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181. Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis

of initiation and dura- tion of treatment. J Virol 1998;72:4265-73. 26. Wade NA, Birkhead GS, Warren BL, et al. Abbreviated regimens of zidovudine pro- phylaxis and perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1409-14. 27. Mayer KH, Mimiaga MJ, Gelman M, et al. Raltegravir, tenofovir DF, and emtric- itabine for postexposure prophylaxis to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV: safety, tolerability, and adherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012;59:354-9. 28 (...) -generation antibody/antigen combo assay. Those with signs or symptoms of acute HIV should also undergo HIV RNA or pooled nucleic acid amplification test. †Hepatitis A and/or B vaccine should be initiated in unvaccinated individuals. Those who remain nonimmune to hepatitis B virus should be rescreened annually. ‡Individuals with chronic active hepatitis B should be managed in consultation with an expert on hepatitis B virus according to Canadian guidelines. §Individuals who have STIs should be offered

2017 CPG Infobase

182. CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network Co-Infection and Concurrent Diseases Core: Canadian guidelines for management and treatment of HIV/hepatitis C coinfection in adults

Annual CAHR Conference (Vancouver, British Columbia). introduction Continued improvements in combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) have resulted in sustained gains in projected life expectancy for HIV-infected individuals (1). Long-term management of HIV now increasingly requires assessment and appropriate interventions for comorbid conditions that may impact long-term morbidity and mor- tality to a greater extent than HIV infection itself. Mortality second- ary to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV (...) of these recommendations can be found on page 231. speCIal aRTICle ©2013 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved m Hull, m Klein, s s hafran, et al; on behalf of t he ci Hr c anadian HiV t rials n etwork HiV/Hepatitis c management and t reatment Guidelines Working Group. ciHr canadian HiV t rials n etwork c oinfection and c oncurrent d iseases core: canadian guidelines for management and treatment of HiV/hepatitis c coinfection in adults. c an J infect d is med microbiol 2013;24(4):217-238. BacKGround: Hepatitis C virus

2014 CPG Infobase

183. Public health guidance on antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility in the EU/EEA ? addressing the vulnerable populations

susceptibility in the EU/EEA SCIENTIFIC ADVICE iv Abbreviations ANS Antenatal screening CRS Congenital rubella syndrome HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen HBV Hepatitis B virus HIV Human immunodeficiency virus MMR Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine MTCT Mother-to-child transmission PICO (T) Population, intervention, comparison, outcome, time PWID People who inject drugs STI Sexually transmitted infection TESSy The European Surveillance System WHO World Health Organization SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Antenatal screening (...) Public health guidance on antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility in the EU/EEA ? addressing the vulnerable populations SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility in the EU/EEA – addressing the vulnerable populations www.ecdc.europa.euECDC SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility in the EU/EEA – addressing the vulnerable populations ii This report

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

184. BHIVA/BASHH guidelines on the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

was a secondary outcome. At interim review, the DSMB recommended that all study participants should be offered study drug. A total of 23 participants became infected with HIV over the course of the study: three in the daily TDF-FTC group and 20 in the deferred (no-PrEP) group, representing a rate difference in HIV infection of 7.8 per 100 person-years (90% CI 4.3–11.3) The relative risk reduction was 86% (90% CI 64–96%) and the number needed to treat over 1 year to prevent one HIV infection was 13 (90% CI 9 (...) ceasing sexual risk. Participants were followed up every 8 weeks for HIV testing and risk-reduction advice, and every 6 months for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing for a total of 431 person-years of follow-up. Primary endpoint was HIV infection. At interim review, the placebo group was discontinued and all study participants were offered study drug. Over the course of the study, 16 people became infected with HIV: two in the TDF-FTC group and 14 in the placebo group, representing

2018 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

185. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate — Regulatory and Reimbursement Policies

be effectively treated with a range of antiretroviral drugs as part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to suppress the virus and halt its progression. ART also reduces the transmission of the virus. 3 However, at this time a permanent cure remains elusive and much focus is given to prevention. Until recently, the main approaches to HIV infection prevention consisted of promoting the use of physical barriers during sex (condoms) or behavioural changes such as needle exchange when injecting drugs and avoidance (...) of high-risk sexual encounters — precautions that may not be accepted by some individuals. This situation changed in 2012 with the FDA approval and availability of the fixed-dose antiviral combination emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) Truvada, manufactured by Gilead, for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the US. Taking the antivirals once daily lowers the likelihood of HIV establishing a productive infection in the human host. 4 Clinical trials have shown this treatment

2017 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Environmental Scanning

186. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate — Regulatory and Reimbursement Policies

be effectively treated with a range of antiretroviral drugs as part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to suppress the virus and halt its progression. ART also reduces the transmission of the virus. 3 However, at this time a permanent cure remains elusive and much focus is given to prevention. Until recently, the main approaches to HIV infection prevention consisted of promoting the use of physical barriers during sex (condoms) or behavioural changes such as needle exchange when injecting drugs and avoidance (...) of high-risk sexual encounters — precautions that may not be accepted by some individuals. This situation changed in 2012 with the FDA approval and availability of the fixed-dose antiviral combination emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) Truvada, manufactured by Gilead, for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the US. Taking the antivirals once daily lowers the likelihood of HIV establishing a productive infection in the human host. 4 Clinical trials have shown this treatment

2017 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Environmental Scanning

187. CHIVA Guidance on Transition for adolescents living with HIV

2016. Available from: http://www.chipscohort.ac.uk/summary_data.asp [Accessed 31.12.2016]. 4. Collins IJ, Foster C, Tostein A, Tookey P, Riordan A, Dunn D, Gibb DM, Judd A. Clinical status of adolescents with perinatal HIV at transfer to adult care in the UK/Ireland. CID in press 2016. 5. Ferrand RA, Corbett EL, Wood R et al. AIDS among older children and adolescents in Southern Africa: projecting the time course and magnitude of the epidemic. AIDS 2009; 23(15): 2039-46. 6. Judd A, Ferrand R (...) CHIVA Guidance on Transition for adolescents living with HIV 1 CHIVA Guidance on Transition for adolescents living with HIV Authors: Caroline Foster Date of preparation: September 2010 Date reviewed: February 2017 Next review date: February 2019 This document replaces 2 previous CHIVA documents: “Guidance on transition and long term follow up services for adolescents with HIV infection acquired in infancy”, Melvin et al 2005. “Growing up, Gaining independence: Principles for transitional care

2017 The Children's HIV Association

188. HIV and infant feeding in emergencies: operational guidance

contributions to the process.vi HIV AND INFANT FEEDING IN EMERGENCIES: OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE Abbreviations and acronyms AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANC antenatal care ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral drug AZT zidovudine BMS breast-milk substitute(s) ENN Emergency Nutrition Network HIV human immunodeficiency virus IFE infant and young child feeding in emergencies IYCF infant and young child feeding MTCT mother-to-child transmission of HIV NGO nongovernmental organization NVP (...) : the infant receives only breast milk without any other liquids or solids, not even water, except for oral rehydration solution or drops or syrups of vitamins, minerals or medicines. Generalized HIV epidemic: HIV is firmly established in the general population. Numerical proxy: HIV prevalence is consistently over 1% among pregnant women. Most generalized HIV epidemics are mixed in nature, where certain (key) subpopulations are disproportionately affected. HIV: the human immunodeficiency virus

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

189. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children

Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children More than 1 in 10 HIV-related deaths are as a result of cryptococcal me n i n g i t i s. Three quarters of deaths from cryptococcal meningitis are in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO/CDS/HIV/18.2 POLICY BRIEF WHO / James Oatway: Namibia Living with HIV / AIDS at the Katatura State Hospital in Windhoek, Namibia. GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT (...) OF CRYPTOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV-INFECTED ADULTS, ADOLESCENTS AND CHILDREN SUPPLEMENT TO THE 2016 CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS FOR TREATING AND PREVENTING HIV INFECTION MARCH 2018 HIV TREATMENT 1 Cryptococcal meningitis is by far the commonest manifestation of cryptococcal disease representing 70–90% of HIV-related cryptococcal disease. Other less common disease presentations include pulmonary disease and skin, lymph node and bone involvement. The burden of morbidity and mortality

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

190. HIV PrEP

the virus and halt its progression. ART also reduces the transmission of the virus. 3 However, at this time a permanent cure remains elusive and much focus is given to prevention. Until recently, the main approaches to HIV infection prevention consisted of promoting the use of physical barriers during sex (condoms) or behavioural changes such as needle exchange when injecting drugs and avoidance of high-risk sexual encounters — precautions that may not be accepted by some individuals. This situation (...) changed in 2012 with the FDA approval and availability of the fixed-dose antiviral combination emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) Truvada, manufactured by Gilead, for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the US. Taking the antivirals once daily lowers the likelihood of HIV establishing a productive infection in the human host. 4 Clinical trials have shown this treatment could allow a 44% to 75% relative risk reduction in sexually transmitted HIV infections in individuals

2017 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Environmental Scanning

191. Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children

, Development and Evaluation HBV hepatitis B virus HCV hepatitis C virus HIV human immunodeficiency virus HR hazard ratio ILO International Labour Organization LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor NRTI nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor NVP nevirapine OR odds ratio PI protease inhibitor PICO population, intervention, comparison and outcomes RAL raltegravir RR relative risk TB tuberculosis TDF tenofovir disoproxil fumarate UNAIDS Joint United Nations (...) Programme on HIV/AIDS USAID United States Agency for International Development3 DEFINITIONS GENERAL HIV refers to human immunodeficiency virus. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of HIV infections globally. Within these guidelines, HIV refers to both HIV-1 and HIV-2 unless otherwise specified. AGE GROUPS AND POPULATIONS The following definitions for adults, adolescents, children and infants are used to ensure consistency within these consolidated

2015 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

192. Severe Epstein-Barr virus infection in primary immunodeficiency and the normal host. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Severe Epstein-Barr virus infection in primary immunodeficiency and the normal host. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous in humans, but the majority of infections have an asymptomatic or self-limiting clinical course. Rarely, individuals may develop a pathological EBV infection with a variety of life threatening complications (including haemophagocytosis and malignancy) and others develop asymptomatic chronic EBV viraemia. Although an impaired ability to control EBV infection has (...) long been recognised as a hallmark of severe T-cell immunodeficiency, the advent of next generation sequencing has identified a series of Primary Immunodeficiencies in which EBV-related pathology is the dominant feature. Chronic active EBV infection is defined as chronic EBV viraemia associated with systemic lymphoproliferative disease, in the absence of immunodeficiency. Descriptions of larger cohorts of patients with chronic active EBV in recent years have significantly advanced our understanding

2016 British journal of haematology

193. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The aim of this study was to define the specificity (...) and sensitivity along with the predictive value of YKL40 as a biomarker of encephalitis and to assess its relationship to CSF viral load. CSF YKL40 and SIV RNA concentrations were analyzed over the course of infection in 19 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship to encephalitis. Using these relationships, CSF alterations of 31 neuroimmune markers were studied pre-infection, during acute and asymptomatic infection, at the onset of encephalitis

2016 Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology

194. Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Are Systemically Depleted in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cells Are Systemically Depleted in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to host immune protection against a wide range of potential pathogens via the recognition of bacterial metabolites presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-related molecule MR1. Although bacterial products translocate systemically in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and simian (...) immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Asian macaques, several studies have shown that MAIT cell frequencies actually decrease in peripheral blood during the course of HIV/SIV disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this proportional decline remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the phenotype, activation status, functionality, distribution, and clonotypic structure of MAIT cell populations in the peripheral blood, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), jejunum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL

2016 Journal of virology

195. Evolution of Neuroadaptation in the Periphery and Purifying Selection in the Brain Contribute to Compartmentalization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in the Brains of Rhesus Macaques with SIV-Associated Encephalitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolution of Neuroadaptation in the Periphery and Purifying Selection in the Brain Contribute to Compartmentalization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in the Brains of Rhesus Macaques with SIV-Associated Encephalitis The emergence of a distinct subpopulation of human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) sequences within the brain (compartmentalization) during infection is hypothesized to be linked to AIDS-related central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology. However, the exact (...) multiple introductions of virus into the brain over the course of infection, brain sequence compartmentalization in macaques with SIV-associated CNS neuropathology likely results from late viral entry of virus that has acquired through evolution in the periphery sufficient adaptation for the distinct microenvironment of the CNS.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders remain prevalent among HIV type 1-infected individuals, whereas our understanding of the critical components of disease pathogenesis

2016 Journal of virology

196. Antiretroviral Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis Full Text available with Trip Pro

infections of macaques. Overall, these data indicate that ART induces specific immunological changes in SIV-infected SMs, thus suggesting that virus replication affects immune function even in the context of this clinically benign infection.Studies of natural, nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of African monkeys have provided important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression to AIDS during pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of humans (...) Antiretroviral Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of viremia. Key factors involved in the benign course of SIV infection in SMs are the absence of chronic immune activation and low levels of infection of CD4(+) central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) T cells. To better understand the role of virus replication

2016 Journal of virology

197. Longitudinal Examination of the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cellular Compartment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Provides Broader and Deeper Insights into the Link between Aberrant MicroRNA Expression and Persistent Immune Activati Full Text available with Trip Pro

Longitudinal Examination of the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cellular Compartment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Provides Broader and Deeper Insights into the Link between Aberrant MicroRNA Expression and Persistent Immune Activati Chronic immune activation/inflammation driven by factors like microbial translocation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) disease progression. Although extensive research on inflammation (...) . Our findings suggest that miR-150 downregulation during T-cell activation disrupts the translational control of IRAK1, facilitating persistent gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Finally, the ability of Δ(9)-THC to block the miR-150-IRAK1 regulatory cascade highlights the potential of cannabinoids to inhibit persistent inflammation/immune activation in HIV/SIV infection.Persistent GI tract disease/inflammation is a cardinal feature of HIV/SIV infection. Increasing evidence points to a critical

2016 Journal of virology

198. Routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals (2019 interim update)

-BHIVA guidelines on the routine investigation and monitoring of HIV-1-positive adults 15 level minority variants are detected in a UKAS accredited assay. There is currently no evidence of circulating transmitted drug resistant INSTI mutations [6]. References 1. Castro H, Pillay D, Cane P et al. Persistence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance mutations. J Infect Dis 2013; 208: 1459–1463. 2. Gandhi RT, Wurcel A, Rosenberg ES et al. Progressive reversion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (...) for Disease Control. Compendium of evidence-based interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/research/interventionresearch/compendium/lrc/index.html (accessed May 2016). 9. Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Anderson J et al. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 609–629. 10. Fakoya A, Lamba H

2019 British HIV Association

199. Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (Abstract)

specimens from a Kenyan perinatal MTCT cohort (1999-2005) involving HIV-infected women and their infants, who received short-course zidovudine for prevention of MTCT. Vaginal swabs collected at 32 weeks gestation were tested for MG using a transcription-mediated amplification assay. Infant perinatal HIV infection was determined at birth and 4 weeks of age by DNA PCR. Using a case-cohort design, a random sample was generated with 3:1 control: case ratio; prevalence and correlates of MG were assessed (...) Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, but the effect of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is not known. We hypothesized that MG infection would be common among HIV-infected pregnant women and could be associated with in utero and intrapartum MTCT.Observational case-cohort study METHODS:: This study used

2019 AIDS

200. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-infected outpatients with immunological failure in Tanzania: a case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-infected outpatients with immunological failure in Tanzania: a case-control study. Schistosoma sp. infection has been shown to interact with HIV-1 by modifying susceptibility to the virus and impacting AIDS outcome, but very little is known about the potential impact of Schistosoma sp. infection on the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-1 infected individuals. One study suggested increased immunological failure in patients infected (...) with schistosomes compared to those uninfected. To our knowledge, no report exists on the virological response to ART in schistosome-infected individuals. In addition, viral load in HIV-1 infected individuals changes over the course of the HIV infection. This study assessed the impact of HIV-1/Schistosoma sp. co-infections on viral load in people with immunological failure on ART, taking into account the duration of HIV-1 infection.We enrolled HIV-1 infected Tanzanian adults over 18 years of age who had used

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

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