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Glomerulonephritis Causes

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161. Glomerulonephritis, Chronic (Diagnosis)

. If disease progression is not halted with therapy, the net results are (CKD), (ESRD), and cardiovascular disease. Chronic glomerulonephritis is the third leading cause of CKD, and accounting for about 10% of all patients on dialysis. The exact cause of CKD in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis may never be known in some patients. Therefore, it has generally been accepted that the diagnosis of CKD can be made without knowledge of the specific cause. [ ] The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) defines (...) distinguish the primary disease. Histology and clues to the etiology are often derived from other systemic diseases (if present). Considerable cause-specific variability is observed in the rate at which acute glomerulonephritis progresses to chronic glomerulonephritis. The prognosis depends on the type of chronic glomerulonephritis (see Etiology). ESRD and death are common outcomes unless renal replacement therapy is instituted. Next: Pathophysiology Reduction in nephron mass from the initial injury

2014 eMedicine.com

162. Glomerulonephritis, Acute (Diagnosis)

Noninfectious causes of acute GN may be divided into primary renal diseases, systemic diseases, and miscellaneous conditions or agents. Multisystem systemic diseases that can cause acute GN include the following: Vasculitis (eg, ]) - This causes glomerulonephritis that combines upper and lower granulomatous nephritides). Collagen-vascular diseases (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) – This causes glomerulonephritis through renal deposition of immune complexes). Hypersensitivity vasculitis (...) – This encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders featuring small vessel and skin disease. – This causes abnormal quantities of cryoglobulin in plasma that result in repeated episodes of widespread purpura and cutaneous ulcerations upon crystallization. - This causes nephritis from a vasculitis involving the renal arteries. – This causes a generalized vasculitis resulting in glomerulonephritis. Goodpasture syndrome – This causes circulating antibodies to type IV collagen and often results in a rapidly

2014 eMedicine.com

163. Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (Overview)

of open access article, "The Role of Nephritis-Associated Plasmin Receptor (NAPlr) in Glomerulonephritis Associated with Streptococcal Infection." Oda T, Yoshizawa N, Yamakami K, et al. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2012; doi: 10.1155/417675. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) results from an antecedent infection of the skin (impetigo) or throat (pharyngitis) caused by nephritogenic strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. [ , , , ] The concept of nephritogenic (...) % of children with acute sporadic poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The prognosis for persons with acute glomerulonephritis secondary to other causes is less certain. Edema usually resolves within 5-10 days, and the blood pressure usually returns to normal after 2-3 weeks, even though persistence of elevated pressures for as many as 6 weeks is compatible with complete resolution. Urinary abnormalities resolve at various times after onset. Proteinuria may disappear within the first 2-3 months or may

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

164. Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (Diagnosis)

of open access article, "The Role of Nephritis-Associated Plasmin Receptor (NAPlr) in Glomerulonephritis Associated with Streptococcal Infection." Oda T, Yoshizawa N, Yamakami K, et al. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2012; doi: 10.1155/417675. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) results from an antecedent infection of the skin (impetigo) or throat (pharyngitis) caused by nephritogenic strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. [ , , , ] The concept of nephritogenic (...) % of children with acute sporadic poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. The prognosis for persons with acute glomerulonephritis secondary to other causes is less certain. Edema usually resolves within 5-10 days, and the blood pressure usually returns to normal after 2-3 weeks, even though persistence of elevated pressures for as many as 6 weeks is compatible with complete resolution. Urinary abnormalities resolve at various times after onset. Proteinuria may disappear within the first 2-3 months or may

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

165. Glomerulonephritis, Acute (Diagnosis)

processing > Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis Updated: Apr 08, 2016 Author: Bonnie Jean Brown, DO; Chief Editor: Steven C Dronen, MD, FAAEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis Overview Overview Acute glomerulonephritis requires prompt diagnosis, as it can rapidly progress to permanent kidney disease if left undiagnosed. Glomerulonephritis is the third most common cause of end-stage renal disease, following diabetes mellitus (...) and hypertension, [ ] and is responsible for about 15% of cases of end-stage renal disease. [ ] The emergency physician must consider acute glomerulonephritis in the differential diagnosis for patients that present with hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, peripheral edema, and/or acute pulmonary edema. Acute glomerulonephritis is defined as inflammation and subsequent damage of the glomeruli leading to hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia; it may be caused by primary renal disease or systemic conditions

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

166. Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (Follow-up)

, and the healing process has begun. Thus, influencing the ultimate course of the disease by any specific therapy directed at the cause of the nephritis is not possible. Conversely, morbidity and early mortality are influenced considerably by appropriate medical therapy. Even then, treatment is usually supportive and directed toward the potential complications. Only a small percentage of patients with acute glomerulonephritis require initial hospitalization, and most of those are ready for discharge in 2-4 days (...) Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (Follow-up) Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Consultations, Long-Term Monitoring Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

167. Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (Treatment)

, and the healing process has begun. Thus, influencing the ultimate course of the disease by any specific therapy directed at the cause of the nephritis is not possible. Conversely, morbidity and early mortality are influenced considerably by appropriate medical therapy. Even then, treatment is usually supportive and directed toward the potential complications. Only a small percentage of patients with acute glomerulonephritis require initial hospitalization, and most of those are ready for discharge in 2-4 days (...) Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis (Treatment) Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Consultations, Long-Term Monitoring Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

168. Glomerulonephritis, Acute (Overview)

processing > Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis Updated: Apr 08, 2016 Author: Bonnie Jean Brown, DO; Chief Editor: Steven C Dronen, MD, FAAEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis Overview Overview Acute glomerulonephritis requires prompt diagnosis, as it can rapidly progress to permanent kidney disease if left undiagnosed. Glomerulonephritis is the third most common cause of end-stage renal disease, following diabetes mellitus (...) and hypertension, [ ] and is responsible for about 15% of cases of end-stage renal disease. [ ] The emergency physician must consider acute glomerulonephritis in the differential diagnosis for patients that present with hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, peripheral edema, and/or acute pulmonary edema. Acute glomerulonephritis is defined as inflammation and subsequent damage of the glomeruli leading to hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia; it may be caused by primary renal disease or systemic conditions

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

169. Glomerulonephritis, Acute (Follow-up)

processing > Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis Updated: Apr 08, 2016 Author: Bonnie Jean Brown, DO; Chief Editor: Steven C Dronen, MD, FAAEM Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis Overview Overview Acute glomerulonephritis requires prompt diagnosis, as it can rapidly progress to permanent kidney disease if left undiagnosed. Glomerulonephritis is the third most common cause of end-stage renal disease, following diabetes mellitus (...) and hypertension, [ ] and is responsible for about 15% of cases of end-stage renal disease. [ ] The emergency physician must consider acute glomerulonephritis in the differential diagnosis for patients that present with hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, peripheral edema, and/or acute pulmonary edema. Acute glomerulonephritis is defined as inflammation and subsequent damage of the glomeruli leading to hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia; it may be caused by primary renal disease or systemic conditions

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

170. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding with ANCA associated glomerulonephritis successfully treated by transarterial embolization Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding with ANCA associated glomerulonephritis successfully treated by transarterial embolization Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of autoimmune diseases that normally affects multiple organs. Recurrent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, a critical complication of AAV, remains a challenge. Here, we report a case of AAV complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage, severe recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, and rapid progressive renal (...) insufficiency that was treated successfully with selective transarterial embolization, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, plasma exchange, intravenous gamma globulin infusion, followed by steroids and cytotoxic drug therapy. We report this case considering that selective transarterial embolization may be a safe and effective alternative method in recurrent AAV associated GI bleeding caused by AAV refractory to medical therapy.

2013 Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences

171. Etiology-Based Diagnostic Approach to Proliferative Glomerulonephritis. (Abstract)

Etiology-Based Diagnostic Approach to Proliferative Glomerulonephritis. Proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) often is classified based on the pattern of injury. The pattern of injury does not reveal the underlying cause. New insights into the causes of proliferative GN suggest that determining the type of deposits is more likely to provide clues to the underlying cause than determining the pattern of injury. This article proposes a new classification of proliferative GN that links findings (...) from both immunofluorescence and light microscopy. The basis of the classification is whether the proliferative GN is immune complex mediated, pauci-immune, or complement mediated; the type of immunoglobulin deposits and complement factors then determine or suggest the underlying cause. One of the aims of the proposed classification system is to focus on the pathophysiology of the GN with emphasis on the underlying cause, leading to appropriate evaluation and management. The second aim

2013 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

172. Bartonella Endocarditis-Associated Glomerulonephritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. (Abstract)

are a known and relatively common cause of culture-negative endocarditis and have been associated with the development of endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis. We present a case of Bartonella endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis in which recognition of a characteristic immunofluorescent pattern and thorough investigation of the clinical history led to this uncommon diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (...) Bartonella Endocarditis-Associated Glomerulonephritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Infectious endocarditis is associated with a number of systemic manifestations, including kidney disease. Kidney manifestations, including hematuria, parenchymal infarction, and glomerulonephritis, may affect as many as 40%-50% of patients with infective endocarditis. In a minority of cases of infective endocarditis, routine bacterial cultures do not yield an offending organism. Bartonella species

2013 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

173. Monoclonal gammopathy-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

cell disorder can cause a proliferative glomerulonephritis via 2 mechanisms: (1) glomerular deposition of the monoclonal immunoglobulin with activation of the classical pathway of complement (direct mechanism), resulting in an immunoglobulin-positive C3-positive glomerulonephritis, and (2) glomerular deposition of complement factors of the alternative and terminal pathway via inhibition of alternative pathway-regulating proteins by the monoclonal immunoglobulin (indirect mechanism), resulting (...) Monoclonal gammopathy-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis. Monoclonal gammopathy is characterized by circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin owing to clonal proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes is seen in B-cell lymphoma/leukemia, and clonal plasma cell proliferation is seen in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The monoclonal immunoglobulin in the setting of a B-cell or plasma

2013 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

174. Proliferative Glomerulonephritis With Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposits in a Kidney Allograft. (Abstract)

Proliferative Glomerulonephritis With Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposits in a Kidney Allograft. Paraprotein may accumulate in glomeruli and cause kidney damage associated with variable histopathologic patterns and a characteristic immunofluorescence staining restricted to a single light chain and/or a single heavy chain isotype. Hence, such glomerular injury includes diseases caused by deposition of a monoclonal light chain, heavy chain, or entire immunoglobulin (light and heavy chains), which (...) may manifest as proliferative glomerulonephritis. In this report, we focus on the latter as the least characterized of the 3, particularly in the transplantation setting. We describe a case of late transplant dysfunction associated with glomerular immunoglobulin G1/κ deposits. We also present our experience with proliferative glomerulonephritis and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits in transplant and native kidney biopsies, with reference to the literature. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney

2013 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

175. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis: The Role for Laser Microdissection and Mass Spectrometry. (Abstract)

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis: The Role for Laser Microdissection and Mass Spectrometry. Monoclonal gammopathy is increasingly recognized as a common cause of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN); however, establishing this diagnosis can be challenging. We report the case of a 58-year-old asymptomatic woman who presented with proteinuria with protein excretion of 5,000mg/d, microscopic hematuria, and normal kidney function. Kidney biopsy was consistent with MPGN pattern (...) restriction), laser microdissection and mass spectrometry were performed on the kidney biopsy tissue. This identified the deposits as monoclonal IgG κ, thereby leading to the diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy-associated MPGN. Our case emphasizes the importance of searching for an underlying cause of MPGN, reviews the technique of laser microdissection-mass spectrometry, and highlights its application as a pathology tool for the evaluation of monoclonal gammopathy-related glomerulonephritis. Copyright ©

2013 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

176. Recurrent HIV-Associated Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis With Lupus-like Features After Kidney Transplantation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

glomerulonephritis with histologic features identical to lupus nephritis in the absence of clinical or serologic markers of lupus, is well recognized as a cause of end-stage renal disease in HIV-infected patients. None of the HIV-associated kidney lesions, whether classic HIVAN or non-HIVAN, has been reported to recur in kidney transplants. We report here for the first time clinical and histologic recurrence of HIV-associated lupus-like nephritis after successful kidney transplantation, causing proteinuria (...) Recurrent HIV-Associated Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis With Lupus-like Features After Kidney Transplantation. A spectrum of kidney diseases besides classic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) exists in HIV-infected patients. Immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of kidney disease in this population, particularly in patients of non-African descent. Lupus-like nephritis, a form of immune complex

2013 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

177. Effect of add-on pentoxifylline on proteinuria in membranous glomerulonephritis: a 6-month placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Effect of add-on pentoxifylline on proteinuria in membranous glomerulonephritis: a 6-month placebo-controlled trial. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) may cause proteinuria as the main complication and is a strong risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Current therapeutic regimens provide only partial renoprotection. Data derived from both animal and human studies provide a scientific basis for the use of pentoxifylline as an antiproteinuric agent.This study was designed to evaluate

2013 Clinical drug investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

178. [Clinical efficacy and safety of sequential treatment with alprostadil and beraprost sodium for chronic renal failure induced by chronic glomerulonephritis]. (Abstract)

[Clinical efficacy and safety of sequential treatment with alprostadil and beraprost sodium for chronic renal failure induced by chronic glomerulonephritis]. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of sequential treatment with alprostadil and beraprost sodium for chronic renal failure caused by chronic glomerulonephritis.Sixty-three patients with chronic renal failure due to chronic glomerulonephritis, after receiving a 2-week-long conventional treatment, were randomly divided (...) sodium can improve the glomerular filtration rate and decrease urine albumin excretion rate, serum creatinine increase rate, and lower blood fibrinogen and D-dimer levels, thus delaying the progression of chronic renal failure caused by chronic glomerulonephritis. This therapy shows a dose-related effect with good clinical safety.

2013 Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University Controlled trial quality: uncertain

179. Close relations between podocyte injuries and membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis in autoimmune murine models. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Close relations between podocyte injuries and membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis in autoimmune murine models. Membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a major primary cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Podocyte injury is crucial in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease with proteinuria, leading to CKD. To assess podocyte injuries in MPGN, the pathological features of spontaneous murine models were analyzed.The autoimmune-prone mice strains BXSB/MpJ-Yaa and B6.MRL

2013 American journal of nephrology

180. Predictors for outcomes in patients with severe ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis who were dialysis-dependent at presentation: a study of 89 cases in a single Chinese center. (Abstract)

Predictors for outcomes in patients with severe ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis who were dialysis-dependent at presentation: a study of 89 cases in a single Chinese center. Anti-neutrophilcytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis may cause rapid deterioration of renal function, resulting in high prevalence of end-stage renal disease and mortality. The current study investigated factors associated with restoration of renal function and early mortality in patients with severe ANCA (...) ) and therapy-related death (P=0.037 and P=0.043, respectively).Among patients with severe ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis who were dialysis-dependent at presentation, those with a higher percentage of normal glomeruli and less extent of tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis have more chance of restoration of renal function. Increased risk for all-cause death and therapy-related death appears to be older age and pulmonary hemorrhage.Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2013 Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism

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