valued the opportunity to learn about their HIV/HCV status. During their participation in the study, gaining knowledge of safe injection practices was perceived as a valuable benefit. Participant narratives suggested that PWID may adopt an incremental and ongoing approach in their assessment of the trustworthiness of researchers, continuously assessing the extent to which they trust the research staff throughout the course of the research. Trust was initially generated

2018 PLoS ONE

296. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations

HCV hepatitis C virus HIV human immunodeficiency virus HIVST HIV self-testing HPV human papillomavirus HTC HIV testing and counselling IPT isoniazid preventive treatment LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir M&E monitoring and evaluation MAT medically assisted treatment MMT methadone maintenance treatment NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NSP needle and syringe programme OST opioid substitution therapy PEP post-exposure prophylaxis PEPFAR United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS (...) populations.vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Guideline development group and steering group Co-chairs: Chris Beyrer (Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA) and Adeeba Kamarulzaman (University of Malaya, Malaysia). Elie Aaraj # (Middle East & North Africa Harm Reduction Association (MENAHRA), Lebanon), Eliot Albers * (The International Network of People who Use Drugs (INPUD), United Kingdom), George Ayala * (The Global Forum on MSM and HIV (MSMGF), USA), Carlos F. Cáceres (Sexuality and Human Development

2016 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

297. Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification

Supplement to consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services ABBREVIATIONS AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral (drug) CDC United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention GDG Guideline Development Group GRADE Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation HIV human immunodeficiency virus HIVST HIV self-testing HTS HIV testing services ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio IPV intimate partner violence NGO nongovernmental (...) ) but is not well established in the general population. This type of epidemic suggests that there are active networks of people with high risk behaviours within the subpopulation. The future course of the epidemic is determined by the nature of the links between subpopulations with a high HIV prevalence and the general population. Numerical proxy: HIV prevalence is consistently over 5% in at least one defined subpopulation but is below 1% in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. Confirm: to issue

2016 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

298. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection

-dose combination FTC emtricitabine GIPA greater involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS GPRS General Packet Radio Service GRADE Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation GSM Global System for Mobile Communications HA health accounts HBeAg hepatitis B e antigen HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen HBV hepatitis B virus HCV hepatitis C virus HIV human immunodeficiency virus HIV-DR HIV drug resistance HIVST HIV self-testing HLA human leukocyte antigen HPV human papillomavirus (...) ARV drugsxii Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS General HIV refers to the human immunodeficiency virus. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of HIV infections globally. Acute infection is the period between a person being infected with HIV and HIV antibodies being detectable by a serological assay. Age groups and populations The following definitions

2016 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

299. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ALT alanine aminotransferase ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral FTC emtricitabine GRADE grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen HIV human immunodeficiency virus PICO population, intervention, comparison and outcome PMTCT prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission PrEP pre-exposure prophylaxis TB tuberculosis TDF tenofovir disoproxil fumarate UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme (...) on HIV/AIDS WHO World Health Organization7 General HIV refers to the human immunodeficiency virus. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of HIV infections globally. Age groups and populations The following definitions for adults, adolescents, children and infants are used to ensure consistency within these guidelines. Other agencies may use different definitions. • An adult is a person older than 19 years. • An adolescent is a person 10–19 years old

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

300. Guidelines for conducting HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics based on routine programme data

and Prevention EIA enzyme immunoassay EMR electronic medical record EMTCT elimination of mother-to-child transmission EQA external quality assessment HIV human immunodeficiency virus HMIS health management information system HTC HIV testing and counselling MCH maternal and child health PDA personal digital assistant PLHIV people living with HIV PMTCT prevention of mother-to-child transmission STI sexually transmitted infections UAT unlinked anonymous testing UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (...) a verified high degree of data accuracy, completeness, integrity and accessibility • To use aggregate data: requires an HMIS/routine reporting system with a verified high degree of data accuracy, completeness and integrity • Most ANC sites should be ready to participate in surveillance • Requires fieldwork to collect routine data from ANC sites ANC, antenatal clinics; EMR, electronic medical record; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HMIS, health management information system; PMTCT, preventing mother

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

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