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HIV Risk Factor

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1. A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection

of offering more frequent screening (e.g., once every three or six months) to individual men who have sex with men at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection, weighing their individual risk factors, local HIV epidemiology, and local testing policies (4, 5). Few guidelines provide recommendations about HIV testing frequency of transgender women and men, African, Caribbean and Black communities, indigenous people, and women at risk, but most usually recommend at least annual testing (3, 6–10). The issue (...) annually (4). At the same time, they recommend that each clinician consider the benefits of offering more frequent screening (e.g., once every three or six months) to individual men who have sex with men at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection, weighing their patients’ individual risk factors, local HIV epidemiology, and local testing policies (4, 5). Transgender women and men The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that clinicians should assess STI- and HIV-related risks

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

2. HIV prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for HIV infection in the Kenyan fishing communities of Lake Victoria. (PubMed)

HIV prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for HIV infection in the Kenyan fishing communities of Lake Victoria. Global efforts to end HIV by 2030 focus on reducing and eventually eliminating new infections in priority populations. Identifying these populations and characterizing their vulnerability factors helps in guiding investment of scarce HIV prevention resources to achieve maximum impact. We sought to establish HIV prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for HIV (...) of Homa Bay, Kisumu, Siaya and Busia counties compared to Migori County reduced the risk of HIV infection. For women, being married, having more children with the current spouse, having an HIV negative sexual partner and being a resident of Busia compared to Migori County reduced the risk of HIV infection. We also found that longer distance from the beaches to the nearest public health facilities was associated with increasing cumulative HIV prevalence at the beaches.Fishing communities have high HIV

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2019 PLoS ONE

3. Factors associated with risk of HIV-infection among pregnant women in Cameroon: Evidence from the 2016 national sentinel surveillance survey of HIV and syphilis. (PubMed)

Factors associated with risk of HIV-infection among pregnant women in Cameroon: Evidence from the 2016 national sentinel surveillance survey of HIV and syphilis. Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (HIV) remains a public health concern in Cameroon that requires regular surveillance for informed policy-making to guide programmatic interventions. Using data from the 2016 HIV national sentinel survey in Cameroon, we ascertained HIV prevalence and factors associated with risk of infection among (...) significant.Of the 7000 targeted participants, a total of 6859 first ANC-1 attendees were enrolled (98.0% sampling coverage). Median age was 26 [IQR: 21-30] years and 47,40% had a secondary school level of education. The national prevalence of HIV was 5.70% (95% CI: 4.93-6.40) and range from 9.7% in East region to 2.6% in North region. The prevalence was 5.58% (95% CI: 95%: 4.88-6.35) in urban and 5.87% (95% CI: 5.04-6.78) in rural settings. Factors that were associated with HIV infection included marital

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2019 PLoS ONE

4. Prevalence of psychological distress and its association with socio-demographic and HIV-risk factors in South Africa: Findings of the 2012 HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey (PubMed)

Prevalence of psychological distress and its association with socio-demographic and HIV-risk factors in South Africa: Findings of the 2012 HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa.The survey (...) % CI: 1.06-1.97), p = 0.023)], Black Africans [OR = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.24-2.10), p < 0.001)], a high risk drinker [OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.02-1.83), p = 0.037], a hazardous drinker [OR = 4.76 (95% CI: 2.69-8.42), p < 0.001] and HIV positive, [OR = 1.79 (95% CI:1.55-2.08) p < 0.001], while lower likelihood of reporting psychological distress was significantly associated with being married [OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.62-0.98), p = 0.031), employed [OR = 0.71 (95% CI: 0.57-0.88), p = 0.002], and living in a rural

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2017 SSM - population health

5. A Commitment to HIV Diagnostic Accuracy - a comment on "Towards more accurate HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-site evaluation of HIV RDTs and risk factors for false positives 'and' HIV misdiagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a performance of diagno (PubMed)

A Commitment to HIV Diagnostic Accuracy - a comment on "Towards more accurate HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-site evaluation of HIV RDTs and risk factors for false positives 'and' HIV misdiagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a performance of diagno As part of the global response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to the provision of high-quality services and ensuring testing accuracy. Two recently published papers focusing (...) on HIV testing and misdiagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa by Kosack et al. report on evaluations of HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and found lower than expected specificity and sensitivity on some tests when used in certain geographic locations. The magnitude of PEPFAR's global HIV response has been possible due to the extensive use of RDTs, which have made HIV diagnosis accessible all over the world. We take the opportunity to address concerns raised about the potential implications

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2018 Journal of the International AIDS Society

6. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal high-risk HPV among HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM and transgender women in three countries at South-East Asia. (PubMed)

Prevalence of and risk factors for anal high-risk HPV among HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM and transgender women in three countries at South-East Asia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and associated risk factors for anal high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia.This was baseline data from a prospective cohort study with clinic sites in Jakarta and Bali (Indonesia (...) ), Bangkok (Thailand), and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).MSM and TGW aged 18 years and older from Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia were enrolled. Demographic and behavioral characteristics were assessed, and anal samples were collected for HPV genotyping. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for anal hr-HPV overall and among HIV-positive participants.A total of 392 participants were enrolled, and 48 were TGW. As many as 245 were HIV-positive, and 78.0% of the participants

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2018 Medicine

7. Incidence of and risk factors for medical care interruption in people living with HIV in recent years. (PubMed)

Incidence of and risk factors for medical care interruption in people living with HIV in recent years. With HIV treatment as a prevention strategy, retention in care remains a key for sustained viral suppression. We sought to identify HIV-infected patients at risk for medical care interruption (MCI) in a high-income country.The HIV-infected patients enrolled had to attend the clinic at least twice between January 2010 and October 2014 and were followed up until May 2016. MCI was defined (...) a large proportion of migrants. Low or no recorded CD4 counts for a medical visit could alert of a higher risk of MCI, even more in patients who accessed HIV care late or did not report a primary care physician.

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2019 PLoS ONE

8. Effect of cardio-metabolic risk factors on all-cause mortality among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: A prospective cohort study. (PubMed)

Effect of cardio-metabolic risk factors on all-cause mortality among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: A prospective cohort study. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among people living with HIV is elevated due to persistent inflammation, hypertension and diabetes comorbidity, lifestyle factors and exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Data from Africa on how CVD risk affects morbidity and mortality among ART patients are lacking. We explored the effect of CVD risk factors (...) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) on medium-term ART outcomes.A prospective cohort study of standardized ART outcomes (Dead, Alive on ART, stopped ART, Defaulted and Transferred out) was conducted from July 2014-December 2016 among patients on ART at a rural and an urban HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi. The primary outcome was Dead. Active defaulter tracing was not done and patients who transferred out and defaulted were excluded from the analysis. At enrolment, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia

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2019 PLoS ONE

9. Renal function and risk factors for renal disease for patients receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at an inner metropolitan health service. (PubMed)

Renal function and risk factors for renal disease for patients receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at an inner metropolitan health service. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition. TDF is a known nephrotoxin however, renal dysfunction from TDF is mostly reversible following discontinuation.To describe the renal function, risk factors for renal disease and associated clinical testing practices (...) in eGFR of -2.5 mL/min/1.73m2 (p<0.05) occurred between PrEP commencement and the first follow-up period, followed by a progressive decline in eGFR of -0.38 mL/min/1.73m2 per month (95%CI: -0.57 to -0.20; p<0.001). Renal impairment (eGFR <70 mL/min/1.73m2) occurred in 6.5% of patients and persisted across consecutive follow-up periods in five (1.0%) patients. Patients aged ≥40 years had a greater risk of renal impairment than younger patients (HR 3.9, 95%CI: 1.8 to 8.4; p<0.001), despite similar rates

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2019 PLoS ONE

10. HIV infection is an independent risk factor for decreased 6-minute walk test distance. (PubMed)

HIV infection is an independent risk factor for decreased 6-minute walk test distance. Ambulatory function predicts morbidity and mortality and may be influenced by cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from a high prevalence of cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities that may contribute to higher risk of ambulatory dysfunction as measured by 6-minute walk test distance (6-MWD). We investigated the effect of HIV on 6-MWD.PLWH and HIV-uninfected individuals were enrolled (...) from 2 clinical centers and completed a 6-MWD, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results of 6-MWD were compared between PLWH and uninfected individuals after adjusting for confounders. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine predictors of 6-MWD.Mean 6-MWD in PLWH was 431 meters versus 462 in 130 HIV-uninfected individuals (p = 0.0001). Older age, lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1)% or lower forced

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2019 PLoS ONE

11. Sex in the shadow of HIV: A systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and interventions to reduce sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa. (PubMed)

Sex in the shadow of HIV: A systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, and interventions to reduce sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence on sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan Africa is urgently needed. This systematic review synthesizes the extant research on prevalence, factors associated with, and interventions to reduce sexual risk-taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth in sub-Saharan (...) , and pregnancy), and were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa were included. Two authors piloted all processes, screened studies, extracted data independently, and resolved any discrepancies. Due to variance in reported rates and factors associated with sexual risk-taking, meta-analyses were not conducted.610 potentially relevant titles/abstracts resulted in the full text review of 251 records. Forty-two records (n = 35 studies) reported one or multiple sexual practices for 13,536 HIV-positive adolescents/youth

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2017 PloS one

12. Clearance of Type-Specific, Low-Risk, and High-Risk Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women (PubMed)

Clearance of Type-Specific, Low-Risk, and High-Risk Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women Purpose There is a dearth of data on clearance of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in West Africa. We examined the clearance of low-risk (lr) and high-risk (hr) cervical HPV infections, and the factors associated with these measures in HIV-negative and HIV-positive women. Methods We studied 630 Nigerian women involved in a study of HPV (...) infection using short polymerase chain reaction fragment-10 assay and line probe assay-25. Research nurses used a cervical brush to collect samples of exfoliated cervical cells from all the study participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations between HIV and HPV infections. Results The mean age of the study participants was 38 (standard deviation, ± 8) years; 51% were HIV positive. The rate of clearing any HPV infection was 2.0% per month among all women in the study

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2018 Journal of global oncology

13. Toxoplasma gondii infection and related risk factors in HIV/AIDS patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Toxoplasma gondii infection and related risk factors in HIV/AIDS patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated (...) is planned , please specify the following:"> Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect measure The random-effects model is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size), and that the true effect is the same (fixed) across all studies. However

2019 PROSPERO

14. Incidence and risk factors for relapses in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin-lymphoma as observed in the German HIV-related lymphoma cohort study. (PubMed)

Incidence and risk factors for relapses in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin-lymphoma as observed in the German HIV-related lymphoma cohort study. Outcome of HIV-infected patients with AIDS-related lymphomas has improved during recent years. However, data on incidence, risk factors, and outcome of relapses in AIDS-related lymphomas after achieving complete remission are still limited. This prospective observational multicenter study includes HIV-infected patients with biopsy- or cytology-proven (...) malignant lymphomas since 2005. Data on HIV infection and lymphoma characteristics, treatment and outcome were recorded. For this analysis, AIDS-related lymphomas patients in complete remission were analyzed in terms of their relapse- free survival and potential risk factors for relapses. In total, 254 of 399 (63.7%) patients with AIDS-related lymphomas reached a complete remission with their first-line chemotherapy. After a median follow up of 4.6 years, 5-year overall survival of the 254 patients

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2018 Haematologica

15. Socio-Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with Cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS Patients Visiting the HIV Referral Clinic at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana (PubMed)

Socio-Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with Cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS Patients Visiting the HIV Referral Clinic at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana To identify the socio-behavioral risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea symptoms visiting the HIV referral clinic at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 HIV/AIDS patients with recurrent diarrhea. Questionnaires were administered to collect (...) social and behavioral risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium and other opportunistic protozoan parasitic infections in HIV patients. Stool samples were collected for the diagnosis of enteric protozoan pathogens using modified Ziehl-Neelsen and acid-fast staining methods. CD4+ cells counts of study subjects were obtained from patients clinical records. The data obtained were analyzed using Pearson chi-square and multivariate-adjusted statistics tool on SPSS 16 for Windows.Twenty-seven (54

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2018 The open AIDS journal

16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and behavioral risk factors among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Human papillomavirus prevalence and behavioral risk factors among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men in Taiwan. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with cancer and can be prevented through vaccination. Few studies from Taiwan have reported on HPV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of HPV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) with and without HIV infection (...) in Taiwan, and explore the behavioral risk factors thereof.We conducted a cross-sectional study in Taiwan during 2013 to 2016 to collect data on MSM aged 20 years or older. We used a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview, and subsequently collected oral, anal, and genital specimens from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Multivariate analysis was performed to predict factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) positivity.Overall, 279 subjects, including 166 (59.5%) HIV-uninfected and 113

2018 Medicine

17. Factors in the HIV risk environment associated with bacterial vaginosis among HIV-negative female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-United States border region. (PubMed)

Factors in the HIV risk environment associated with bacterial vaginosis among HIV-negative female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-United States border region. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginitis among women worldwide and is associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. We aimed to determine the impact of the HIV risk environment on BV among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-PWIDs) in Tijuana (...) and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.We performed a cross-sectional analysis utilizing baseline data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating a behavioral HIV prevention intervention. Participants underwent testing for BV using the OSOM BVBlue® Rapid Test (Genzyme Diagnostics, San Diego, CA) and completed a survey eliciting information on the HIV risk environment, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We applied logistic regression to identify correlates of BV in the physical, social, economic

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2018 BMC Public Health

18. Risk factors and incidence of syphilis in HIV-infected persons, the HIV Outpatient Study, 1999-2015. (PubMed)

Risk factors and incidence of syphilis in HIV-infected persons, the HIV Outpatient Study, 1999-2015. Since 2000, the incidence of syphilis has been increasing, especially among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We assessed temporal trends and associated risk factors for newly diagnosed syphilis infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients during a 16-year period.We analyzed data from the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) cohort (...) participants at 10 US HIV clinics during 1999-2015. New syphilis cases were defined based on laboratory parameters and clinical diagnoses. We performed Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors for new syphilis infections.We studied 6888 HIV-infected participants; 641 had 1 or more new syphilis diagnoses during a median follow-up of 5.2 years. Most participants were male (78%), aged 31-50 years, and 57% were MSM. The overall incidence was 1.8

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2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases

19. Risk factors associated with overweight and obesity in HIV-infected people: Aging, behavioral factors but not cART in a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Risk factors associated with overweight and obesity in HIV-infected people: Aging, behavioral factors but not cART in a cross-sectional study. Identifying risk factors associated with overweight and obesity in HIV-infected patients.A cross-sectional study analyzing data from patients attending an HIV outpatient unit. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m; <30 kg/m, obesity was ≥30 kg/m. Patients' characteristics contemporary to BMI assessment were collected. Multivariate (...) logistic regression identified risk factors associated with overweight/obesity.Eight hundred sixty-two patients, median age 51 years, 21.5 years of HIV infection follow-up, 585 (68%) male, 829 (96%) receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for median 16.7 years, 768 (91%) HIV load <40 copies/mL, 618 (73%) CD4 ≥500 cells/mm; 266 (31%) HCV serology, 110 (13%) had detectable HCV-RNA. Overweight affected 191 (22%) patients and obesity 46 (5%). Overweight and obesity were associated with age, HIV

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2018 Medicine

20. Kidney disease risk factors associate with urine biomarkers concentrations in HIV-positive persons; a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Kidney disease risk factors associate with urine biomarkers concentrations in HIV-positive persons; a cross-sectional study. HIV-positive persons bear an excess burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, conventional methods to assess kidney health are insensitive and non-specific for detecting early kidney injury. Urinary biomarkers can detect early kidney injury, and may help mitigate the risk of overt CKD.Cross-sectional study of HIV-positive persons in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort (...) Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We measured levels of 14 biomarkers, capturing multiple dimensions of kidney injury. We then evaluated associations of known CKD risk factors with urine biomarkers using separate multivariable adjusted models for each biomarker.Of the 198 participants, one third were on HAART and virally suppressed. The vast majority (95%) had preserved kidney function as assessed by serum creatinine, with a median eGFR of 103 ml/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range (IQR): 88

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2019 BMC Nephrology

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