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11961. Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Infirmary in 1744. They afford a fascinating glimpse into both inpatient and outpatient child health. Although there are no medical notes as such, the hospital archive has recently rediscovered 1743 statutes, contemporary patient literature entitled Some Friendly Advice to a Patient (written by the Northampton Infirmary's founding physician Dr (later Sir) James Stonhouse), minute books, contemporary engravings of the outside and inside of the hospital and inpatient menus. Thus we can speculate (...) Four candles. Original perspectives and insights into 18th century hospital child healthcare. It has only recently been recognised that for more than a century before the opening of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (1852) children were treated and even admitted in English Voluntary Hospitals. Among the earliest English 18th century records, that contain the patient's age, are those found at the Northampton General Hospital within an archive dating from its foundation as the Northampton

2007 Archives of Disease in Childhood

11962. Society of Gynecologic Investigation: what gets published? (Abstract)

was used to search for authors and subject topics, if needed. Rates of publication in various journals were compared: group 1: weekly general journals (New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM], Journal of the American Medical Association [JAMA], Nature); group 2: monthly obstetrics/gynecology journals (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology); and group 3: other journals (Placenta, Journal of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Fertility and Sterility, etc). Factors predicting (...) Society of Gynecologic Investigation: what gets published? To compare publication rates of the plenary slide presentations (plenary), concurrent slide presentations (concurrent), and poster presentations (poster) at Society for Gynecologic Investigation (SGI) meetings for the interval 1990 to 1999.The SGI program and abstract books for years 1990-1999 were examined, with all plenary and twice the number of randomly selected concurrent and poster abstracts identified. For each abstract, PUBMED

2004 Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation

11963. Conscious sedation guidance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conscious sedation guidance. This guidance is intended to promote good clinical practice for the provision in dentistry of conscious sedation that is both safe and effective. It is not a recipe book for sedation and therefore does not include details of drug dosages. The recommendations are applicable to all patients receiving conscious sedation, to facilitate the provision of any type of dental treatment whether it is delivered in a dental practice, a community dental service clinic (...) or a hospital setting. It also covers the provision of conscious sedation for dental treatment provided on a domiciliary basis. Specifically excluded from this guidance, however, are patients who require assisted ventilation, intensive care sedation, premedication for general anaesthesia, postoperative analgesia, sedation in palliative care, night sedation and sedation in the home setting other than for the provision of dental treatment on a domiciliary basis.Existing guidelines, relevant systematic reviews

2006 Evidence Based Dentistry

11964. Patient choice of primary care practitioner for orofacial symptoms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, 220 correctly completed questionnaires were received. This showed 69% of patients regarded medical practitioners as being better trained to diagnose and treat non-dental orofacial symptoms. Eighty percent of patients regarded medical practitioners as being more accessible when booking an appointment. Seventy-eight percent of patients did not regard charges for dental care as being an important factor when deciding which practitioner they should consult.Despite the significant differences between (...) medical and dental practitioners in undergraduate and postgraduate training in orofacial disease, most patients would choose to visit a medical rather than dental practitioner. While these results suggest the need for postgraduate educational support for medical practitioners in treating orofacial pain and oral mucosal disease, they also imply a need for change in the concept of provision of oral healthcare by general dental practitioners.

2008 British Dental Journal

11965. Willan's itch and other causes of pruritus in the elderly. (Abstract)

of the founders of modern dermatology thanks to his book, On Cutaneous Diseases, and its morphological approach to skin disease. He was probably the first to give a good clinical description of itching in the elderly. The diagnosis of Willan's itch should be reserved for generalized pruritus in the absence of xerosis or other recognizable cause. The pathophysiology of this form of pruritus is poorly understood, but it is likely that age-related changes of the skin, cutaneous nerves, and other parts (...) . If primary lesions are present, a skin biopsy can enable a diagnosis to be made. Systemic causes of itch, such as cholestasis, uremia, hyperthyroidism, medications, or lymphoma, must be considered. If the cause remains elusive, idiopathic itching of the elderly or so-called "senile pruritus" may be considered. However, we propose to discard the term "senile pruritus", which can be offensive and frightening. We propose to replace it with "Willan's itch". Robert Willan (1757-1812) is honored as one

2005 International Journal of Dermatology

11966. Are we underestimating diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation rates? Results and benefits of the first prospective study. (Abstract)

inpatients with foot problems were identified and followed-up until discharge or death. The demographic and admission details, medical history, investigations, procedures, and history and etiology of the foot lesion were collected twice weekly by a specialist nurse and podiatrist from all relevant wards. Thus, all subjects who underwent amputation could be identified. For comparison, retrospective data were collected from the hospital coding activities database, operating theater log books, anesthetic (...) Are we underestimating diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation rates? Results and benefits of the first prospective study. The objective of this study was to accurately determine the incidence of lower-extremity amputation using prospective data collection and to compare the results with those obtained by retrospective methods.The study was carried out over a 3-year period in a large district general hospital covering a clearly defined and relatively static population. All diabetic

2004 Diabetes Care

11967. The dilemma of menopause and hormone replacement--a challenge for women and health-care providers: knowledge of menopause and hormone therapy in Spanish menopausal women. (Abstract)

menstruation, cessation of menstruation, irritability and mood changes. Following suggestions of other symptoms by the interviewer, other complaints such as vaginal dryness, insomnia and depression/anxiety were also mentioned. HRT and phytoestrogens were recognized as treatments for the climacteric by most of the women. A woman's decision to seek treatment was initiated in 77% of cases by the gynecologist, in 12% by the general practitioner, in 3% by friends/family and in 3% by books/magazines. The most (...) frequent responses of women to the onset of menopausal symptoms were to talk with their partner (39%), to discuss it with their gynecologist (33%) or with their general practitioner (14%) and to talk with their friends/family or to read books/magazines (10%).Vasomotor symptoms are recognized as the main complaint during the climacteric and HRT and phytoestrogens as the main therapies. Gynecologists play an important role in assuring compliance with therapies related to the menopause.

2006 Climacteric

11968. Terminology used to describe volume expanding resuscitation fluid. (Abstract)

Terminology used to describe volume expanding resuscitation fluid. Many published reports state that the type of resuscitation fluid to be used for volume expansion should be "isotonic crystalloid" or "isotonic fluid". Generally, this terminology refers to normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solution. This terminology is suboptimal technically since not all "isotonic" crystalloids are sufficient volume expanders. A total of 48 reference books from the areas of general pediatrics (...) , pediatric emergency medicine, emergency medicine, pediatric critical care, pediatric surgery, general surgery, internal medicine, family medicine, adult critical care, obstetrics and gynecology, endocrinology, and life support course manuals were reviewed. The description of fluids for hypovolemic shock, trauma, and diabetic ketoacidosis resuscitation was accurate in 46% of the time.

2006 Resuscitation

11969. Biofilms in ear, nose, and throat infections: how important are they? Full Text available with Trip Pro

to biofilm formation and to discuss options for future treatment.Literature review from Medline and database sources. Electronic links and related books were also included.Controlled clinical trials, animal models, ex vivo models, laboratory studies, retrospective studies, and systematic reviews.Biofilm formation is a dynamic five-step process guided by interbacterial communicating systems. Bacteria in biofilms express different genes and have markedly different phenotypes from their planktonic (...) counterparts. Detachment of cells, production of endotoxin, increased resistance to the host immune system, and provision of a niche for the generation of resistant organisms are biofilm processes that could initiate the infection process. Effective prevention and management strategies include interruption of quorum sensing, inhibition of related genes, disruption of the protective extrapolymer matrix, macrolides (clarithromycin and erythromycin), and mechanical debridement of the biofilm-bearing tissues

2007 Laryngoscope

11970. A randomised trial of three methods of giving information about prenatal testing. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomised trial of three methods of giving information about prenatal testing. To test the effect of extra non-directive information about prenatal testing, given individually or in a class.Antenatal clinics in a district general hospital and a university hospital.Randomised controlled trial; participants allocated to control group or offer of extra information individually or in class.1691 women booking antenatal care before 15 weeks' gestation.All participants received the usual (...) ). Women offered extra information had improved understanding and were more satisfied with information received; satisfaction with decisions about prenatal testing was unchanged. The offer of individual information reduced anxiety later in pregnancy.Ultrasonography is valued for non-medical reasons and chosen even by fully informed people who eschew prenatal diagnosis. The offer of extra information has no overall adverse effects on anxiety and reduces uptake of blood tests when background uptake rate

1995 BMJ Controlled trial quality: predicted high

11971. Reflexology - Level of Evidence

on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful. In this article In This Article Complementary and Alternative Medicine In this article Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine. Complementary medicine is generally regarded as additional treatment that is used alongside conventional medicine, whereas alternative medicine (...) Reflexology - Level of Evidence Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM information. Patient | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Complementary and Alternative Medicine Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 11 Feb 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based

2008 Mentor

11972. Records, Computers and Electronic Health Record

/Royal College of General Practitioners/British Medical Association, version 4, 2011 ; Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) ; Health & Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) ; Health and Social Care Information Centre ; Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) l have constant loose bowel movements and weight loss and loss of appetite. my doctor has put me on an urgent appointment for a camera scan of my stomach and bowel at my local hospital. l telephoned... david24438 Health (...) Records, Computers and Electronic Health Record Records, Computers and Electronic Health Records | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Electronic Patient Records Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 2 Apr 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research

2008 Mentor

11973. Pseudomonas

Wound Spec. 2013 Jan 224(1):7-12. eCollection 2012 Mar. ; Medical Books Online, 2012 ; Gas-forming bacterial peritonitis mimics hollow organ perforation. Am J Emerg Med. 2008 Sep26(7):838.e3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2008.01.034. ; Necrotizing soft tissue infection of the breast: case report and literature review. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2012 Aug13(4):270-5. doi: 10.1089/sur.2011.029. Epub 2012 Aug 7. ; Vaccines for Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a long and winding road. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014 Apr13(4):507 (...) Pseudomonas Pseudomonas | Doctor | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Pseudomonas Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 23 Jun 2014 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful

2008 Mentor

11974. Social Isolation - How to Help Patients be Less Lonely

Social Isolation - How to Help Patients be Less Lonely Social Isolation - How to Help Patients be Less Lonely | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Social Isolation - How to Help Patients be Less Lonely Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 28 Dec 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use (...) if they have no visitors. General practitioners and community nurses are in a unique position to identify loneliness, as they are in contact with the three groups most at risk - ie very old people, bereaved people, and people with disabilities. Epidemiology In the UK, only 17% of older people are in contact with family, friends and neighbours less than once a week, and 11% in contact less than once a month [ ] . Loneliness is common in carers, especially resident carers. Other groups at risk of loneliness

2008 Mentor

11975. Small for Gestational Age (SGA) Babies

and essential hypertension. See also separate article for more information. Risk assessment All women should be assessed at booking for risk factors for an SGA fetus/neonate to identify those who require increased surveillance. Risk assessment must always be individualised, taking into account previous medical and obstetric history and current pregnancy history. Minor risk factors Maternal age ≥35 years. IVF singleton pregnancy. Nulliparity. BMI <20. BMI 25-34.9. Smoker - 1-10 cigarettes per day. Low fruit (...) Small for Gestational Age (SGA) Babies Small for Gestational Age Babies. About SGA Babies | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Small for Gestational Age Babies Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 21 Oct 2016 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research

2008 Mentor

11976. Postnatal Depression

to confirm your preferences. Further reading and references ; University of California, San Francisco ; Royal College of General Practitioners ; Motherhood and mental illness--part 2--management and medications. Aust Fam Physician. 2009 Sep38(9):688-92. ; Depression drug treatment outcomes in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep124(3):526-34. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000410. ; Antenatal and postnatal mental health: summary of updated NICE (...) Postnatal Depression Postnatal Depression. Depression symptoms in women | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Postnatal Depression Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 23 Feb 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European

2008 Mentor

11977. Keeping Up-to-date

Keeping Up-to-date Keeping Up-to-Date. Primary care and general practice | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Keeping Up to Date Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 29 May 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European (...) Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful. In this article In This Article Keeping Up to Date In this article Trying to keep up to date often feels like a daunting challenge with a relentless tide of new information to absorb. A careful evaluation of needs and priorities and using a are therefore essential to keep up to date but also to avoid information overload. General Medical Council Guidance on Keeping Up to Date You must keep your professional knowledge and skills up to date. You must

2008 Mentor

11978. Junctional Tachycardias

Junctional Tachycardias Junctional Tachycardias. Learn about Junctional Tachycardias | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Paediatric Supraventricular Tachycardia Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 3 Aug 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research (...) common rhythm disturbance seen in children. Most general practitioners will deal with a case at some point. While in most cases SVT can be considered a benign rhythm disorder, special consideration needs to be given to infants, athletes and patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Understanding what causes supraventricular tachycardia [ ] Normal electrical circuit of the heart The cardiac conduction system extends from the atrial to the ventricular myocardium but the atria and ventricles

2008 Mentor

11979. Is this new treatment any good?

and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find the article more useful, or one of our other . In this article In This Article Therapies and Theories Outside Traditional Medicine In this article There is a growing disenchantment with conventional medicine, reflected by increasing sales of alternative remedies and therapies to the general public. The reasons for this are multifactorial but concerns about medical errors, reports of the side-effects of prescribed drugs and a desire (...) Is this new treatment any good? Therapies and Theories Outside Traditional Medicine | Doctor | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Therapies and Theories Outside Traditional Medicine Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 6 Feb 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors

2008 Mentor

11980. Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)

things that have happened recently? 3. Recalling conversations a few days later? 4. Remembering his/her address and telephone number? 5. Remembering what day and month it is? 6. Remembering where things are usually kept? 7. Remembering where to find things which have been put in a different place from usual? 8. Knowing how to work familiar machines around the house? 9. Learning to use a new gadget or machine around the house? 10. Learning new things in general? 11. Following a story in a book (...) Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) | Doctor | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors

2008 Mentor

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