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Glucose Metabolism

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1. The effect of high compared with low dairy consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility in overweight adults: a randomized crossover trial. (PubMed)

The effect of high compared with low dairy consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility in overweight adults: a randomized crossover trial. Dairy products contain many nutritious components that may benefit metabolic health. There are indications that glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, which are generally disturbed in overweight and obese individuals, may improve by increased dairy intake. This may also affect one's metabolic flexibility.The aim (...) of this study was to investigate the effects of high compared with low dairy intake on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility in overweight adults (aged 45-65 y).In this randomized intervention study, subjects consumed a high- and a low-dairy diet [HDD (5-6 dairy portions) and LDD (≤1 dairy portion), respectively] for 6 wk in a crossover design, with a washout period of 4 wk. Dairy portions were 200 g semi-skimmed yoghurt, 30 g reduced-fat (30+) cheese, and 250 mL semiskimmed

2019 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

2. Deletion of genes involved in the ketogluconate metabolism, Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glucose dehydrogenase increase local and invasive virulence phenotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (PubMed)

Deletion of genes involved in the ketogluconate metabolism, Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glucose dehydrogenase increase local and invasive virulence phenotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae displays increased resistance to antibiotic therapy following biofilm formation. A genome-wide search revealed that SP 0320 and SP 0675 (respectively annotated as 5-keto-D-gluconate-5-reductase and glucose dehydrogenase) contain the highest degree of homology to CsgA of Myxococcus (...) 0675 proteins and confirmed their functions. These data reveal that disruption of genes involved in the degradation of ketogluconate, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, and glucose dehydrogenase significantly increase the virulence of bacteria in vivo; two hypothetical models involving virulence triggered by reduced in carbon-flux through the glycolytic pathways are presented.

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2019 PLoS ONE

3. Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Underweight Japanese Women (PubMed)

Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism in Underweight Japanese Women Japanese women have substantially lower body mass index (BMI) than women in other developed countries. The BMI of Japanese women has steadily decreased over time. However, glucose metabolism in underweight Japanese women has not been fully characterized.The aim of this study was to investigate glucose metabolism and the physical characteristics of underweight Japanese women.We recruited 31 young (20 to 29 years of age) and 30 (...) postmenopausal (50 to 65 years of age) underweight women. We also recruited young normal-weight women (n = 13) and postmenopausal normal-weight women (n = 10) to serve as references. We administered an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and evaluated intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) levels and body composition using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively.Young underweight women had similar glucose tolerance as young normal-weight women. However, postmenopausal

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2018 Journal of the Endocrine Society

4. Adenovirus-mediated expression of SIK1 improves hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. (PubMed)

Adenovirus-mediated expression of SIK1 improves hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of Salt-induced kinase 1 (SIK1) in regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in a high-fat food (HFD) and streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model.A diabetic rat model treated with HFD plus low-dose STZ was developed and was transduced to induce a high expression of SIK1 in vivo via (...) a tail-vein injection of a recombinant adenoviral vector. The effects on hepatic glucogenetic and lipogenic gene expression, systemic metabolism and pathological changes were then determined.In T2DM rats, SIK1 expression was reduced in the liver. Overexpression of SIK1 improved hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and fatty liver, reduced the expression of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription co-activator 2 (CRTC2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6

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2019 PLoS ONE

5. Glucose metabolism is differentially altered by choline and methionine in bovine neonatal hepatocytes. (PubMed)

Glucose metabolism is differentially altered by choline and methionine in bovine neonatal hepatocytes. Choline and methionine serve essential roles in the liver that may interact with glucose metabolism. Our objectives were to quantify glucose export, cellular glycogen, and expression of genes controlling oxidation and gluconeogenesis in primary bovine neonatal hepatocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and D,L-methionine (DLM) with or without fatty acids (FA (...) ). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 3 Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L) with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial design. After 24 h, media was harvested to quantify glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and cells harvested to quantify glycogen, DNA, and gene expression. No interactions between CC and DLM were detected. The potential two-way interaction between CC or DLM and FA

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2019 PLoS ONE

6. Correction: Mortality risk in adults according to categories of impaired glucose metabolism after 18 years of follow-up in the North of Spain: The Asturias Study. (PubMed)

Correction: Mortality risk in adults according to categories of impaired glucose metabolism after 18 years of follow-up in the North of Spain: The Asturias Study. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211070.].

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2019 PLoS ONE

7. Outcomes: Improving outcome of bipolar disorder when considering glucose metabolism

Outcomes: Improving outcome of bipolar disorder when considering glucose metabolism Hospital management of self-harm and later risk of suicide and overall mortality | Evidence-Based Mental Health We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional

2016 Evidence-Based Mental Health

8. The acute effect of coffee on endothelial function and glucose metabolism following a glucose load in healthy human volunteers. (PubMed)

The acute effect of coffee on endothelial function and glucose metabolism following a glucose load in healthy human volunteers. A diet rich in plant polyphenols has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in part, via improvements in endothelial function. Coffee is a rich source of phenolic compounds including the phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid (CGA). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of coffee as a whole beverage (...) ). There was no significant difference in the FMD response between decaffeinated coffee and water. Blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the consumption of caffeinated coffee resulted in a significant improvement in endothelial function, but there was no evidence for benefit regarding glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Although the mechanism has yet to be elucidated the results suggest that coffee as a whole beverage may improve

2018 Food & function

9. Metabolic Contrasts Between Youth and Adults With Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: II. Observations Using the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. (PubMed)

Metabolic Contrasts Between Youth and Adults With Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: II. Observations Using the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. To compare oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose, C-peptide, and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity in youth and adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.A total of 66 youth (80.3% with IGT) and 355 adults (70.7% with IGT) underwent a 3-h OGTT to assess 1) insulin (...) sensitivity (1/fasting insulin), 2) C-peptide index (CPI) and insulinogenic index (IGI) over the first 30 min, and 3) glucose, C-peptide, and insulin incremental areas above fasting over the 3-h post-ingestion (incremental glucose [G-iAUC], incremental C-peptide [CP-iAUC], and incremental insulin area under the curve [I-iAUC] responses, respectively).Fasting, 2-h glucose, and G-iAUC were similar in both age-groups, but youth had ∼50% lower 1/fasting insulin (P < 0.001), 75% higher CPI (mean [95% CI] 0.703

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2018 Diabetes Care

10. Inward Glucose Transfer Accounts for Insulin-Dependent Increase in Brain Glucose Metabolism Associated with Diet-Induced Obesity. (PubMed)

Inward Glucose Transfer Accounts for Insulin-Dependent Increase in Brain Glucose Metabolism Associated with Diet-Induced Obesity. There is a general agreement that there are changes in brain metabolism in insulin-resistant individuals during conditions of hyperinsulinemia. However, the impact on obesity is unclear, and the metabolic constants underlying these modifications are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate these changes in a large animal model of diet-induced obesity.Twenty (...) adult miniature pigs were fed with either an obesogenic diet or a regular diet for 5 months. At that time, fat deposition was evaluated using computed tomography scanning, and 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images were acquired dynamically both in the fasted state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Glucose uptake rates and pixel-wise modeled brain volumes were calculated together with brain connectivity.Whole-body insulin sensitivity was reduced by more than 50

2018 Obesity

11. Local Mammary Glucose Supply Regulates Availability and Intracellular Metabolic Pathways of Glucose in the Mammary Gland of Lactating Dairy Goats Under Malnutrition of Energy (PubMed)

Local Mammary Glucose Supply Regulates Availability and Intracellular Metabolic Pathways of Glucose in the Mammary Gland of Lactating Dairy Goats Under Malnutrition of Energy As glucose is the regulator of both the milk yield and mammary oxidative status, glucose supply is considered to play important nutritional and physiological role on mammary gland (MG) metabolism. However, inconsistent results were observed from different infusion methods to evaluate the effect of glucose on MG glucose (...) metabolism. Thus, precise method should be developed to learn how availability and intracellular metabolic pathways of glucose in the MG are altered by the direct mammary glucose supply. In addition, limited information is available on the role of mammary glucose supply in milk synthesis in lactating ruminants under an energy-deficient diet. Direct glucose supply to the MG was implemented in the current study through the external pudendal artery infusion under an energy-deficient diet. Six doses

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2018 Frontiers in physiology

12. Trajectories of Brain Lactate and Re-visited Oxygen-Glucose Index Calculations Do Not Support Elevated Non-oxidative Metabolism of Glucose Across Childhood (PubMed)

Trajectories of Brain Lactate and Re-visited Oxygen-Glucose Index Calculations Do Not Support Elevated Non-oxidative Metabolism of Glucose Across Childhood Brain growth across childhood is a dynamic process associated with specific energy requirements. A disproportionately higher rate of glucose utilization (CMRglucose) compared with oxygen consumption (CMRO2) was documented in children's brain and suggestive of non-oxidative metabolism of glucose. Several candidate metabolic pathways may (...) , brain [Lac] was lower than predicted, and below the range for adult brain. In addition, we re-calculated the CMRglucose-CMRO2 mismatch itself by using updated lumped constant values. The calculated cerebral metabolic rate of lactate indicated a net influx of 0.04 μmol/g/min, or in terms of CMRglucose, of 0.02 μmol glucose/g/min. Accumulation of [Lac] and calculated efflux of lactate from brain are not consistent with the increase in non-oxidative metabolism of glucose. In addition, the value

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2018 Frontiers in neuroscience

13. Brain glucose uptake is associated with endogenous glucose production in obese subjects before and after bariatric surgery and predicts metabolic outcome at follow-up. (PubMed)

Brain glucose uptake is associated with endogenous glucose production in obese subjects before and after bariatric surgery and predicts metabolic outcome at follow-up. To investigate further the finding that insulin enhances brain glucose uptake (BGU) in obese but not in lean people by combining BGU with measures of endogenous glucose production (EGP), and to explore the associations between insulin-stimulated BGU and peripheral markers, such as metabolites and inflammatory markers.A total (...) findings suggest the presence of a brain-liver axis in morbidly obese individuals, which persists postoperatively. This axis might contribute to further deterioration of glucose homeostasis.© 2018 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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2018 obesity & metabolism

14. Distinct metabolic profile according to the shape of the oral glucose tolerance test curve is related to whole glucose excursion: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Distinct metabolic profile according to the shape of the oral glucose tolerance test curve is related to whole glucose excursion: a cross-sectional study. The shapes of the plasma glucose concentration curve during the oral glucose tolerance test are related to different metabolic risk profiles and future risk of type 2 DM. We sought to further analyze the relationship between the specific shapes and hyperglycemic states, the metabolic syndrome and hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid (...) metabolism, and to isolate the effect of the shape by adjusting for the area under the glucose curve.One hundred twenty one adult participants underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and were assigned to either the monophasic (n = 97) or the biphasic (n = 24) group based upon the rise and fall of their plasma glucose concentration. We evaluated anthropometric measures, blood pressure, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, C

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2018 BMC Endocrine Disorders

15. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition normalizes glucose metabolism and suppresses oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice. (PubMed)

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition normalizes glucose metabolism and suppresses oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice. It is unclear whether long-term sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition such as that during the treatment of diabetes has deleterious effects on the kidney. Therefore, we first sought to determine whether abnormal glucose metabolism occurs in the kidneys of 22-week-old BTBR ob/ob diabetic mice. Second, the cumulative effect of chronic SGLT2 (...) inhibition by ipragliflozin and 30% calorie restriction, either of which lowered blood glucose to a similar extent, on renal glucose metabolism was evaluated. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics demonstrated that these diabetic mice exhibited an abnormal elevation in the renal pools of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites. This was almost completely nullified by SGLT2 inhibition and calorie restriction. Moreover, imaging mass spectrometry indicated an increased level of the tricarboxylic acid cycle

2018 Kidney International

16. Correction to: Standardized extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulates insulin secretion and blocks hepatic glucose production by regulating the expression of glucose-metabolic genes in streptozitocin-induced diabetic rats. (PubMed)

Correction to: Standardized extract of Ficus deltoidea stimulates insulin secretion and blocks hepatic glucose production by regulating the expression of glucose-metabolic genes in streptozitocin-induced diabetic rats. After the publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that one author, Boon Yin Khoo, was erroneously omitted from the authorship list.

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2018 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

17. 1-hour and 2-hour post-load glucose level on oral glucose tolerance test and the risk of incident metabolic syndrome. (PubMed)

1-hour and 2-hour post-load glucose level on oral glucose tolerance test and the risk of incident metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the cardiometabolic risk even in nondiabetic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that 1-hour postload glucose (PG) and 2-hour PG based on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) predicted cardiometabolic risk. However, it is still unclear whether and to what extent postload glucose is associated with the risk of MetS.A total of 5389 (...) nondiabetic Koreans were dichotomized into normoglycemic (NG) groups and abnormal glycemic groups based on OGTT, including elevated 1-hour PG (155 to 199 mg/dL) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (2-hour PG 140 to 199 mg/dL), and followed up for 10 years. Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for incident MetS. Subgroups were determined by high or normal 1-hour PG (cutoff: 155 mg/dL) and 2-hour PG (cutoff: 140 mg/dL).Compared with NG, the risk of MetS

2018 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

18. Effect of Chronic Hyperglycemia on Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance. (PubMed)

Effect of Chronic Hyperglycemia on Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance. Chronic hyperglycemia causes insulin resistance, but the inheritability of glucotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined the effect of 3 days of hyperglycemia on glucose disposal, enzyme activities, insulin signaling, and protein O-GlcNAcylation in skeletal muscle of individuals without (FH-) or with (FH+) family history of type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five subjects with normal (...) glucose tolerance received a [3-3H]glucose euglycemic insulin clamp, indirect calorimetry, and vastus-lateralis biopsies before and after 3 days of saline (n = 5) or glucose (n = 10 FH- and 10 FH+) infusion to raise plasma glucose by ∼45 mg/dL. At baseline, FH+ had lower insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and total glucose disposal (TGD) but similar nonoxidative glucose disposal and basal endogenous glucose production (bEGP) compared with FH- After 3 days of glucose infusion, bEGP and glucose

2018 Diabetes

19. Effect of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies on new-onset diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Effect of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies on new-onset diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis To investigate the effect of two clinically applied proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9-mAbs) on glycaemia and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM).PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane databases and ClinicalTrials.gov websites were systematically searched for randomized controlled (...) trials that reported data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or NODM incidence. Risk ratios (RRs) for NODM and mean difference (MD) for FPG and HbA1c with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effect model. Heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic and potential publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of 18 studies including 26 123 participants without diabetes were identified. No significant difference

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2018 EvidenceUpdates

20. Association of Gestational Diabetes With Maternal Disorders of Glucose Metabolism and Childhood Adiposity. (PubMed)

Association of Gestational Diabetes With Maternal Disorders of Glucose Metabolism and Childhood Adiposity. The sequelae of gestational diabetes (GD) by contemporary criteria that diagnose approximately twice as many women as previously used criteria are unclear.To examine associations of GD with maternal glucose metabolism and childhood adiposity 10 to 14 years' postpartum.The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study established associations of glucose levels during pregnancy (...) ).Primary maternal outcome: a disorder of glucose metabolism (composite of type 2 diabetes or prediabetes). Primary outcome for children: being overweight or obese; secondary outcomes: obesity, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and sum of skinfolds (>85th percentile for latter 3 outcomes).The analytic cohort included 4697 mothers (mean [SD] age, 41.7 [5.7] years) and 4832 children (mean [SD] age, 11.4 [1.2] years; 51.0% male). The median duration of follow-up was 11.4 years. The criteria for GD

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2018 JAMA

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