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HIV Course

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281. Sexual risk behaviour trajectories among men who have sex with menat risk for HIV in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 10 year follow-up study. (PubMed)

Sexual risk behaviour trajectories among men who have sex with menat risk for HIV in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 10 year follow-up study. Sexual risk behaviour changes during a person's life course. Insights in sexual risk behaviour trajectories of MSM may provide starting points for the timing of HIV prevention methods. We aimed to study longitudinal trajectories of sexual risk behaviour predictive of HIV acquisition from sexual debut onwards.A longitudinal study among 815 HIV-negative (...) participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS) who completed extensive questionnaires about their sexual behaviour every 6 months between 2007 and 2017.A comprehensive behavioural risk score predictive of HIV seroconversion was developed. On the basis of this risk score, linear trajectories of sexual risk behaviour and MSM group membership were estimated using latent class growth mixture modelling. Associations between longitudinal trajectories and demographic and psychosocial factors were

2018 AIDS

282. Pharmacokinetics of piperaquine and safety profile of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine co-administered with antiretroviral therapy in malaria-uninfected HIV-positive Malawian adults. (PubMed)

Pharmacokinetics of piperaquine and safety profile of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine co-administered with antiretroviral therapy in malaria-uninfected HIV-positive Malawian adults. There are limited data on the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) among human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV-positive [HIV+]) individuals taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a two-step (parallel-group) pharmacokinetic trial with intensive blood sampling, we (...) compared the area under the concentration-time curve from days 0 to 28 (AUC0-28 days) and the safety outcomes of piperaquine among malaria-uninfected HIV+ adults. In step 1, half the adult dose of DHA-PQ was administered for 3 days as an initial safety check to four groups (n = 6/group) of HIV+ adults (age ≥18 years): (i) antiretroviral-naive individuals, (ii) individuals on nevirapine-based ART, (iii) individuals on efavirenz-based ART, and (iv) individuals on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based ART

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2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

283. Eliminating hepatitis C virus as a public health threat among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a multi-modelling approach to understand differences in sexual risk behaviour. (PubMed)

Eliminating hepatitis C virus as a public health threat among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a multi-modelling approach to understand differences in sexual risk behaviour. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed globally. Using a multi-modelling approach we estimate the time and number of direct-acting antiviral treatment courses required to achieve an 80% reduction in HCV prevalence among HIV-positive MSM (...) in the state of Victoria, Australia.Three models of HCV transmission, testing and treatment among MSM were compared: a dynamic compartmental model; an agent-based model (ABM) parametrized to local surveillance and behavioural data ("ABM1"); and an ABM with a more heterogeneous population ("ABM2") to determine the influence of extreme variations in sexual risk behaviour.Among approximately 5000 diagnosed HIV-positive MSM in Victoria, 10% are co-infected with HCV. ABM1 estimated that an 80% reduction in HCV

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2018 Journal of the International AIDS Society

284. Miliary tuberculosis with co-existing pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patient without underlying diseases: a case report. (PubMed)

, pulmonary cryptococcosis was diagnosed, although the culture was negative. Oral fluconazole therapy was subsequently initiated. After a 6-month treatment course, chest radiograph showed gradual improvement.Although tuberculosis and cryptococcosis co-infection is relatively rare in immunocompromised hosts, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, clinicians should be aware that these infections can co-exist even in non-HIV patients without underlying diseases. (...) Miliary tuberculosis with co-existing pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patient without underlying diseases: a case report. Tuberculosis and cryptococcosis co-infection usually occurs in immunosuppressed patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. However, there are few reports about such co-infection in non-HIV patients without underlying diseases. Here, we report a case of miliary tuberculosis with co-existing pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patient without underlying diseases.An 84

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2018 BMC pulmonary medicine

285. Sexual dimorphism in HIV-1 infection. (PubMed)

Sexual dimorphism in HIV-1 infection. Sex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences (...) and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression. Ongoing research efforts aiming at controlling HIV-1 disease or reducing viral reservoirs need to take these sex-based differences in HIV-1 pathogenesis into account. In this review, we discuss established knowledge and recent findings on immune pathways leading to sex differences in HIV-1 disease manifestations

2018 Seminars in immunopathology

286. Successful lung transplantation in an HIV seropositive patient with desquamative interstitial pneumonia: a case report. (PubMed)

transplantation. The patient underwent bilateral lung transplantation using basiliximab, methylprednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as induction immunosuppression. He was maintained on MMF, prednisone, and tacrolimus thereafter, and restarted his HAART regimen immediately post-operatively. His post-transplant course was complicated by Grade A1 minimal acute cellular rejection, as well as an enterovirus/rhinovirus graft infection. Despite these complications, his functional status and control of HIV (...) Successful lung transplantation in an HIV seropositive patient with desquamative interstitial pneumonia: a case report. Until recently, lung transplantation was not considered in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV seropositive patients with suppressed viral loads can now expect long-term survival with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART); however, HIV remains a relative contraindication to lung transplantation. We describe, to our knowledge, the first

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2018 BMC pulmonary medicine

287. Impact of efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and nevirapine based antiretroviral regimens on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine and safety of artemether-lumefantrine in <i>falciparum</i>-negative HIV-infected Malawian adults stabilized on antiretrov (PubMed)

from 0 h to 14 days (AUC0-14 days) of lumefantrine and the safety profile of artemether-lumefantrine in malaria-negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in two steps. In step 1, a half-dose adult course of artemether-lumefantrine was administered as a safety check in four groups (n = 6/group): (i) antiretroviral naive, (ii) nevirapine-based ART, (iii) efavirenz-based ART, and (iv) ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based ART. In step 2, a standard-dose adult course of artemether (...) Impact of efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and nevirapine based antiretroviral regimens on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine and safety of artemether-lumefantrine in falciparum-negative HIV-infected Malawian adults stabilized on antiretrov There is conflicting evidence of the impact of commonly used antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine and the safety profile of artemether-lumefantrine. We compared the area under the concentration-time curve

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2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

288. Population HIV transmission risk for serodiscordant couples in Guangxi, Southern China: A cohort study. (PubMed)

Population HIV transmission risk for serodiscordant couples in Guangxi, Southern China: A cohort study. We evaluated the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among serodiscordant couples with low adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).Data of heterosexual couples/partners in 2010 were extracted from an Internet-based system. Participants were then followed over the course of a year with 6- and 12-month assessments. Prevalence and density of HIV seroconversion were (...) calculated for spouses/partners who did not have a positive HIV test results at baseline. We calculated the transmission odds ratio (OR) value stratified by personal characteristics and behavioral correlates at 6- and 12-month follow-up, as well as seroconversion in spouses/partners over the year.A total of 5544 HIV/AIDS patients and their spouses/partners were recruited in this cohort. Incidence of HIV seroconversion among HIV-negative spouse/partner was 63.7/100 person years (PYs) (430/674.9) at the 6

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2018 Medicine

289. Retrospective analysis of risk factors and gaps in prevention strategies for mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (PubMed)

likely than controls to continue receiving care throughout the cascade (p < 0.05). Motives for incompletion of PMTCT measures included infrastructural issues, such as HIV test results not being returned, but were most often due to lack of care-seeking. Over the course of the study period, PMTCT completion improved, although it remained below the 95% target for antenatal care, HIV testing, and antenatal ART set by the WHO. Adding concern, evaluation of co-infections indicated that case infants were (...) Retrospective analysis of risk factors and gaps in prevention strategies for mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Despite great progress made in methods to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT), delivery and uptake of these measures remains a challenge in many countries. Although the Brazilian Ministry of Health aimed to eliminate MTCT by 2015, infection still occured in 15-24% of infants born to HIV-infected mothers. We sought to identify remaining factors

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2018 BMC Public Health

290. Think global, act local: the experience of Global Fund and PEPFAR joint cascade assessments to harmonize and strengthen key population HIV programmes in eight countries. (PubMed)

and continual tracking of KPs across the cascade, and coordinated, harmonized monitoring tools and reporting systems between donor-funded and national programmes.The assessment teams and country stakeholders viewed the assessments as a best practice for coordinating donor-funded programmes that may overlap or inefficiently serve KPs. Global and national HIV programmes need investments of time, resources, and commitment from stakeholders to continually course-correct to align and improve programmes (...) Think global, act local: the experience of Global Fund and PEPFAR joint cascade assessments to harmonize and strengthen key population HIV programmes in eight countries. The Global Fund and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) are major donors to HIV services with key populations (KPs) to achieve the UNAIDS 95-95-95 epidemic control goals. The programmes they fund are not always well aligned or coordinated, decreasing their effectiveness. Joint assessments are designed

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2018 Journal of the International AIDS Society

291. Run4Love, a mHealth (WeChat-based) intervention to improve mental health of people living with HIV: a randomized controlled trial protocol. (PubMed)

Run4Love, a mHealth (WeChat-based) intervention to improve mental health of people living with HIV: a randomized controlled trial protocol. People living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from high rates of mental illness; but targeted effective interventions are limited, especially in developing countries. High penetration of smartphone usage and widespread acceptance of social media applications provide an unprecedented opportunity for mobile-based health interventions (mHealth interventions (...) ) in resource-limited settings like China. The current report describes the design and sample characteristics of the Run4Love randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at improving mental health in PLWH in China.A total of 300 PLWH with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited and randomized into either the intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received an adapted cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) course delivered by the enhanced WeChat platform (for 3 months

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2018 BMC Public Health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

292. Highlights of the 2017 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons version 9.0. (PubMed)

a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management. Recommendations on the clinical situations in which tenofovir alafenamide may be considered over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are provided, and recommendations on which antiretrovirals can be used safely during pregnancy have been revised. Renal and bone toxicity and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment have been added as potential reasons for ART switches in fully virologically suppressed individuals (...) Highlights of the 2017 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons version 9.0. The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas.Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also

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2018 HIV medicine

293. Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection. (PubMed)

dictates the course of infection. Recent studies have established that nonrecirculating resident memory CD4 and CD8 T cells can be found in virtually every human tissue. These cells bear a transcriptional profile of tissue retention and immediate effector function, suggesting a pivotal role in protective immunity. Resident memory CD8 T cells specific for HIV have been found in higher numbers in sites of HIV persistence (gut and lymph nodes), and are inversely associated with HIV viral titers (...) Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection. To introduce emerging concepts in tissue resident CD8 T cell immunosurveillance and their relevance to control HIV infection.It is well appreciated that HIV preferentially infects and persists in CD4 T cells located in gut and in lymphoid tissue, yet the majority of known immunological correlates of HIV control are derived from peripheral blood. Instead, tissue-based immunological surveillance likely

2018 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

294. Emerging concepts in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (PubMed)

for cryptococcal antigen in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts less than 100 cells/μl and preemptive antifungal treatment for those with detectable cryptococcal antigen reduces the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis and is likely to reduce mortality. Cryptococcal meningitis treatment with conventional 14-day courses of amphotericin are associated with high toxicity and mortality and can be reduced to 7 days if given alongside flucytosine. Flucytosine is a significantly superior adjunct (...) Emerging concepts in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant contributor to AIDS-related mortality despite widened access to antiretroviral therapy. Even in clinical trial settings 10-week mortality is roughly 40%. A number of important clinical trials have either recently concluded or are actively recruiting.Global burden of disease estimates suggest cryptococcal meningitis causes 181 100 deaths annually. Screening blood

2018 Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

295. Pre-treatment drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in infants from Argentina with and without exposure to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. (PubMed)

2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. HIV-1 subtype was characterized by phylogenetic and recombination analysis.Overall, DRMs were found in 34 of 115 infants (PDR level 30% to any ARV, 3.5% to PIs, 12% to NRTIs and 22% to NNRTIs). Of the 115 infants, 22 (19.1%) were ARV-unexposed. Another 93 were ARV-exposed: 28 (24.3%) to short-course zidovudine monotherapy ARV prophylaxis; 25 (21.7%) to nevirapine-based ARV prophylaxis; 12 (10.4 (...) Pre-treatment drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in infants from Argentina with and without exposure to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT).HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

296. Attributes of an Independently Self-sustaining Implementation: Nurse-administered HIV Rapid Testing in VA Primary Care. (PubMed)

-wide increase in HIV testing, with RNs accounting for one-third of these tests.In light of the researchers' 1-shot launch efforts, the steady rate of HIV RTs among RNs over the course of a year, combined with the concurrent progressive increase in HIV (blood) testing administered by MDs, PAs, and NPs stands as an anomaly in light of existing implementation science literature. (...) Attributes of an Independently Self-sustaining Implementation: Nurse-administered HIV Rapid Testing in VA Primary Care. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) oral rapid testing (RT) has the potential to facilitate the expansion of such diagnostics to front line providers, specifically clinical nursing staff. Training, policy requirements, and implementation methods used to launch such services have not been widely explored.To evaluate the sustainability of a nurse-initiated HIV-RT intervention

2017 Quality Management in Health Care

297. Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults

Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine in Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (...) Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Regimen of HIV-1 Nef/Tat/Vif, Env pDNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly With Electroporation and HIV-1 rVSV envC Vaccine

2016 Clinical Trials

298. HIV Course

HIV Course HIV Course Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 HIV Course HIV Course Aka: HIV Course , HIV Stage , HIV Staging (...) received no therapy Course over following 18-24 months Risk of occult infection or death: <5% Slow decline in s (40 to 80 cells/year) VI. Staging: Intermediate Disease (CD4 Count 200 - 500 cells) HIV related disorders Pronounced , Recurrent Infection Recurrent Infection Pruritic Recurrent s Anogenital ulcers or warts Complications Atypical in this stage Management therapy is continued from prior stages Course (Untreated) over following 18-24 months Risk of occult infection or death: 20-30% Treatment

2015 FP Notebook

299. The use of vaccines in HIV-positive adults

. Advice must be obtained from Public Health England or other appropriate agencies. BHIVA guidelines on the use of vaccines in HIV-­-positive adults 2015 November 2015 10 3.7 Recommendations for HIV-­-positive adults • We recommend that HIV-­-positive adults at significant risk of anthrax exposure (typically through occupation) be offered vaccination in accordance with general indications, and regardless of CD4 cell count, ART use, and viral load [1D] o We recommend a primary vaccine course consisting (...) on the use of vaccines in HIV-­-positive adults 2015 November 2015 15 5.6 Post-­-exposure prophylaxis Contacts of a case or a carrier of C. diphtheriae or C. ulcerans require antibiotic prophylaxis (e.g. erythromycin). Fully immunised individuals also receive a single reinforcing dose of the vaccine; others are offered to complete the vaccine course. 5.7 Recommendations for HIV-­-positive adults • We recommend that HIV-­-positive adults who require vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, or polio

2015 British HIV Association

300. HIV-associated malignancies

HIV-associated malignancies DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12136 © 2014 British HIV Association HIV Medicine (2014), 15 (Suppl. 2), 1 –92 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2014 NHS Evidence has accredited the process used by the British HIV Association (BHIVA) to produce guidelines. Accreditation is valid for five years from July 2012 and is applicable (...) to guidance produced using the processes described in the British HIV Association (BHIVA) Guideline Development Manual. More information on accreditation can be viewed at www.nice.org.uk/accreditation British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2014 Writing Group Prof Mark Bower (Chair) Professor of Oncology, National Centre for HIV Malignancy, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London Dr A Palfreeman (Vice Chair) Consultant in Genitourinary Medicine, University

2014 British HIV Association

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