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HIV Complications

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1. Novel Central Nervous System (CNS)-Targeting Protease Inhibitors for Drug-Resistant HIV Infection and HIV-Associated CNS Complications. (PubMed)

Novel Central Nervous System (CNS)-Targeting Protease Inhibitors for Drug-Resistant HIV Infection and HIV-Associated CNS Complications. Presently, no specific therapeutics for the HIV-1-related central nervous system (CNS) complications exists. Here we report that three newly-designed CNS-targeting HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-083-13, -084-13, and -087-13, which contain P1-3,5-bis-fluorophenyl- or P1-para-monofluorophenyl-ring, and P2-bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) or P2-tetrahydropyrano (...) -tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF), with a sulfonamide isostere, are highly active against wild-type HIV-1s and primary clinical isolates (EC50: 0.0002∼0.003 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity. These CNS-targeting PIs efficiently suppressed the replication of HIV-1 variants (EC50: 0.002∼0.047 μM) that had been selected to propagate at high-concentrations of conventional HIV-1 PIs. Such CNS-targeting PIs maintained their antiviral activity against HIV-2ROD as well as multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

2. Risk factors during pregnancy and birth-related complications in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women in Denmark, 2002-2014. (PubMed)

Risk factors during pregnancy and birth-related complications in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women in Denmark, 2002-2014. We aimed to compare risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women living with HIV (WLWH) with those in women of the general population (WGP) in Denmark. Further, we estimated risk of pregnancy- or birth-related complications.A retrospective cohort study including all WLWH who delivered a live-born child from 2002 to 2014 and WGP, matched by origin, age, year (...) 1.0-1.9; P = 0.02) but not infection, amniotomy, failure to progress, low activity-pulse-grimace-appearance-respiration (APGAR) score or signs of asphyxia.WLWH had more risk factors present during pregnancy, similar risks of most pregnancy- and birth-related complications but a higher risk of postpartum haemorrhage and EmCS compared with WGP. Children born to WLWH had lower median birth weights and gestational ages and were at higher risk of IUGR.© 2019 British HIV Association.

2019 HIV medicine

3. Rapid and complicated HIV genotype expansion among high-risk groups in Guangdong Province, China. (PubMed)

Rapid and complicated HIV genotype expansion among high-risk groups in Guangdong Province, China. Guangdong Province is one of the most developed and populous provinces in southern China, with frequent foreign exchanges and large transient population. The annual number of cases of HIV/AIDS reported in Guangdong has been higher than most of provinces in China for several successive years. HIV infection by heterosexual transmission occurs across the province, with transmission among men who have (...) sex with men occurring mainly in larger urban centers. There is a lack of widespread and representative data on the distribution of HIV subtypes in Guangdong. This study aimed to thoroughly investigate and estimate the prevalence and distribution of HIV-1 subtypes using a city-based sampling strategy to better understand the characteristics of HIV transmission in Guangdong.Archived plasma samples (n = 1205) from individuals diagnosed as HIV-1 infection in 2013 were selected randomly from all 21

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

4. HIV infection does not impact on the risk of liver complications in HCV-infected patient with advanced fibrosis, after sustained virological response with DAA. (PubMed)

HIV infection does not impact on the risk of liver complications in HCV-infected patient with advanced fibrosis, after sustained virological response with DAA. To assess the impact of HIV-coinfection on the risk of developing liver related complications in HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) after sustained virological response (SVR).Prospective cohort study SETTING:: Multicenter SUBJECTS:: Patients from the GEHEP and HEPAVIR cohorts, were (...) selected if they fulfilled the following criteria: 1) Treatment against HCV with all oral DAA combination; 2) SVR achievement, defined as undetectable plasma HCV RNA 12 weeks after the end of therapy; 3) Pre-treatment liver stiffness (LS) equal to or higher than 9.5 kPa; 4) LS measurement at the time of SVR.The primary variable was the time until the development of a liver complication or requiring liver transplant.Seven hundred-seventeen patients were included and 507 (71%) were coinfected with HIV

2019 AIDS

5. Audiologic and Otologic Complications of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Patients. (PubMed)

Audiologic and Otologic Complications of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Patients. To identify audiologic and otologic outcomes in previously healthy non-HIV patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM).Retrospective case review of a subset of patients recruited in a prospective observational study following previously healthy individuals who developed CM.Tertiary referral center, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.Previously healthy adult

2019 Otology and Neurotology

6. Refractive surgery in the HIV-Positive U.S. Military Natural History Study Cohort: Complications and risk factors. (PubMed)

Refractive surgery in the HIV-Positive U.S. Military Natural History Study Cohort: Complications and risk factors. This study sought to assess the frequency of refractive surgery complications in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals and related risk factors.Multiple centers in the United States.Prospective observational cohort study.The U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study is a prospective observational cohort study of HIV+ servicemembers and beneficiaries. Participants (...) were selected who had Current Procedural Terminology codes for laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and other refractive surgeries. The frequency of complications was determined using International Classification of Diseases-9 codes. Covariates included age, sex, antiretroviral therapy, time since HIV diagnosis, history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and CD4 (T lymphocytes) count and viral load. Statistical analysis was completed using univariate

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

7. Metabolic Complications among Korean Patients with HIV Infection: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PubMed)

Metabolic Complications among Korean Patients with HIV Infection: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Currently, metabolic complications are the most common problem among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with a high incidence. However, there have been very few studies regarding metabolic abnormalities published in Asia, especially in Korea. This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for metabolic abnormalities in 1,096 HIV (...) patients. In conclusion, proper diagnosis and management should be offered for the prevalent metabolic complications of Korean HIV-infected patients. Further studies on risk factors for metabolic complications are needed.© 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

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2017 Journal of Korean medical science

8. HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV (Joint NICE and Public Health England guideline)

guidelines on behaviour change: general approaches and behaviour change: individual approaches and patient experience in adult NHS services. [new 2016] [new 2016] 1.3.2 Provide promotional material tailored to the needs of local communities. It should: provide information about HIV infection and transmission, the benefits of HIV testing and the availability of treatment emphasise that early diagnosis is not only a route into treatment and a way to avoid complications and reduce serious illness (...) HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV (Joint NICE and Public Health England guideline) HIV testing: increasing uptak HIV testing: increasing uptake among e among people who ma people who may ha y hav ve undiagnosed HIV e undiagnosed HIV NICE guideline Published: 1 December 2016 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng60 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

9. Influence of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway on the Neuropathic Pain Complicated by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors for the Treatment of HIV Infection (PubMed)

Influence of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway on the Neuropathic Pain Complicated by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors for the Treatment of HIV Infection Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the earliest and most commonly used anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs and play an important role in high active antiretroviral therapy. However, NRTI drug therapy can cause peripheral neuropathic pain

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2018 Chinese medical journal

10. Severe eye complications from toxic epidermal necrolysis following initiation of Nevirapine based HAART regimen in a child with HIV infection: a case from Cameroon. (PubMed)

Severe eye complications from toxic epidermal necrolysis following initiation of Nevirapine based HAART regimen in a child with HIV infection: a case from Cameroon. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly (...) of lesions. Patient was lost to follow-up 6 months after being in care and was only seen 3 years later with total loss of vision.Blindness, though rare, can be a long-term complication of TEN in children especially with HIV infection. Physicians and patient caregivers should closely monitor these patients, especially during their early stages of treatment amongst others for development of adverse drug reactions. Long-term retention in care is pivotal for identification and prompt management of ocular

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2018 BMC Pediatrics

11. Risk of Complications After THA Increases Among Patients Who Are Coinfected With HIV and Hepatitis C. (PubMed)

Risk of Complications After THA Increases Among Patients Who Are Coinfected With HIV and Hepatitis C. Individuals coinfected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV represent a unique and growing population of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgical procedures. Data regarding complications for HCV monoinfection or HIV monoinfection are robust, but there are no data available, to our knowledge, on patients who have both HCV and HIV infections.We sought to determine whether patients (...) with coinfection differed in terms of baseline demographics and comorbidity burden as compared with patients without coinfection and whether these potential differences were translated into varying levels of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmission risk. Specifically, we asked: (1) Are there demonstrable differences in baseline demographic variables between patients infected with HCV and HIV and those who do not have those infections (age, sex, race, and insurance status)? (2) Do

2018 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

12. HIV-TB Coinfection among 57 Million Pregnant Women, Obstetric Complications, Alcohol Use, Drug Abuse, and Depression (PubMed)

HIV-TB Coinfection among 57 Million Pregnant Women, Obstetric Complications, Alcohol Use, Drug Abuse, and Depression HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression.We examined (...) inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes.We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than

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2018 Journal of pregnancy

13. Management of Long-Term Complications of HIV Disease: Focus on Cardiovascular Disease (PubMed)

Management of Long-Term Complications of HIV Disease: Focus on Cardiovascular Disease HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy experience a number of non-AIDS noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, more frequently than uninfected individuals. Common pathways for such diseases are chronic immune activation and inflammation, including the prolonged inflammation associated with lower nadir CD4+ cell count. Prevention and treatment of non-AIDS conditions (...) include treatment of traditional risk factors, lifestyle interventions, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and potentially therapies specifically targeting inflammation and immune activation (eg, statins). This article summarizes a presentation by Judith S. Currier, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in New York, New York, in February 2017.

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2018 Topics in antiviral medicine

14. CROI 2018: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy (PubMed)

CROI 2018: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy This year marked the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), and although there is much progress to celebrate in terms of treatment of HIV infection and expanding ART globally, many challenges remain. Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of death among people with HIV infection globally. This year, the results of investments in research to improve the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (...) were a highlight of the meeting. Noninfectious causes remain an important source of morbidity. Progress in identifying risk factors for non-AIDS complications and improvements in screening and monitoring for such conditions continue to be reported, but to date, despite the efforts of many investigators around the globe, interventions to effectively reduce HIV-related inflammation beyond effective and safer antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain elusive. This section will review highlights

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2018 Topics in antiviral medicine

15. Pulmonary Cavity From Mycobacterium malmoense in an HIV-Infected Patient: Complicated by Bronchopleural Fistula (PubMed)

Pulmonary Cavity From Mycobacterium malmoense in an HIV-Infected Patient: Complicated by Bronchopleural Fistula We present a case of M. malmoense and HIV co-infection complicated by aspergilloma leading to bronchopleural fistula with intractable pneumothorax and pleural aspergillosis, ultimately requiring surgical intervention. Treatment guidelines for M. malmoense are reviewed, literature regarding M. malmoense and HIV co-infection is reviewed, and the epidemiology of M. malmoense in North

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2018 Open forum infectious diseases

16. Effects of Th17/Treg cell imbalance on HIV replication in patients with AIDS complicated with tuberculosis (PubMed)

Effects of Th17/Treg cell imbalance on HIV replication in patients with AIDS complicated with tuberculosis The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Th17/Treg cell imbalance on HIV replication in patients with AIDS complicated with tuberculosis (TB). We selected 32 patients with AIDS combined with TB infection in our hospital and 30 healthy individual as controls. The Th17/Treg ratio in peripheral blood lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Compared with healthy subjects (...) , Th17 cells first declined in HIV patients with TB, but gradually increased over the course of the disease. Treg showed an increasing trend in HIV patients with TB. The Th17/Treg ratio was significantly altered as the condition gradually deteriorated. ELISA showed that interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6 and IL-10 in patients with HIV complicated with TB were significantly lower than in healthy subjects. The imbalance of Th17/Treg cells can promote HIV virus replication in AIDS patients with TB infection

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2018 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

17. Psychosocial Complications of HIV/AIDS-Metabolic Disorder Comorbidities among Patients in a Rural area of Southeastern United States (PubMed)

Psychosocial Complications of HIV/AIDS-Metabolic Disorder Comorbidities among Patients in a Rural area of Southeastern United States As people living with HIV experience longer life-expectancies resulting from antiretroviral therapy, comorbid conditions are increasing, particularly metabolic disorders. There is potential for psychosocial factors such as stigma experiences, depression, and alcohol use to complicate both HIV infection and metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus (...) and hyperlipidemia. While the impact of these psychosocial factors on HIV infection alone are widely studied, their role in potentially complicating HIV co-morbid metabolic conditions has received little attention. This study examined the association between HIV-related stigma and depression, and the potential role of alcohol use as a mediating factor in a clinical sample of patients with comorbid HIV infection and metabolic conditions. Results demonstrated that HIV stigma is associated with depression

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2018 Journal of behavioral medicine

18. T. marneffei infection complications in an HIV-negative patient with pre-existing pulmonary sarcoidosis: a rare case report. (PubMed)

T. marneffei infection complications in an HIV-negative patient with pre-existing pulmonary sarcoidosis: a rare case report. Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus that often causes fatal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Although T. marneffei-infected cases have been increasingly reported among non-HIV-infected patients in recent years, no cases of T. marneffei infection have been reported in pulmonary (...) sarcoidosis patients. In this case, we describe a T. marneffei infection in an HIV-negative patient diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis.A 41-year-old Chinese man who had pre-existing pulmonary sarcoidosis presented with daily hyperpyrexia and cough. Following a fungal culture from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), the patient was diagnosed with T. marneffei infection. A high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest scan revealed bilateral lung diffuse miliary nodules, multiple patchy exudative shadows

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

19. Unravelling the complicated evolutionary and dissemination history of HIV-1M subtype A lineages (PubMed)

Unravelling the complicated evolutionary and dissemination history of HIV-1M subtype A lineages Subtype A is one of the rare HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) lineages that is both widely distributed throughout the world and persists at high frequencies in the Congo Basin (CB), the site where HIV-1M likely originated. This, together with its high degree of diversity suggests that subtype A is amongst the fittest HIV-1M lineages. Here we use a comprehensive set of published near full-length subtype (...) A sequences and A-derived genome fragments from both circulating and unique recombinant forms (CRFs/URFs) to obtain some insights into how frequently these lineages have independently seeded HIV-1M sub-epidemics in different parts of the world. We do this by inferring when and where the major subtype A lineages and subtype A-derived CRFs originated. Following its origin in the CB during the 1940s, we track the diversification and recombination history of subtype A sequences before and during its

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2018 Virus Evolution

20. An HIV-infected Patient with Confirmed Overlapping Complications of Severe Amebic Colitis and CMV Enteritis (PubMed)

An HIV-infected Patient with Confirmed Overlapping Complications of Severe Amebic Colitis and CMV Enteritis We herein report a case of simultaneous amebic colitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis in an HIV-infected patient. The patient was a 40-year-old man who developed bloody stool and diarrhea. We diagnosed him with severe amebic colitis associated with HIV infection and administered metronidazole. While his symptoms began to improve, the patient then developed CMV enteritis. We (...) administered ganciclovir, and his symptoms improved. However, despite control of the infection, stenosis of the descending colon caused intestinal obstruction, and colostomy was performed. This case shows the importance of considering the possibility of simultaneous infection when gastrointestinal symptoms appear in people infected with HIV.

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2018 Internal Medicine

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