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Gulf War Syndrome

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1. Gulf War Illness: A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Interventions and Management Strategies

symptoms, and difficulty with memory and/or concentration. These symptom clusters were initially described by some outside VA as Persian Gulf War Syndrome, medically unexplained symptoms, or Chronic Multi-symptom Illness by VA and DoD; most recently, the term Gulf War Illness (GWI) is used. This systematic review sought to identify therapeutic interventions for Gulf War Illness, evaluate the effectiveness and harms of these interventions, and identify potentially promising treatments. Investigators (...) Illness. There are several promising interventions including mindfulness-based approaches, CBT, and exercise (separately or together), and the use of a CPAP among those with sleep-disordered breathing and Gulf War Illness. Research Gaps/Future Research Research gaps and future ways to improve the evidence base include: Consolidation of intervention work, replicating promising interventions and conducting studies of a hybrid design to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of implementation

2020 Veterans Affairs - R&D

2. Reprogramming cells from Gulf War veterans into neurons to study Gulf War illness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reprogramming cells from Gulf War veterans into neurons to study Gulf War illness. Gulf War illness (GWI), which afflicts at least 25% of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, is thought to be caused by deployment exposures to various neurotoxicants, including pesticides, anti-nerve gas pills, and low-level nerve agents including sarin/cyclosarin. GWI is a multisymptom disorder characterized by fatigue, joint pain, cognitive problems, and gastrointestinal complaints (...) , and because disease-vulnerable proteins and pathways may be different in humans relative to rodents. As of yet, no postmortem tissue from the veterans has become available for research. We are moving forward with a paradigm shift in the study of GWI, which utilizes contemporary stem cell technology to convert somatic cells from Gulf War veterans into pluripotent cell lines that can be differentiated into various cell types, including neurons, glia, muscle, or other relevant cell types. Such cell lines

2017 Neurology

3. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Gulf War Illness (GWI): HLA-DRB1*13:02 Spares Subcortical Atrophy in Gulf War Veterans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Gulf War Illness (GWI): HLA-DRB1*13:02 Spares Subcortical Atrophy in Gulf War Veterans Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. We reported previously on the protective role of six Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in GWI (Georgopoulos et al., 2016 (...) ) and their association with regional brain function (James et al., 2016). More recently, we reported on the presence of subcortical brain atrophy in GWI (Christova et al., 2017) and discussed its possible relation to immune mechanisms. Here we focused on one of the six HLA GWI-protective HLA alleles, DRB1*13:02, which has been found to have a protective role in a broad range of autoimmune diseases (Furukawa et al., 2017), and tested its effects on brain volumes.Seventy-six Gulf War veterans (55 with GWI and 21

2017 EBioMedicine

4. Multiple Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries Are Associated with Increased Rates of Health Symptoms and Gulf War Illness in a Cohort of 1990–1991 Gulf War Veterans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multiple Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries Are Associated with Increased Rates of Health Symptoms and Gulf War Illness in a Cohort of 1990–1991 Gulf War Veterans Recent research demonstrated a relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI), health symptoms and diagnosis of Gulf War Illness (GWI) in Gulf War Veterans, but no study has examined the impact of multiple mild TBIs (mTBIs). A total of 229 male Gulf War Veterans from the Ft Devens Cohort were categorized by a number of mTBIs reported. One (...) -way ANOVA and chi-square test of independence were used to test for differences in total reported health symptoms and diagnosis of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) or Kansas GWI criteria, two of the most common case definitions of GWI. A total of 72 veterans reported no mTBIs (31.4%), 26 reported one mTBI (11.4%), 25 reported two mTBIs (10.9%), and 106 veterans reported sustaining three or more mTBIs (46.3%). Veterans reporting two or more mTBIs (p < 0.01) or three or more mTBIs (p < 0.001

2017 Brain sciences

5. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired in Veterans with Gulf War Illness: A case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired in Veterans with Gulf War Illness: A case-control study. Neurological dysfunction has been reported in Gulf War Illness (GWI), including abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to physostigmine challenge. However, it is unclear whether the CBF response to normal physiological challenges and regulation is similarly dysfunctional. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the CBF velocity response to orthostatic stress (i.e., sit-to-stand

2018 PLoS ONE

6. Pyridostigmine bromide and stress interact to impact immune function, cholinergic neurochemistry and behavior in a rat model of Gulf War Illness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pyridostigmine bromide and stress interact to impact immune function, cholinergic neurochemistry and behavior in a rat model of Gulf War Illness. Gulf War Illness (GWI) is characterized by a constellation of symptoms that includes cognitive dysfunction. While the causes for GWI remain unknown, prophylactic use of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide (PB) in combination with the stress of deployment has been proposed to be among the causes of the cognitive dysfunction in GWI

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

7. Neuroinflammation in Gulf War Illness is Linked with HMGB1 and Complement Activation, which can be Discerned from Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in the Blood. (Abstract)

Neuroinflammation in Gulf War Illness is Linked with HMGB1 and Complement Activation, which can be Discerned from Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in the Blood. Cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation are conspicuously observed in Gulf War Illness (GWI). We investigated whether brain inflammation in GWI is associated with activation of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and complement-related proteins in neurons and astrocytes, and brain inflammation can be tracked through neuron-derived

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

8. Characterising the gut microbiome in veterans with Gulf War Illness: a protocol for a longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

microbiota perturbation plays a key role in the symptomatology of other chronic multi-symptom illnesses, including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Given similarities between ME/CFS and GWI and the presence of gastrointestinal disorders in GWI patients, Veterans with GWI may also have gut abnormalities like those seen with ME/CFS. In this longitudinal cohort study, we are comparing the diversity (structure) and the metagenomes (function) of the gut microbiome between Gulf War (...) Characterising the gut microbiome in veterans with Gulf War Illness: a protocol for a longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Approximately 25%-35% of the 1991 Gulf War Veteran population report symptoms consistent with Gulf War Illness (GWI), a chronic, multi-symptom illness characterised by fatigue, pain, irritable bowel syndrome and problems with cognitive function. GWI is a disabling problem for Gulf War Veterans, and there remains a critical need to identify innovative, novel therapies.Gut

2019 BMJ open

9. A permethrin metabolite is associated with adaptive immune responses in Gulf War Illness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A permethrin metabolite is associated with adaptive immune responses in Gulf War Illness. Gulf War Illness (GWI), affecting 30% of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War (GW), is a multi-symptom illness with features similar to those of patients with autoimmune diseases. The objective of the current work is to determine if exposure to GW-related pesticides, such as permethrin (PER), activates peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) adaptive immune responses. In the current study, we focused

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

10. Treatment for Gulf War Illness (GWI) with KPAX002 (methylphenidate hydrochloride + GWI nutrient formula) in subjects meeting the Kansas case definition: A prospective, open-label trial. (Abstract)

Treatment for Gulf War Illness (GWI) with KPAX002 (methylphenidate hydrochloride + GWI nutrient formula) in subjects meeting the Kansas case definition: A prospective, open-label trial. This study tested the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of KPAX002-a combination of methylphenidate hydrochloride plus a micronutrient formula designed to support mitochondrial function-as a treatment for Gulf War Illness (GWI). This open-label trial enrolled 17 subjects meeting the Kansas case definition

2019 Journal of psychiatric research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

11. Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness With High Definition Transcranial Direct Cortical Stimulation

Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness With High Definition Transcranial Direct Cortical Stimulation Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness With High Definition Transcranial Direct Cortical Stimulation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Treatment of Memory Disorders in Gulf War Illness With High Definition Transcranial Direct Cortical Stimulation (GWI HDtDCS) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details

2018 Clinical Trials

12. Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of Rifaximin and Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test in Gulf War Veterans with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. (Abstract)

Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of Rifaximin and Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test in Gulf War Veterans with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs in up to 33% of Gulf War (GW) Veterans. Alterations in gut microflora including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) during deployment may play a role in development of IBS. Rifaximin is a minimally absorbed antibiotic speculated to improve IBS symptoms, in part, by restoring normal gut microflora. The aim

2018 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13. Medical Correlates of Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Gulf War Veterans. (Abstract)

Medical Correlates of Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Gulf War Veterans. Chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) is more prevalent among deployed than nondeployed veterans from the first Gulf War. Objective physiologic markers of CMI are lacking. The purpose of this study is to determine whether measurable abnormalities in the autonomic nervous system or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis would distinguish CMI cases (CMI+) from controls (CMI-) among deployed veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War.This (...) scaling exponent (DFA1), reflecting an increased randomness of beat-to-beat changes in heart rate-were observed in veterans with CMI than those veterans without it (1.28±0.16 vs 1.35±0.15; p=0.005). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function measures were similar between the two groups.In this cohort of deployed veterans from the first Gulf War, we identified abnormal heart-rate variability in veterans with CMI compared to veterans without the condition, which suggests abnormal functioning

2018 American Journal of Medicine

14. Oleoylethanolamide treatment reduces neurobehavioral deficits and brain pathology in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oleoylethanolamide treatment reduces neurobehavioral deficits and brain pathology in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness There are nearly 250,000 Gulf War (GW) veterans who suffer from Gulf War Illness (GWI), a multi-symptom condition that remains untreatable. The main objective was to determine if targeting peroxisomal function could be of therapeutic value in GWI. We performed a pilot study that showed accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), which are metabolized in peroxisomes

2018 Scientific reports

15. Verification of exercise-induced transient postural tachycardia phenotype in Gulf War Illness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) before and after exercise. The remaining subjects had normal ΔHR (12 ± 5 bpm) and no 1st Peak Effect, and were the Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception phenotype (STOPP). These findings indicate that about one-fourth of all Gulf War Illness study participants (24/90) developed transient postural tachycardia after the submaximal exercise stress test. The START phenotype was defined as being distinctly different from POTS. Additional studies are required to examine (...) Verification of exercise-induced transient postural tachycardia phenotype in Gulf War Illness One third of Gulf War Illness (GWI) subjects in a recent study were found to develop transient postural tachycardia after submaximal exercise stress tests. Post-exercise postural tachycardia is a previously undescribed physiological finding. A new GWI cohort was studied to verify this novel finding and characterize this cardiovascular phenomenon. Subjects followed the same protocol as before

2018 American journal of translational research

16. Detecting Chromosome Condensation Defects in Gulf War Illness Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detecting Chromosome Condensation Defects in Gulf War Illness Patients Gulf War Illness (GWI) impacts 25-30% of gulf war veterans. Due to its heterogeneity in both etiology and symptoms, it has been challenging to establish the commonly accepted case definition for GWI. Equally challenging are the understanding of the general mechanism of GWI and the development of biomarkers useful for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.We have observed that chromosome condensation defects can be detected (...) . Previously, the elevated frequency of DMFs was only observed in cancer patients. Since chromosome condensation can be linked to other types of chromosome aberrations, as well as cellular stress conditions, the detailed mechanism and clinical impact should be further studied, especially with increased sample size.

2018 Current genomics

17. Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness. Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom illness not currently diagnosed by standard medical or laboratory test that affects 30% of veterans who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The clinical presentation of GWI is comparable to that of patients with certain mitochondrial disorders-i.e., clinically heterogeneous multisystem symptoms. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction may

2017 PLoS ONE

18. The potential of treating Gulf War Illness with curcumin. (Abstract)

The potential of treating Gulf War Illness with curcumin. A large proportion of Gulf War Veterans suffer from Gulf War Illness (GWI) - a devastating chronic disorder characterized by heterogeneous fatigue, pain and neuropsychological symptoms. In their recent Brain, Behavior and Immunity publication entitled "Curcumin Treatment Leads to Better Cognitive and Mood Function in a Model of Gulf War Illness with Enhanced Neurogenesis, and Alleviation of Inflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

2018 Brain, behavior, and immunity

19. Evidence for Somatic Hypersensitivity in Veterans with Gulf War Illness and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for Somatic Hypersensitivity in Veterans with Gulf War Illness and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Over 25% of Persian Gulf War (PGW) veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI) (chronic health symptoms of undetermined etiology) developed gastrointestinal (GI) (diarrhea and abdominal pain) and other somatic symptoms.Our study objective was to determine if veterans with GWI and GI symptoms exhibit heightened patterns of somatic pain perception (hypersensitivity) across nociceptive stimuli

2018 Clinical Journal of Pain

20. Correction: Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: Role of mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in veterans with Gulf War Illness. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184832.].

2017 PLoS ONE

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