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2. Dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

Dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues are able to prevent or delay

2017 Cochrane

3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome HAYES, Inc Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made (...) for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc. Healthcare Technology Brief Publication. 2017 Authors' conclusions Health Problem: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting 6% to 20% of women of reproductive age. It is characterized by oligoovulation (menstrual irregularity), hyperandrogenism (increased testosterone levels), and polycystic ovaries

2017 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

4. A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia

A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia | CADTH.ca CADTH Document Viewer A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia Table of Contents Search this document A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia June 2017 Summary The ZP-Glucagon patch uses novel microneedle technology to deliver glucagon through the skin to people who are experiencing severe hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar). There is very limited (...) evidence, from one small study, comparing the ZP-Glucagon patch with glucagon injected intramuscularly. The evidence suggests that the correction of blood sugar levels is comparable between the ZP-Glucagon patch and the glucagon injected intramuscularly when tested in a controlled setting. The ZP-Glucagon patch is not yet commercially available and the anticipated cost is unknown. In an emergency situation, the ZP-Glucagon patch may be a more user-friendly option than injecting glucagon. Issue

2017 CADTH - Issues in Emerging Health Technologies

5. A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia

A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia | CADTH.ca CADTH Document Viewer A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia Table of Contents Search this document A Transdermal Glucagon Patch for Severe Hypoglycemia June 2017 Summary The ZP-Glucagon patch uses novel microneedle technology to deliver glucagon through the skin to people who are experiencing severe hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar). There is very limited (...) evidence, from one small study, comparing the ZP-Glucagon patch with glucagon injected intramuscularly. The evidence suggests that the correction of blood sugar levels is comparable between the ZP-Glucagon patch and the glucagon injected intramuscularly when tested in a controlled setting. The ZP-Glucagon patch is not yet commercially available and the anticipated cost is unknown. In an emergency situation, the ZP-Glucagon patch may be a more user-friendly option than injecting glucagon. Issue

2017 CADTH - Issues in Emerging Health Technologies

6. Regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism by the proglucagon-derived peptides glucagon like peptide 1 and glucagon like peptide 2. (PubMed)

Regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism by the proglucagon-derived peptides glucagon like peptide 1 and glucagon like peptide 2. The intestine is highly efficient at absorbing and packaging dietary lipids onto the structural protein apoB48 for distribution throughout the body. Here, we summarize recent advances into understanding the physiological and pharmacological actions of the proglucagon-derived peptides: glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2

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2018 Current Opinion in Lipidology

7. Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis (PubMed)

Renal potassium handling in carriers of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor suggests a role for glucagon in potassium homeostasis Plasma potassium concentration (PK ) is tightly regulated. Insulin is known to favor potassium entry into cells. But how potassium leaves the cells later on is not often considered. Previous studies in rats showed that glucagon infusion increased urinary potassium excretion dose-dependently and reversibly. This prompted us to investigate the possible (...) influence of glucagon on potassium handling in humans. We took advantage of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor (GR) that results in a partial loss of function of the GR. In the Olivetti cohort (male workers), 25 subjects who carried this mutation were matched 1:4 to 100 noncarriers for age and weight. Estimated osmolarity of serum and 24-h urine (Sosm and Uosm, respectively) was calculated from the concentrations of the main solutes: [(Na+K)*2 + urea (+glucose for serum)]. Transtubular

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2018 Physiological reports

8. Coagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptors ameliorates kidney injury in murine models of obesity and diabetes mellitus (PubMed)

Coagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptors ameliorates kidney injury in murine models of obesity and diabetes mellitus To investigate the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/glucagon receptors coagonist on renal dysfunction associated with diabetes and obesity.Chronic high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice, streptozotocin-treated high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice and diabetic C57BLKS/J db/db mice were used as models of diabetes-induced renal dysfunction. The streptozotocin-treated (...) high-fat diet fed mice and db/db mice were treated with the GLP-1 and glucagon receptors coagonist (Aib2 C24 Chimera2, 150 μg/kg, sc) for twelve weeks, while in chronic high-fat diet fed mice, coagonist (Aib2 C24 Chimera2, 150 μg/kg, sc) treatment was continued for forty weeks. Kidney function, histology, fibrosis, inflammation, and plasma biochemistry were assessed at the end of the treatment.Coagonist treatment decreased body weight, plasma lipids, insulin resistance, creatinine, blood urea

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2018 World journal of diabetes

9. A novel dual glucagon-like peptide and glucagon receptor agonist SAR425899: Results of randomized, placebo-controlled first-in-human and first-in-patient trials. (PubMed)

A novel dual glucagon-like peptide and glucagon receptor agonist SAR425899: Results of randomized, placebo-controlled first-in-human and first-in-patient trials. To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SAR425899, a novel polypeptide, active as an agonist at both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCR), in healthy volunteers and in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).Subcutaneous administrations of SAR425899 were

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2018 obesity & metabolism

10. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist and Glucagon Increase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Beta Cells via Distinct Adenylyl Cyclases (PubMed)

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist and Glucagon Increase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Beta Cells via Distinct Adenylyl Cyclases Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin. Pancreatic alpha cell mass increases in response to insufficient insulin secretion. However, the reason for this increase is not clear. It is possible that the increased alpha-cells may stimulate compensatory insulin release in response to the insufficient (...) insulin such as insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones produced by alpha cells, contribute to insulin secretion in INS-1 cells, a beta cell line. We confirmed that alpha cell area in the pancreatic islets and glucagon secretion were increased in HFD-induced obese mice. Co-treatment with glucagon and exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, additively increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. In parallel

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2018 International journal of medical sciences

11. Cardiovascular efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Cardiovascular efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a systematic review and network meta-analysis To compare the cardiovascular efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in adults with Type 2 diabetes.Electronic databases were searched from inception to 22 October 2018 for randomized controlled trials designed to assess

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

12. Glucagon People/Insulin People

Glucagon People/Insulin People Glucagon People/Insulin People – Clinical Correlations Search Glucagon People/Insulin People November 23, 2016 4 min read By Michael Tanner , MD Glucagon : a 29-amino-acid polypeptide secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to hypoglycemia or starvation. Insulin : a 51-amino-acid polypeptide secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to nutrient consumption. It’s December 13 th , 1932, Camden, New Jersey. You are playing alto sax (...) to the RCA Victor recording studio in Camden and cut the classic “ . 1 The Moten band, at its creative peak with Ben Webster on tenor sax and Count Basie on piano, is running on glucagon. It’s Thanksgiving evening, 2011, and you’re at your aunt’s house. You and your family have just consumed, on average, 4700 calories each. Dinner was a 24-pound turkey, Brussels sprouts, mashed potatoes with gravy, yams with marshmallows on top, cranberry sauce in the shape of a cylinder bearing the impression

2016 Clinical Correlations

13. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor analogues

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor analogues www.sps.nhs.uk | Published December 2016 1 London Medicines Evaluation Network Overview: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor analogues The first stop for professional medicines advice www.sps.nhs.uk | Published December 2016 2 Metformin Sulphonylurea Pioglitazone Sulphonylurea & Pioglitazone Metformin & Pioglitazone Basal Insulin + Metformin Basal Insulin + Sulphonylurea Basal Insulin + pioglitazone Basal Insulin + metformin + pioglitazone L L L L L NICE (...) monitoring and subsequent dose adjustment on an individual level Licensing(L)/NICE Approval(N) Hypoglycaemic events According to NICE's meta-analysis, three non- insulin based drug combinations (including 2nd intensification with GLP-1 analogues) were generally associated with less hypoglycaemic events compared to the metformin-NPH insulin combination. Not addressed by NICE guidance London Medicines Evaluation Network Overview: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor analogues Basal Insulin In adults with type

2017 Specialist Pharmacy Services

14. Effect of meal composition on postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose responses in overweight/obese subjects. (PubMed)

Effect of meal composition on postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose responses in overweight/obese subjects. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is released in response to food intake. It is unclear how meals high in protein (HP) and monounsaturated fat (HMF) affect GLP-1 response.To examine the effect of a HP versus a HMF meal on GLP-1 response.Twenty-four overweight/obese participants consumed two meals (HP: 31.9 % energy from protein (...) ; HMF: 35.2 % fat and 20.7 % monounsaturated fat) in a random order. Both meals contained the same energy and carbohydrate content. GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose were assessed from blood drawn in the fasting and postprandial states. The effect of meal condition on hormone and glucose responses and appetite ratings were assessed by repeated measures analysis.Statistically significant (p < 0.01) time by meal condition effect was observed on active GLP-1, total GLP-1, insulin, C

2017 European journal of nutrition

15. Glucagon Nasal Powder: A Promising Alternative to Intramuscular Glucagon in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes. (PubMed)

Glucagon Nasal Powder: A Promising Alternative to Intramuscular Glucagon in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes. Treatment of severe hypoglycemia outside of the hospital setting is limited to intramuscular glucagon requiring reconstitution prior to injection. The current study examined the safety and dose-response relationships of a needle-free intranasal glucagon preparation in youth aged 4 to <17 years.A total of 48 youth with type 1 diabetes completed the study at seven clinical centers. Participants (...) in the two youngest cohorts (4 to <8 and 8 to <12 years old) were randomly assigned to receive either 2 or 3 mg intranasal glucagon in two separate sessions or to receive a single, weight-based dose of intramuscular glucagon. Participants aged 12 to <17 years received 1 mg intramuscular glucagon in one session and 3 mg intranasal glucagon in the other session. Glucagon was given after glucose was lowered to <80 mg/dL (mean nadir ranged between 67 and 75 mg/dL).All 24 intramuscular and 58 of the 59

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2017 Diabetes Care

16. Impact of the Glucagon Assay when Assessing the Effect of Chronic Liraglutide Therapy on Glucagon Secretion. (PubMed)

Impact of the Glucagon Assay when Assessing the Effect of Chronic Liraglutide Therapy on Glucagon Secretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists acutely lower serum glucagon. However, in the Liraglutide and β-Cell Repair (LIBRA) Trial, 48-week treatment with liraglutide yielded lower/unchanged fasting glucagon but, surprisingly, enhanced postchallenge glucagonemia [measured by R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN) assay].Because differences between glucagon assays potentially could explain (...) these unexpected findings, we have remeasured glucagon in all 1222 samples from this trial using the highly-sensitive/specific Mercodia assay to compare the findings between assays.In LIBRA, 51 patients with type 2 diabetes of 2.6 ± 1.9 years duration were randomized to daily subcutaneous liraglutide or placebo injection and followed for 48 weeks, with serial oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) every 12 weeks (with liraglutide/placebo last administered ∼24 hours earlier).Serum glucagon was measured every 30

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2017 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

17. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 on microcirculation: a systematic review. (PubMed)

The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 on microcirculation: a systematic review. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2) are gut-derived hormones used in the treatment of diabetes type-2 and short bowel syndrome, respectively. GLP-1 attenuates insulin resistance and GLP-2 reduces enterocyte apoptosis and enhances crypt cell proliferation in the small intestine. In addition, both hormones have vasoactive effects and may be useful in situations with impaired

2017 Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)

18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (PubMed)

Glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Patients with T2D suffer from various diabetes-related complications. Since there are many patients with T2D that cannot be controlled by previously developed drugs, it has been necessary to develop new drugs, one of which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapy. GLP-1 has been shown to ameliorate diabetes-related

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2017 Annals of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism

19. Faster Use and Fewer Failures with Needle-Free Nasal Glucagon Versus Injectable Glucagon in Severe Hypoglycemia Rescue: A Simulation Study (PubMed)

Faster Use and Fewer Failures with Needle-Free Nasal Glucagon Versus Injectable Glucagon in Severe Hypoglycemia Rescue: A Simulation Study During severe hypoglycemic episodes, people with diabetes depend on others to help with treatment. We compared needle-free nasal glucagon and commercially available injectable glucagon for ease of use by caregivers of people with diabetes and by others in treating simulated episodes of severe hypoglycemia.Sixteen instructed caregivers and 15 noninstructed (...) acquaintances administered nasal and injectable glucagon to manikins, simulating unconscious people with diabetes during severe hypoglycemia episodes.With nasal glucagon, 15 caregivers (94%) and 14 acquaintances (93%) administered a full dose (mean time 0.27 and 0.44 min, respectively). One caregiver and one acquaintance did not administer nasal glucagon because they did not fully depress the plunger on the device. Two caregivers deliberately administered both insulin and nasal glucagon, believing

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2017 Diabetes technology & therapeutics

20. Coding variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 are risk factors for hepatic steatosis and elevated serum alanine aminotransferases caused by a glucagon receptor antagonist (PubMed)

Coding variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 are risk factors for hepatic steatosis and elevated serum alanine aminotransferases caused by a glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 is a glucagon receptor antagonist that was associated with hepatic steatosis and elevated aminotransferases in phase 2 diabetes studies. We investigated the relationship between selected genetic variants and hepatic steatosis and elevated alanine aminotransferases (ALTs) associated with LY2409021. Patients participated in a 6 (...) and/or TM6SF2 variant alleles are at risk for hepatic steatosis and elevated ALT levels caused by LY2409021, a glucagon receptor antagonist. More studies are needed to investigate if our observations are generalizable to hepatic steatosis caused by other medications. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:561-570).

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2018 Hepatology communications

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