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1. Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research (...) , molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb.The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar "Chunpoong" were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /, the first open-access platform to provide comprehensive genomic resources of P. ginseng. The current version of this database provides the most up-to-date draft genome sequence

2018 BMC plant biology

2. Seasonal Variation and Possible Biosynthetic Pathway of Ginsenosides in Korean Ginseng Panax ginseng Meyer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Seasonal Variation and Possible Biosynthetic Pathway of Ginsenosides in Korean Ginseng Panax ginseng Meyer Whereas Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is harvested in the fall, the variation of ginsenoside content in field-grown ginseng across seasonal development has never been investigated in Korea. Thus, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of nine major ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, and Ro, in the roots of five-year-old P (...) . ginseng cultivated in Bongwha, Korea in 2017 was performed. The total ginsenoside content changed as many as three times throughout the year, ranging from 1.37 ± 0.02 (dry wt %) in January to 4.26 ± 0.03% in May. Total ginsenoside content in the harvest season was 2.49 ± 0.03%. Seasonal variations of panaxadiol-type ginsenosides (PPD) and panaxatriol-type ginsenosides (PPT) were found to be similar, but more PPD was always measured. However, the seasonal variation of oleanolic acid-type ginsenoside

2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

3. Evolution, functional differentiation, and co-expression of the RLK gene family revealed in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolution, functional differentiation, and co-expression of the RLK gene family revealed in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Most genes in a genome exist in the form of a gene family; therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge of how a gene family functions to comprehensively understand organismal biology. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)-encoding gene family is one of the most important gene families in plants. It plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerances, and growth (...) and development. However, little is known about the functional differentiation and relationships among the gene members within a gene family in plants. This study has isolated 563 RLK genes (designated as PgRLK genes) expressed in Jilin ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), investigated their evolution, and deciphered their functional diversification and relationships. The PgRLK gene family is highly diverged and formed into eight types. The LRR type is the earliest and most prevalent, while only the Lec type

2018 Molecular Genetics and Genomics

4. Functional differentiation and spatial-temporal co-expression networks of the NBS-encoding gene family in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional differentiation and spatial-temporal co-expression networks of the NBS-encoding gene family in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS (...) genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes). Four hundred twelve PgNBS gene transcripts, derived from 284 gene models, were identified from the transcriptomes of 14 ginseng tissues. These genes were classified into eight types, including TNL, TN, CNL, CN, NL, N, RPW8-NL

2017 PLoS ONE

5. Are berries useless by-products of ginseng? Recent research on the potential health benefits of ginseng berry Full Text available with Trip Pro

Are berries useless by-products of ginseng? Recent research on the potential health benefits of ginseng berry 28827994 2019 01 15 1611-2156 16 2017 EXCLI journal EXCLI J Are berries useless by-products of ginseng? Recent research on the potential health benefits of ginseng berry. 780-784 10.17179/excli2017-376 Hyun Tae Kyung TK Department of Industrial Plant Science and Technology, College of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Republic (...) of Korea. Jang Keum-Il KI Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Republic of Korea. eng Journal Article 2017 05 22 Germany EXCLI J 101299402 1611-2156 2017 04 20 2017 05 17 2017 8 23 6 0 2017 8 23 6 0 2017 8 23 6 1 epublish 28827994 10.17179/excli2017-376 2017-376 Doc780 PMC5547390 Food Funct. 2016 May 18;7(5):2451-61 27161858 BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Nov 24;14:455 25418343 J Ginseng

2017 EXCLI journal

6. Fungal endophytes inhabiting mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): Diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fungal endophytes inhabiting mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): Diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens Fungal endophytes isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG, Panax ginseng Meyer) were explored for their diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens (Alternaria panax, Botrytis cinerea, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani). A total of 1,300 isolates were isolated from three tissues (root, stem and leaf) from (...) index and richness in the different tissues revealed that root tissues are colonized more than stem and leaf tissues, and also certain fungal endophytes are tissue specific. Assessment of the ethyl acetate extracts from 129 fungal isolates for their biocontrol activity against 5 ginseng pathogens revealed that Trichoderma polysporum produces the antimcriobial metabolite against all the pathogens. This result indicates the promise of its potential usage as a biocontrol agent.

2017 Scientific reports

7. American Ginseng and Asian Ginseng Intervention in Diet-Induced Obese Mice: Metabolomics Reveals Distinct Metabolic Profiles. (Abstract)

American Ginseng and Asian Ginseng Intervention in Diet-Induced Obese Mice: Metabolomics Reveals Distinct Metabolic Profiles. American ginseng and Asian ginseng, which occupy prominent positions in the list of best-selling natural products in the West and East, are suitable for different indications in the traditional pharmacological uses. Currently, the effects of American ginseng and Asian ginseng in the protection against metabolic dysfunction and the differences between them are still (...) unknown. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was determined. The serum metabolomics and dynamic feces metabolomics revealed significant metabolic distinction between American ginseng and Asian ginseng in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The results show that American ginseng and Asian ginseng alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in DIO mice. A total of 45 differential metabolites were confirmed between

2019 American Journal of Chinese Medicine

8. Target Molecular-Based Neuroactivity Screening and Analysis of <i>Panax ginseng</i> by Affinity Ultrafiltration, UPLC-QTOF-MS and Molecular Docking. (Abstract)

Target Molecular-Based Neuroactivity Screening and Analysis of Panax ginseng by Affinity Ultrafiltration, UPLC-QTOF-MS and Molecular Docking. Panax ginseng exerts good neuroprotective activity at the cell and animal level, but the specific bioactive compounds and action mechanism are needed to be investigated, verified, and confirmed. In this work, affinity ultrafiltration (AUF), UPLC-QTOF-MS, and molecular docking were integrated into one strategy to screen, identify, and evaluate (...) the bioactive compounds in ginseng at the molecular level. Three biological macromolecules (AChE, MAO-B, and NMDA receptor) were selected as the target protein for AUF-MS screening for the first time, and 16 potential neuroactive compounds were found with suitable binding degree. Then, the bioactivity of ginseng and its components were evaluated by AChE-inhibitory test and DPPH assay, and the data indicate that ginseng extract and the screened compounds have good neuroactivity. The interaction between

2019 American Journal of Chinese Medicine

9. Integrated Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology Study on Immunoregulation Mechanisms of <i>Panax ginseng</i> through Macrophages. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Integrated Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology Study on Immunoregulation Mechanisms of Panax ginseng through Macrophages. Panax ginseng (PG) is a widely used functional food and herbal with immunoregulation activity. Currently, immunoregulation studies of PG mainly focused on the specific actions of individual constituents. However, the integral immunoregulation mechanisms of PG need further research. In this study, an integrated metabolomics and network pharmacology approach were used

2019 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

10. Panax ginseng is superior to vitamin E as a hepatoprotector against cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. (Abstract)

Panax ginseng is superior to vitamin E as a hepatoprotector against cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. Cyclophosphamide (CPh) is a frequently used drug, in human and animals for its immunosuppressive and anticancer potential. However, it is metabolized by the liver yielding damaging toxicants (to the liver itself and other non-target vital organs) via oxidative stress, apoptosis induction and finally necrosis. Since there is no escaping of using such harmful medications, we focused (...) on alleviating its side-effects. Panax ginseng Meyer is a potent candidate, and we still lack adequate information on its hepatoprotective role against cyclophosphamide-induced liver-damage.Here, we used P. ginseng (Korean Red Ginseng) compared to vitamin-E (natural antioxidant) in combating CPh-induced liver damage. Forty-eight albino rats were divided into 6 groups, Control, Ginseng, Vitamin E, Cyclophosphamide (CPh), CPh + Ginseng or CPh + Vitamin-E. Blood samples were taken for biochemical analyses

2019 Complementary Therapies In Medicine

11. Ameliorative effect of Atractylodes macrocephala essential oil combined with Panax ginseng total saponins on 5-fluorouracil induced diarrhea is associated with gut microbial modulation. (Abstract)

Ameliorative effect of Atractylodes macrocephala essential oil combined with Panax ginseng total saponins on 5-fluorouracil induced diarrhea is associated with gut microbial modulation. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) holds that deficiency of spleen-Qi is the major pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Herb pair of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (AM) and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (PG) has good effects of supplementing Qi and strengthening spleen.To investigate therapeutic (...) effects and mechanism of Atractylodes macrocephala essential oil (AMO) and Panax ginseng total saponins (PGS) alone and in combination (AP) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy induced diarrhea in mice.The mice were administered with AMO, PGS and AP respectively for 11 days, and intraperitoneally injected with 5-FU for 6 days since the 3rd day of the experiment. During the experiment, the body weights and diarrhea scores of mice were recorded daily. Thymus and spleen indexes were calculated after

2019 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

12. <i>Panax ginseng</i> Inhibits Metabolism of Diester Alkaloids by Downregulating CYP3A4 Enzyme Activity via the Pregnane X Receptor. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Panax ginseng Inhibits Metabolism of Diester Alkaloids by Downregulating CYP3A4 Enzyme Activity via the Pregnane X Receptor. To investigate the effects of P. ginseng C.A. Mey (P. ginseng) on the metabolism of diester alkaloids and explore the potential mechanism. P. ginseng was administered orally to rats for 7 days, after which liver microsome samples were prepared and then incubated with diester alkaloids. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass (...) spectrometry was used to determinate the concentration of diester alkaloids to calculate the clearance rate. The cocktail method was used to evaluate the effects of oral administration of P. ginseng extracts on the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in rats through the changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of the probe drugs. The protein and gene expression of CYP3A2 and pregnane X receptor (PXR) in rats were evaluated by western blotting and quantitative PCR. The specific enzyme inhibitor

2019 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

13. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) inhibits obesity and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed castrated mice. (Abstract)

Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) inhibits obesity and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed castrated mice. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been historically used as a traditional drug for the prevention and treatment of most ageing-related diseases, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Elderly men with testosterone deficiency are strongly associated with many of the aforementioned metabolic diseases. The aim of this study (...) was to determine the effects of ginseng on obesity and lipid metabolism in a mouse model of testosterone deficiency (castrated C57BL/6J mice).The effects of ginseng extract (GE) on obesity and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed castrated C57BL/6J mice were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, serum lipid analysis, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effects of GE, ginsenosides, and testosterone on adipogenesis were measured using Oil Red O staining, XTT assay

2017 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

14. Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment with Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment with Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Seed dehiscence of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) is affected by moisture, temperature, storage conditions and microbes. Several microbes were isolated from completely dehisced seed coat of ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong and Younpoong at Gumsan, Korea. We investigated the potential of five Talaromyces flavus isolates from the dehiscence of ginseng seed in four traditional (...) stratification facilities. The isolates showed antagonistic activities against fungal plant pathogens, such as Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia nivalis, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora capsici. The dehiscence ratios of ginseng seed increased more than 33% by treatment of T. flavus GG01, GG02, GG04, GG12, and GG23 in comparison to control (28%). Among the treatments, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 showed the highest

2017 The Plant Pathology Journal

15. Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a "buried treasure medicine", is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have

2017 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

16. Genome-Wide Variation Patterns Uncover the Origin and Selection in Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genome-Wide Variation Patterns Uncover the Origin and Selection in Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view (...) of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions. In complement, the 45s rDNA, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were included to perform phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. The observed spatial genetic structure between northern cultivated ginseng (NCG) and southern cultivated ginseng (SCG) accessions suggested multiple independent

2017 Genome biology and evolution

17. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated (...) the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g-1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng

2017 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

18. An investigation of Panax ginseng Meyer growth promotion and the biocontrol potential of antagonistic bacteria against ginseng black spot Full Text available with Trip Pro

An investigation of Panax ginseng Meyer growth promotion and the biocontrol potential of antagonistic bacteria against ginseng black spot Ginseng black spot disease resulting from Alternaria panax Whuetz is a common soil-borne disease, with an annual incidence rate higher than 20-30%. In this study, the bacterial strains with good antagonistic effect against A. panax are screened.A total of 285 bacterial strains isolated from ginseng rhizosphere soils were screened using the Kirby-Bauer disk (...) rate against A. panax, which showed 83.70% inhibition, and it also provided broad-spectrum antifungal effects. The inhibition efficacies of the SZ-22 bacterial suspension against ginseng black spot reached 82.47% inhibition, which is significantly higher than that of the 25% suspension concentrate azoxystrobin fungicide treatment (p < 0.05). Moreover, the SZ-22 bacterial suspension also caused ginseng plant growth promotion as well as root enhancement.Although the results of the outdoor pot-culture

2017 Journal of Ginseng Research

19. Ameliorative Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Action of Black Ginseng (Panax ginseng) on Acetaminophen-Mediated Liver Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ameliorative Effects and Possible Molecular Mechanism of Action of Black Ginseng (Panax ginseng) on Acetaminophen-Mediated Liver Injury Background: Frequent overdosing of acetaminophen (APAP) has become the major cause of acute liver injury (ALI). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of black ginseng (BG) on APAP-induced mice liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms of action were further investigated for the first time. Methods: Mice were treated

2017 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

20. A proteomic approach reveals the differential protein expression in Drosophila melanogaster treated with red ginseng extract (Panax ginseng) Full Text available with Trip Pro

A proteomic approach reveals the differential protein expression in Drosophila melanogaster treated with red ginseng extract (Panax ginseng) Red ginseng is a popularly used traditional medicine with antiaging effects in Asian countries. The present study aimed to explore the changes in protein expression underlying the mechanisms of life span extension and antiaging caused by red ginseng extract (RGE) in Drosophila melanogaster.A proteomic approach of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel

2017 Journal of Ginseng Research

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