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241. Effect of schistosomiasis on the outcome of patients infected with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania (Full text)

Effect of schistosomiasis on the outcome of patients infected with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania It has been hypothesized that schistosomiasis negatively influences immune reconstitution in people living with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis on the course of HIV infection in patients starting ART in a rural part of Tanzania.Retrospective study including patients prospectively enrolled in a HIV (...) index, educational attainment, WHO-stage, tuberculosis status, and year of ART initiation, CAA-positivity showed a trend of a decreased hazard of death/LFU (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.32-1.05, p = 0.07), while CD4 count at baseline (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-1.00, p = 0.02) and MXD (sum of eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes counts) >1,100 cells/μl (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, p = 0.03) were identified as independently protective factors.Schistosomiasis is prevalent in this HIV cohort and may be beneficial

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

242. HIV/AIDS: A Case-Based Learning Module for First-Year Medical Students (Full text)

HIV/AIDS: A Case-Based Learning Module for First-Year Medical Students In medical and healthcare-related education, case-based learning (CBL) is a teaching strategy that uses clinical cases to engage students in active learning using course concepts to solve important problems. Here we describe the design and implementation of a CBL module to teach first year medical students about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acute retroviral syndrome, clinical progression to acquired (...) immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV diagnostics, assays used to assess stage of disease and response to antiretroviral treatment, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. A team of basic science and clinical faculty in the disciplines of microbiology, immunology, infection prevention and control, clinical medicine, pharmacology, and medical ethics collaboratively designed the CBL module. The results of a questionnaire indicated that the students found the CBL case interesting, engaging, and a useful educational

2018 Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education

243. Evolution of HIV-1 within untreated individuals and at the population scale in Uganda (Full text)

Evolution of HIV-1 within untreated individuals and at the population scale in Uganda HIV-1 undergoes multiple rounds of error-prone replication between transmission events, resulting in diverse viral populations within and among individuals. In addition, the virus experiences different selective pressures at multiple levels: during the course of infection, at transmission, and among individuals. Disentangling how these evolutionary forces shape the evolution of the virus at the population (...) scale is important for understanding pathogenesis, how drug- and immune-escape variants are likely to spread in populations, and the development of preventive vaccines. To address this, we deep-sequenced two regions of the HIV-1 genome (p24 and gp41) from 34 longitudinally-sampled untreated individuals from Rakai District in Uganda, infected with subtypes A, D, and inter-subtype recombinants. This dataset substantially increases the availability of HIV-1 sequence data that spans multiple years

2018 PLoS pathogens

244. Proviruses with Long-Term Stable Expression Accumulate in Transcriptionally Active Chromatin Close to the Gene Regulatory Elements: Comparison of ASLV-, HIV- and MLV-Derived Vectors (Full text)

Proviruses with Long-Term Stable Expression Accumulate in Transcriptionally Active Chromatin Close to the Gene Regulatory Elements: Comparison of ASLV-, HIV- and MLV-Derived Vectors Individual groups of retroviruses and retroviral vectors differ in their integration site preference and interaction with the host genome. Hence, immediately after infection genome-wide distribution of integrated proviruses is non-random. During long-term in vitro or persistent in vivo infection, the genomic (...) position and chromatin environment of the provirus affects its transcriptional activity. Thus, a selection of long-term stably expressed proviruses and elimination of proviruses, which have been gradually silenced by epigenetic mechanisms, helps in the identification of genomic compartments permissive for proviral transcription. We compare here the extent and time course of provirus silencing in single cell clones of the K562 human myeloid lymphoblastoma cell line that have been infected

2018 Viruses

245. IPT during HIV treatment in Myanmar: high rates of coverage, completion and drug adherence (Full text)

) and enrolled in IPT over a 3-year period (July 2011-June 2014) using clinical databases. Results: Among 3377 patients under HIV care and screened for TB, 2740 (81.1%) initiated IPT, with 2651 (96.8%) completing a 6- or 9-month course of IPT; 83 (3.1%) interrupted treatment for different reasons, including loss to follow-up (n = 41), side effects (n = 15) or drug adherence issues (n = 9); 6 (0.2%) died. Among the IPT patients, 33 (1.2%) were diagnosed with TB, including 9 (0.3%) while on IPT and 24 (0.9 (...) IPT during HIV treatment in Myanmar: high rates of coverage, completion and drug adherence Setting: A southern Myanmar district providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in one of the last countries to formally recommend it as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Objective: To assess coverage and adherence and the feasibility of IPT scale-up in a routine care setting in Myanmar. Design: A retrospective analysis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) screened for tuberculosis (TB

2018 Public health action

246. Training social workers to enhance patient-centered care for drug-resistant TB-HIV in South Africa (Full text)

Training social workers to enhance patient-centered care for drug-resistant TB-HIV in South Africa KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the epicenter of an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, characterized by low rates of medication adherence and retention in care. Social workers may have a unique role to play in improving DR-TB-HIV outcomes. We designed, implemented and evaluated a model-based pilot training course on patient-centered (...) care, treatment literacy in DR-TB and HIV coinfection, patient support group facilitation, and self-care. Ten social workers participated in a 1-day training course. Post-training questionnaire scores showed significant overall gains (P = 0.003). A brief training intervention may be a useful and feasible way to engage social workers in patient-centered care for DR-TB and HIV coinfection.

2018 Public health action

247. Building the evidence base on the HIV programme in India: an integrated approach to document programmatic learnings (Full text)

the outcomes of the initiative.A multipronged approach was adopted, where a group of experts were brought together to collaborate with programme implementing organisations, review available data, develop research questions and guide peer-reviewed publications. Further, scientific writing courses were conducted to support individuals from HIV programme implementing organisations as well as educational and government organisations (mentees) to build the documentation capacity of individuals leading programme (...) implementation and current and future researchers. The impact and quality of evidence generated was measured by examining the number of papers published, the number of citations, and the number of papers with at least 10 citations. Additionally, course participants' responses to open-ended questions in the anonymous course evaluation questionnaires are presented as verbatim quotes.Overall, 99 papers on HIV programmatic learnings from India were finalised under the programme, of which 95 have been published

2018 Health Research Policy and Systems

248. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives (Full text)

malignancy, higher incidence of corneal, scleral, and orbital invasion, advanced-stage T4 tumors, higher need for extended enucleation/exenteration, and increased risk of tumor recurrence. Current management of OSSN in HIV-positive individuals is based on standard treatment guidelines described for OSSN in the general population, as there is little information available about various treatment modalities or their outcomes in patients with HIV. OSSN can occur at any time in the disease course of HIV/AIDS (...) Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge

2018 HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.)

249. HIV Replication and Latency in a Humanized NSG Mouse Model during Suppressive Oral Combinational Antiretroviral Therapy (Full text)

latency, which is considered a primary barrier to curing HIV. A complete understanding of the establishment and role of HIV latency in vivo would greatly enhance attempts to develop novel HIV purging strategies. An ideal animal model for this purpose should be easy to work with, should have a shortened disease course so that efficacy testing can be completed in a reasonable time, and should have immune correlates that are easily translatable to humans. We therefore describe a novel application (...) HIV Replication and Latency in a Humanized NSG Mouse Model during Suppressive Oral Combinational Antiretroviral Therapy Although current combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) is therapeutically effective in the majority of HIV patients, interruption of therapy can cause a rapid rebound in viremia, demonstrating the existence of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. HIV latency is therefore considered a primary barrier to HIV eradication. Identifying, quantifying, and purging

2018 Journal of virology

250. A 30-Year-Old Man with HIV, Fever, and a Rash (Full text)

A 30-Year-Old Man with HIV, Fever, and a Rash Patients who present with papular rashes have a wide differential diagnosis particularly in the setting of immune compromise. A 30-year-old male diagnosed with HIV since 2009, never on antiretroviral therapy, with a nadir CD4 count of 333 cells/mm3 and a current viral load of 44,300 copies/mL, presented with a diffuse monomorphic papular eruption that began on his trunk and extremities and subsequently spread to the penis and scrotum, sparing (...) receiving intramuscular penicillin G benzathine, he developed intermittent fevers and new papules. Intravenous (IV) acyclovir was initiated for presumed disseminated varicella given his positive varicella-zoster virus IgM and IgG. However, final pathology results revealed a large spirochete burden. The fevers and rash progression were attributed to the development of a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. IV acyclovir was discontinued and he completed a course of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine. He

2018 Dermatopathology

251. Tackling HIV Persistence: Pharmacological versus CRISPR-Based Shock Strategies (Full text)

Tackling HIV Persistence: Pharmacological versus CRISPR-Based Shock Strategies Jan Svoboda studied aspects of viral latency, in particular with respect to disease induction by avian RNA tumor viruses, which were later renamed as part of the extended retrovirus family. The course of retroviral pathogenesis is intrinsically linked to their unique property of integrating the DNA copy of the retroviral genome into that of the host cell, thus forming the provirus. Retroviral latency has recently (...) become of major clinical interest to allow a better understanding of why we can effectively block the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in infected individuals with antiviral drugs, yet never reach a cure. We will discuss HIV-1 latency and its direct consequence-the formation of long-lasting HIV-1 reservoirs. We next focus on one of the most explored strategies in tackling HIV-1 reservoirs-the "shock and kill" strategy-which describes the broadly explored pharmacological way of kicking

2018 Viruses

252. Capturing Changes in HIV-Infected Breastfeeding Mothers’ Cognitive Processes from Before Delivery to 5 Months Postpartum: An Application of the Pile-Sorting Technique in Haiti (Full text)

and is used to promote HIV-free survival in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs. However, it is often designed without adequate attention to the changes in mothers' perceptions over the course of their early breastfeeding experiences.The aim of this study was to identify HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers' cognitive structure (their organization of messages and ideas) of infant feeding messages and to characterize whether their cognitive organization of infant feeding messages changed (...) Capturing Changes in HIV-Infected Breastfeeding Mothers’ Cognitive Processes from Before Delivery to 5 Months Postpartum: An Application of the Pile-Sorting Technique in Haiti The cognitive processes involved in individuals' perceptions and prioritization of information, and how these change with experience or exposure to interventions, are rarely examined in the evaluation of nutrition interventions. Exclusive breastfeeding counseling is a common infant and young-child feeding intervention

2018 Current Developments in Nutrition

253. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical and Dental Students towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan (Full text)

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical and Dental Students towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan The number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases is increasing in Pakistan while it has seen a decline globally. A survey conducted recently has found that 132,000 people in Pakistan suffer from HIV. This study aims to check the levels of knowledge and attitudes about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among medical and dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed (...) and conducted at Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan in 2016. Students enrolled in the courses of the MBBS and BDS were included in this study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, knowledge and attitude. A total of 414 students completed the questionnaire and out of them, 286 were medical students while the rest were dental students. The mean ± standard deviation score for the students was 10.02 ± 4.37 out

2018 Cureus

254. Metformin Enhances the Effect of Regorafenib and Inhibits Recurrence and Metastasis of Hepatic Carcinoma After Liver Resection via Regulating Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factors 2α (HIF-2α) and 30 kDa HIV Tat-Interacting Protein (TIP30) (Full text)

Metformin Enhances the Effect of Regorafenib and Inhibits Recurrence and Metastasis of Hepatic Carcinoma After Liver Resection via Regulating Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factors 2α (HIF-2α) and 30 kDa HIV Tat-Interacting Protein (TIP30) BACKGROUND Regorafenib (RGF) is the drug of choice for treating hepatic carcinoma (HCC), but the drug has drawbacks due to resistance and associated adverse effects. Thus, it becomes crucial to understand the causal 'map' of the resistance conferred by RGF (...) , 30 kDa HIV Tat-interacting protein (TIP30), E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and pAMPK were assessed by Western blot analysis. RGF and MTF were exposed to MHCC97H cell and proliferation was quantified by assay of cell viability. Gene silencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were done to reveal the relationship between TIP30 and HIF-2α. The impact of RGF and MTF together on postoperative recurrence and lung metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma was investigated using tumor engrafted mice after

2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

255. VGX-3100 and Electroporation in Treating Patients With HIV-Positive High-Grade Anal Lesions

VGX-3100 and Electroporation in Treating Patients With HIV-Positive High-Grade Anal Lesions VGX-3100 and Electroporation in Treating Patients With HIV-Positive High-Grade Anal Lesions - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) studies before adding more. VGX-3100 and Electroporation in Treating Patients With HIV-Positive High-Grade Anal Lesions The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03603808 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted

2018 Clinical Trials

256. Evaluating the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of VRC-HIVMAB075-00-AB (VRC07-523LS) in the Sera and Mucosae of Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adult Participants

Evaluating the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of VRC-HIVMAB075-00-AB (VRC07-523LS) in the Sera and Mucosae of Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adult Participants Evaluating the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of VRC-HIVMAB075-00-AB (VRC07-523LS) in the Sera and Mucosae of Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adult Participants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved (...) Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Evaluating the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of VRC-HIVMAB075-00-AB (VRC07-523LS) in the Sera and Mucosae of Healthy, HIV-Uninfected Adult Participants The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical

2018 Clinical Trials

257. Psoriasis treatment in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review of systemic immunosuppressive therapies.

Psoriasis treatment in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review of systemic immunosuppressive therapies. The management of psoriatic disease in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population is challenging. The clinical course often is progressive and refractory; therefore, first- and second-line therapies including topical agents, phototherapy, and oral retinoids often are inadequate. Most other currently available systemic therapies for psoriatic disease are immunosuppressive (...) , which poses a distinct clinical challenge. A comprehensive systematic review of the literature via a PubMed search of articles indexed for MEDLINE using the terms psoriasis and HIV and psoriatic arthritis and HIV combined with several systemic immunosuppressive agents yielded a total of 25 reported cases of systemic immunosuppressive therapies used to treat psoriatic disease in HIV-positive patients including methotrexate, cyclosporine, etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, and ustekinumab

2018 Cutis

258. Gene expression patterns associated with neurological disease in human HIV infection. (Full text)

significant activation of IFN. Altogether, the results identified distinct pathways differentially regulated over the course of neurological disease in HIV infection and provide a new perspective on the dynamics of pathogenic processes in the course of HIV neurological disease in humans. These results also demonstrate the power of the systems biology analyses and indicate that the establishment of larger human gene expression profile datasets will have the potential to provide novel mechanistic insight (...) Gene expression patterns associated with neurological disease in human HIV infection. The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment

2017 PLoS ONE

259. Combination Therapy With 3BNC117 and 10-1074 in HIV-Infected Individuals

Combination Therapy With 3BNC117 and 10-1074 in HIV-Infected Individuals Combination Therapy With 3BNC117 and 10-1074 in HIV-Infected Individuals - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Combination (...) Therapy With 3BNC117 and 10-1074 in HIV-Infected Individuals The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03571204 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : June 27, 2018 Last Update Posted : January 15, 2019 See

2018 Clinical Trials

260. Understanding and Reducing HIV Risk Behavior and Substance Use Among Self-identified Bisexual Adolescent Men

Understanding and Reducing HIV Risk Behavior and Substance Use Among Self-identified Bisexual Adolescent Men Understanding and Reducing HIV Risk Behavior and Substance Use Among Self-identified Bisexual Adolescent Men - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Understanding and Reducing HIV Risk Behavior and Substance Use Among Self-identified Bisexual Adolescent Men The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier

2018 Clinical Trials

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