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21. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. (Abstract)

Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT.A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream (...) , followed by a crossover to the other test.Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m2. Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P < 0.001). Discordant diagnostic results, based on 2-hour plasma

2017 The American journal of the medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22. One-Hour Plasma Glucose Compared With 2-Hour Plasma Glucose in Relation to Diabetic Retinopathy in American Indians. (Full text)

One-Hour Plasma Glucose Compared With 2-Hour Plasma Glucose in Relation to Diabetic Retinopathy in American Indians. We compared the ability of 1- and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations (1h-PG and 2h-PG, respectively), derived from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), to predict retinopathy. 1h-PG and 2h-PG concentrations, measured in a longitudinal study of an American Indian community in the southwestern U.S., a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes, were analyzed to assess (...) manner across the distributions of 1h-PG and 2h-PG concentrations. ROC analysis showed that 1h-PG and 2h-PG were of similar value in identifying prevalent and incident DR using direct ophthalmoscopy. 1h-PG cut points of 230 and 173 mg/dL were comparable to 2h-PG cut points of 200 mg/dL (type 2 diabetes) and 140 mg/dL (impaired glucose tolerance), respectively.1h-PG is a useful predictor of retinopathy risk, has a predictive value similar to that of 2h-PG, and may be considered as an alternative

2018 Diabetes Care PubMed abstract

23. Abnormal Blood Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Screening

, they are more convenient than using a fasting plasma glucose or oral glucose tolerance test. The oral glucose tolerance test is done in the morning in a fasting state; blood glucose concentration is measured 2 hours after ingestion of a 75-g oral glucose load. The diagnosis of IFG, IGT, or type 2 diabetes should be confirmed; repeated testing with the same test on a different day is the preferred method of confirmation. Threshold for Behavioral Interventions Many studies assessed intensive behavioral (...) screening earlier in persons with 1 or more of these characteristics. Screening Tests Glucose abnormalities can be detected by measuring HbA 1c or fasting plasma glucose or with an oral glucose tolerance test. The shows test values for normal glucose metabolism, IFG, IGT, and type 2 diabetes. Hemoglobin A 1c is a measure of long-term blood glucose concentration and is not affected by acute changes in glucose levels due to stress or illness. Because HbA 1c measurements do not require fasting

2015 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

24. Acute interaction between oral glucose (75 g as Lucozade) and inorganic nitrate: Decreased insulin clearance, but lack of blood pressure-lowering. (Full text)

[glucose]/[insulin] blunt the haemodynamic responses to NO3- , a pertinent question for carbohydrate-rich Western diets.We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study on the haemodynamic and metabolic effects of potassium nitrate (8 or 24 mmol KNO3 ) vs. potassium chloride (KCl; placebo) administered 1 hour prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in 33 healthy volunteers.Compared to placebo, there were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic BP (P (...) Acute interaction between oral glucose (75 g as Lucozade) and inorganic nitrate: Decreased insulin clearance, but lack of blood pressure-lowering. Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3- ) lowers peripheral blood pressure (BP) in healthy volunteers, but lacks such effect in individuals with, or at risk of, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Whilst this is commonly assumed to be a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia/hyperinsulinaemia, we hypothesized that acute physiological elevations in plasma

2019 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

25. Sitagliptin decreases visceral fat and blood glucoses in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. (Full text)

participated in a double-blinded, cross-over study. They received sitagliptin 100 mg vs. placebo daily for one month separated by an eight-week washout. During each treatment, women underwent a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), assessment of vascular function and body composition. Overnight GH secretion was assessed via venous sampling every 10 minutes for 12 hours and analyzed using an automated deconvolution algorithm.During OGTT, sitagliptin increased GLP-1 (p<0.001), early insulin secretion (...) Sitagliptin decreases visceral fat and blood glucoses in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have decreased growth hormone (GH), which can increase visceral adiposity (VAT) and impair vascular function. GH releasing hormone, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) substrate, stimulates GH secretion.We tested the hypothesis that DPP4 inhibition increases GH and improves glucose levels and vascular function in women with PCOS.Eighteen women with PCOS

2019 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism PubMed abstract

26. A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Intensive Behavior Education Program in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Women Designed to Improve Glucose Levels on the 2-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. (Abstract)

A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Intensive Behavior Education Program in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Women Designed to Improve Glucose Levels on the 2-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Objective To evaluate whether women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) enrolled in an intensive behavior education program (IBEP) demonstrate lower mean fasting glucose levels on the 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2-hour OGTT) at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum compared with women who undergo routine (...) GDM management. Study Design A prospective randomized controlled trial of women diagnosed with GDM was conducted. Exclusion criteria were GDM diagnosis ≥ 33 weeks or < 20 weeks. Women were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: (1) routine GDM management or (2) an IBEP. Women underwent a 2-hour OGTT at 6 to 12 weeks postpartum. Fisher exact test, t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used as appropriate. Results Of the 101 women randomized, 49 were assigned to IBEP and 52 received

2016 American journal of perinatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

27. Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11–14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects (Full text)

Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11–14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut (...) ), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively.The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose

2017 Nutrition journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

28. The impact of different 75 g oral glucose tolerance test target ranges within normal limits on neonatal outcomes: A validation study (Full text)

The impact of different 75 g oral glucose tolerance test target ranges within normal limits on neonatal outcomes: A validation study To investigate the impact of different 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) target ranges within normal limits on neonatal outcomes, thus to investigate the validity of 75 g OGTT thresholds.The normal 1-hour and 2-hour ranges of 75 g OGTT levels of 110 pregnant women with no gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were further divided into three different sub-groups (...) higher in group 2 compared with those in group 3. For the 2-hour results, statistically similar results were found between the groups.A 2-hour 75 g OGTT has reliable threshold values for GDM screening. However, because there are still adverse neonatal outcomes in women with OGTT results below the current thresholds and the number of SGA fetuses is higher in the glucose range 120-140 mg/dL of the first hour, the validity of the 75 g OGTT thresholds still needs further investigation.

2018 Turkish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology PubMed abstract

29. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (Full text)

metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9)) were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 (...) in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15) for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG) the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84).Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

30. Effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development in the pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (a STROBE-compliant article). (Full text)

Effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development in the pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (a STROBE-compliant article). With the improvement of living standard, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) incidence is increasing every year. We observed the effects of abnormal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at different time points on neonatal complications and neurobehavioral development (...) in GDM.A total of 144 newborns whose mothers were diagnosed with GDM and received prenatal examination and childbirth in our hospital from October 2015 to April 2016, were observed in this study. Pregnant women underwent 75 g OGTT and the blood glucose level was recorded on an empty stomach, as well as postprandial 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Based on the frequency of 75 g OGTT-abnormal time points, the pregnant women were divided into group 1 (OGTT abnormality at 1 time point), group 2 (OGTT

2018 Medicine PubMed abstract

31. HbA1c Cutoff for Prediabetes and Diabetes Based on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Obese Children and Adolescents (Full text)

HbA1c Cutoff for Prediabetes and Diabetes Based on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Obese Children and Adolescents Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a traditional diagnostic tool for diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is an alternative method used in adults; however, its application in youths has been controversial. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of HbA1c and determined optimal cutoff points for detecting prediabetes and diabetes in youth.This retrospective study included 389 obese (...) children (217 boys, 55.8%) who had undergone simultaneous OGTT and HbA1c testing at six hospitals, Korea, between 2010 and 2016. Subjects were diagnosed with diabetes (fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L; 2-hour glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L) or prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L; 2-hour glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/L). The diagnostic performance of HbA1c for prediabetes and diabetes was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).At diagnosis, 197 (50.6%) subjects had

2018 Journal of Korean medical science PubMed abstract

32. Impact of analytical and biological variations on classification of diabetes using fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c (Full text)

Impact of analytical and biological variations on classification of diabetes using fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c Historically, diabetes is diagnosed by measuring fasting (FPG) and two-hour post oral glucose load (OGTT) plasma concentration and interpreting it against recommended clinical thresholds of the patient. More recently, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been included as a diagnostic criterion. Within-individual biological variation (CVi), analytical (...) ), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c. From the results of the simulations, HbA1c has comparable performance to FPG and is better than OGTT in classifying subjects with diabetes, particularly when laboratory methods with smaller CVa are used. The use of the average of the results of the repeat laboratory tests has the effect of ameliorating the combined (analytical and biological) variation. The averaged result improves the consistency of the disease classification.

2017 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

33. The Acute Effect of Physical Activity on Blood Glucose in Pregnant Women

: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test 75g of glucose is consumed Other Name: OGTT Behavioral: Physical activity 20 minutes of fixed intensity exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Control intervention Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and inactivity. Diagnostic Test: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test 75g of glucose is consumed Other Name: OGTT Behavioral: Inactivity Lying or sitting down. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Blood glucose [ Time Frame: Through intervention periods of 2 hours. ] Difference (...) complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for both the mother and the offspring. 15 pregnant participants will perform two Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT). One is followed by physical activity and the other is followed by inactivity and will serve as control. Blood glucose will be monitored continuously during the study. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Gestational Diabetes Diagnostic Test: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Behavioral: Inactivity Behavioral: Physical activity

2018 Clinical Trials

34. Blood Glucose Response After Oral Intake of Lactulose in Mildly Constipated Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

after the last study Intervention. This is up to 64 days, depending on the day of Screening (21 to 3 days before the first study Intervention) and on the duration of wash out phases between interventions. Gastrointestinal tolerability: global scaled evaluation [ Time Frame: 180 minutes and 24 hours post-dose ] Gastrointestinal tolerability will be assessed by the patients by means of a global scaled evaluation with "Very good", "Good", "Moderate", or "Poor". Gastrointestinal tolerability: diarrhoea (...) , distension, rumbling, nausea, vomiting, burping, regurgitation/heartburn, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain [ Time Frame: 180 minutes and 24 hours post-dose ] The single gastrointestinal symptoms will be assessed by the patients using a 4-point Likert scale: "No symptoms or discomfort", "Mild symptoms or discomfort", "Moderate symptoms of discomfort", or "Severe symptoms of discomfort". Blood glucose concentration at 240 minutes - only when blood glucose is >10 mmol/L (>180 mg/dL) at 180

2018 Clinical Trials

35. Tight Versus Liberal Blood Glucose Control in Adult Critically Ill Patients

: Insulin Phase 3 Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 9230 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Impact of Tight Blood Glucose Control Within Normal Fasting Ranges With Insulin Titration Prescribed by the Leuven Algorithm in Adult Critically Ill Patients Actual Study Start Date : September (...) will be administered through continuous intravenous infusion. Insulin will be titrated according to frequent measurement of blood glucose and with use of the LOGIC-insulin algorithm in the experimental group. The intervention will be stopped upon ICU discharge, or until the patient is able to resume oral feeding, or until the patient no longer has a central venous catheter, whatever comes first. Active Comparator: Liberal glucose control Tolerate hyperglycemia up to 215 mg/dl. In patients requiring insulin therapy

2018 Clinical Trials

36. Accuracy of glycosuria, random blood glucose and risk factors as selective screening tools for gestational diabetes mellitus in comparison with universal diagnosing (Full text)

selective screening between 13 and 20 weeks using reagent-strip glycosuria, random capillary blood glucose (RBG) and the presence of ≥1 risk factor(s). Between 20 and 34 weeks, we did universal screening following the 'one-step' approach using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting venous plasma glucose (FPG), and the 1-hour and the 'gold standard' 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Tests accuracy was estimated following the WHO and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE (...) . Although sensitivity of 1-hour OGTT was 39.5%, it had the highest accuracy and diagnostic OR. Regarding test performance, 1-hour OGTT and FPG were very good (AUC>0.8), RBG was poor (AUC≈0.60), whereas HbA1c was invaluable (AUC<0.5).Selective screening using glycosuria and random blood glucose is unnecessary due to its low sensitivity. Fasting glucose ≥5.1 mmol/L could be applicable for screening at the population level. Where 2-hour OGTT is not available, FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L, complemented by the presence

2018 BMJ open diabetes research & care PubMed abstract

37. Ultra-rapid BioChaperone Lispro Improves post-prandial Blood Glucose Excursions versus Insulin Lispro in a 14-day crossover Treatment Study in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. (Full text)

. Postprandial blood glucose (BG) was assessed after individualized solid mixed meal tests (MMTs) (50% carbohydrate, 29% fat, 21% protein), with additional randomization for the sequence of timing of insulin administration, immediately (t0), 15 minutes before (t - 15) and 15 minutes after (t + 15) meal start on days 1, 2 and 3, and with t0 administration on day 14. Pharmacokinetic (PK) variables were assessed for t0 MMTs. Participants also used individualized BCLIS or LIS doses immediately before meals (...) Ultra-rapid BioChaperone Lispro Improves post-prandial Blood Glucose Excursions versus Insulin Lispro in a 14-day crossover Treatment Study in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. To investigate the safety and efficacy of BioChaperone Lispo (BCLIS), an ultra-rapid formulation of insulin lispro (LIS) in people with type 1 diabetes.In this randomized, double-blind study, participants self-administered individualized bolus doses of BCLIS or LIS during two 14-day periods in a crossover fashion

2018 obesity & metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

38. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test. (Full text)

a high fat diet.Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder.The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours (...) Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed

2014 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) PubMed abstract

39. Guidelines for Blood Glucose Monitoring and Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Term and Late-Preterm Neonates

of 45mg/dL (2.5mmol/L) is indicated. PGL, plasma glucose level. a See Table 3. 174 ABM PROTOCOLinfants do not develop clinically signi?cant hypoglycemia simplyasaresultofatime-limiteddurationofunderfeeding. Testing methods Bedside glucose reagent test strips are inexpensive and practical but are not reliable, with signi?cant variance from true blood glucose levels, especially at low glucose concen- trations. 22,38,44–46 Bedside glucose tests may be used for screening, but laboratory levels sent STAT (...) (thus enabling maintenance of normal blood glucose) while stimulating suckling and milk production. 31,41 (II-2, III) 3. Feedings should be frequent, at least 10–12 times per 24 hours in the ?rst few days after birth. 41 (III) However, it is not unusual for term infants to feed immediately after birth and then sleep quite a long time (up to 8–12 hours) before they become more active and begin to suckle with increasing frequency. They mount protective metabolic responses through- out this time so

2014 Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

40. Genetic Association Analysis of Fasting and 1- and 2-Hour Glucose Tolerance Test Data Using a Generalized Index of Dissimilarity Measure for the Korean Population (Full text)

Genetic Association Analysis of Fasting and 1- and 2-Hour Glucose Tolerance Test Data Using a Generalized Index of Dissimilarity Measure for the Korean Population Glucose tolerance tests have been devised to determine the speed of blood glucose clearance. Diabetes is often tested with the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), along with fasting glucose level. However, no single test may be sufficient for the diagnosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Diabetes (...) Federation (IDF) has suggested composite criteria. Accordingly, a single multi-class trait was constructed with three of the fasting phenotypes and 1- and 2-hour OGTT phenotypes from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project, and the genetic association was investigated. All of the 18 possible combinations made out of the 3 sets of classification for the individual phenotypes were taken into our analysis. These were possible due to a method that was recently developed by us for estimating genomic

2016 Genomics & Informatics PubMed abstract

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