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10981. Thomas Wakley Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and further plaques in the grounds of the Harefield Hospital in Uxbridge, Land Farm in Membury, and Membury parish church . Lancet years [ ] In 1823, he started the now well-known medical weekly, , with , , and a libel lawyer as associates. It was extremely successful: by 1830, it had a circulation of about 4,000. In 1828, one of his accounts of medical negligence accused Bransby Cooper (the nephew of Sir , the General Surgeon) of incompetence in causing a patient immense suffering as he attempted (...) Faculty : the LCM was to include physicians, surgeons and general practitioners; teachers at private medical schools and naval surgeons would also be included. Secondly, the structure was to be democratic: there would be no restrictions by religion (e.g. the Anglican restrictions of Oxford and Cambridge Universities) or by institution (e.g. membership of hospitals). Its officers and Senate would be decided by annual ballot. The cost of diplomas would be set low; those already qualilfied would

2012 Wikipedia

10982. Quetiapine

to its . It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include sleepiness, , weight gain, and . Other side effects include , , a , , , and . In older people with , its use increases the risk of death. Use in the of may result in a in the baby for some time after birth. Quetiapine is believed to work by blocking a number of receptors including and . Quetiapine was developed in 1985 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1997. It is available as a . In the United States, the wholesale cost (...) is about US$ 12 per month as of 2017. In the United Kingdom, a month's supply costs the about £60 as of 2017. In 2016, it was the 86th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 8 million prescriptions. Contents Medical uses Quetiapine (Seroquel) 25 mg tablets, next to coin for comparison. Seroquel XR 150 mg tablet box Quetiapine is primarily used to treat schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Quitapine targets both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia A 2013

2012 Wikipedia

10983. Pyloric stenosis

and . This is then typically followed by surgery. Results are generally good both in the short term and in the long term. Some treat the condition without surgery by using . About one to two per thousand babies are affected. Males are affected about four times more often than females. The condition is very rare in adults. The first description of pyloric stenosis was in 1888 with surgery management first carried out in 1912 by . Before surgical treatment most babies died. Contents Signs and symptoms [ ] Babies (...) ) from persistent vomiting. There will be exchange of extracellular potassium with intracellular hydrogen ions in an attempt to correct the pH imbalance. These findings can be seen with severe vomiting from any cause. Treatment [ ] Vertical Pyloromyotomy scar (large) 30 hrs post-op in a one-month-old baby Horizontal Pyloromyotomy scar 10 days post-op in a one-month-old baby Infantile pyloric stenosis is typically managed with surgery; very few cases are mild enough to be treated medically. The danger

2012 Wikipedia

10984. Q fever Full Text available with Trip Pro

vaccine developed by an Australian vaccine manufacturing company, . The intradermal vaccination is composed of killed C. burnetii organisms. Skin and blood tests should be done before vaccination to identify pre-existing immunity, because vaccinating people who already have an immunity can result in a severe local reaction. After a single dose of vaccine, protective immunity lasts for many years. Revaccination is not generally required. Annual screening is typically recommended. In 2001, Australia (...) of the early films (1939, ). Kildare's mentor Dr. Gillespie ( ) tires of his protégé working fruitlessly on "exotic diagnoses" ("I think it's Q fever!") and sends him to work in a neighborhood clinic, instead. Q fever was also highlighted in an episode of the U.S. television medical drama (" ", season seven, episode 18). Biological warfare [ ] C burnetii has been developed as a . The United States investigated it as a potential biological warfare agent in the 1950s, with eventual standardization as agent

2012 Wikipedia

10985. Pulvermacher's chain

of wrapping the device around an affected limb would make it useless since a conductive path through the skin across each cell would prevent a useful voltage being developed at the terminals (Pulvermacher even suggests in his patent that contact with the body generates enough electricity to be effective even without electrolyte ). This resulted in the Journal removing the Pulvermacher advertisements from its pages. The Association Medical Journal was quickly followed by the Medical Times and with growing (...) pressure on The Lancet to do the same this pretty much ended professional medical support for the device, at least for the time being. Despite this inauspicious start with the medical profession, the Pulvermacher chain continued to be described in scientific and medical journals and books as a useful tool throughout the late 1850s and 1860s, even being mentioned in the proceedings of the . Even Bird, at the height of his dispute with the Pulvermacher company found himself able to say "the battery

2012 Wikipedia

10986. Premenstrual syndrome

symptoms. support has been used for many years but evidence of its efficacy is inadequate. can be useful in severe forms of P.M.S., but have their own set of significant potential side effects. Alternative medicine [ ] Tentative evidence supports and . Evidence does not support the use of , soy, , and . may be useful. Prognosis [ ] P.M.S. is generally a stable diagnosis, with susceptible women experiencing the same symptoms at the same intensity near the end of each cycle for years. Treatment (...) Premenstrual syndrome Premenstrual syndrome - Wikipedia Premenstrual syndrome From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "PMS" redirects here. For other uses, see . Premenstrual syndrome , Symptoms , tender breasts, bloating, feeling tired, mood changes Usual onset 1–2 weeks before Duration 6 days Causes Unknown High-salt diet, , Based on symptoms Treatment Lifestyle changes, medication Medication and supplementation, , Frequency ~25% of women Premenstrual syndrome ( P.M.S. ) refers to physical

2012 Wikipedia

10987. Massage

and aromatic substances is mentioned as a means to relax the tired limbs of warriors and a way to help the treatment of wounds," BC 700 , the earliest known Chinese physician uses massage in medical practice. BC 500 , also known as Shivago Komarpaj, the founder of (Nuad Boran) and Thai medicine. [ ] According to the Pāli Canon, Jivaka was 's physician. [ ] He codified a healing system that combines , , and assisted postures. [ ] Traditional Thai massage is generally based on a combination of Indian (...) and medieval times Archaeological evidence of massage has been found in many ancient civilizations including , , , , , , , and . BC 2330: The Tomb of Akmanthor (also known as "The Tomb of the Physician") in , Egypt depicts two men having work done on their feet and hands, presumably massage. Akmanthor BC 722-481: is composed during the Chinese . The Nei-jing is a compilation of medical knowledge known up to that date, and is the foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Massage is referred to in 30

2012 Wikipedia

10988. Marcellus Empiricus

that this Marcellus is likely to have been a son or near descendant of the medical writer, since the family of an inlustris is most likely to have possessed the wealth for such a generous contribution. The donor had served for two years as of Gaul. Assuming that the man would have been a native, Matthews weighs this piece of evidence with the Athaulf anecdote from Orosius to situate the author of the De medicamentis in the Narbonensis, but this is a minority view. The Book of Medicaments [ ] Marcellus begins (...) forth as the likely bearer of the Athaulf declaration. Medical background [ ] It is not unreasonable but also not necessary to conclude that Marcellus was a practicing physician. In his , the of magic and medicine pronounced him the “court physician” of Theodosius I, but the evidence is thin: Libanius, if referring to this Marcellus, praises his ability to cure a headache. The prevailing view is that Marcellus should be categorized as a medical writer and not a physician. A translator of the medical

2012 Wikipedia

10989. Marburg virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

, do not possess a , are not , and are not linked to a . Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 long and contain seven in the order - NP - VP35 - VP40 - GP - VP30 - VP24 - L - . Structure [ ] CryoEM reconstruction of a section of the Marburg virus . entry Like all , marburgvirions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd's crook or in the shape of a "U" or a "6", and they may be coiled, toroid, or branched. Marburgvirions are generally 80 nm in , but vary somewhat (...) in length. In general, the median particle length of marburgviruses ranges from 795 to 828 nm (in contrast to , whose median particle length was measured to be 974–1,086 nm ), but particles as long as 14,000 nm have been detected in tissue culture. Marburgvirions consist of seven structural proteins. At the center is the , which consists of the genomic RNA wrapped around a of (NP). Associated with the ribonucleoprotein is the (L) with the polymerase cofactor (VP35) and a transcription activator (VP30

2012 Wikipedia

10990. Metabolism

to transfer chemical energy between different chemical reactions. There is only a small amount of ATP in cells, but as it is continuously regenerated, the human body can use about its own weight in ATP per day. ATP acts as a bridge between and . Catabolism breaks down molecules, and anabolism puts them together. Catabolic reactions generate ATP, and anabolic reactions consume it. It also serves as a carrier of phosphate groups in reactions. A is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot (...) such as and are converted into and some ATP is generated. Pyruvate is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, but the majority is converted to through aerobic (with oxygen) glycolysis and fed into the . Although some more ATP is generated in the citric acid cycle, the most important product is NADH, which is made from NAD + as the acetyl-CoA is oxidized. This oxidation releases as a waste product. In anaerobic conditions, glycolysis produces , through the enzyme re-oxidizing NADH to NAD+ for re-use in glycolysis

2012 Wikipedia

10991. Michael Woodruff Full Text available with Trip Pro

year, and served as a house surgeon at the . Woodruff then started his surgical training. World War II [ ] At the outbreak of , Woodruff joined the . He stayed in Melbourne until he finished his Degree in 1941. At that time, he was assigned to the Tenth Australian Army General Hospital in as a in the Medical Corps. According to Woodruff, his time in Malaya was quiet and relatively leisurely as the war in the Pacific was yet to begin in earnest. However, after the changed the situation and he (...) 1960. Both twins lived an additional six years before dying of an unrelated disease. Woodruff thought that he had to be vigilant with his first kidney transplant, as he regarded the British medical community's attitude to be conservative towards transplantation. From then until his retirement in 1976, he performed 127 kidney transplants. Also in 1960, Woodruff published The Transplantation of Tissues and Organs , a comprehensive survey of transplant biology and one of seven books he wrote. He

2012 Wikipedia

10992. Autism

, and the limited research on the effectiveness of adult residential programs shows mixed results. The appropriateness of including children with varying severity of autism spectrum disorders in the general education population is a subject of current debate among educators and researchers. Medication Medications may be used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails. They may also be used for associated health problems, such as or . More (...) Duration Long-term Causes and environmental factors Based on behavior and developmental history , , Treatment , , Medication , , (associated symptoms) Prognosis Frequently poor Frequency 24.8 million (2015) Autism is a characterized by difficulties with and and by restricted and repetitive . Parents usually notice signs during the first three years of their child's life. These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their at a normal pace before . Autism is associated

2012 Wikipedia

10993. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies

. The New York Review of Books . Retrieved 2009-07-21 . Marcia Angell is a Senior Lecturer in Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. A physician, she is a former Editor in Chief of The New England Journal of Medicine. Angell, Marcia (15 January 2009). . The New York Review of Books . Retrieved 2009-07-21 . Carey, Benedict (2006-12-22). . The New York Times . Retrieved 2010-04-25 . Carey, Benedict (2006-11-11). . The New York Times . Retrieved 2010-04-25 . (PDF) . NIH Consens Statement . National (...) [ ] The validity of the work of many of the ADHD experts (including Biederman) has been called into question by Marcia Angell, former editor in chief of the , in her book review, "Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption." Newspaper columnists such as , science and medical writer for The New York Times , have also written controversial articles on ADHD. In 1998, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) released a consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. The statement, while

2012 Wikipedia

10994. Auditory processing disorder

recognition; temporal aspects of audition, including temporal integration, temporal discrimination (e.g., temporal gap detection), temporal ordering, and ; auditory performance in competing acoustic signals (including ); and auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals". The Committee of UK Medical Professionals Steering the UK Auditory Processing Disorder Research Program have developed the following working definition of Auditory Processing Disorder: "APD results from impaired neural function (...) and is characterized by poor recognition, discrimination, separation, grouping, localization, or ordering of speech sounds. It does not solely result from a deficit in general attention, language or other cognitive processes." Types of testing [ ] 1. for adolescents and adults are the most common tools for screening and diagnosing APD in the USA. Both tests are standardized on a large number of subjects and include validation data on subjects with auditory processing disorders. The test batteries include screening

2012 Wikipedia

10995. Athetosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

that training a person to relearn movements can be helpful in select situations. Though, generally, this type of treatment will not work, in certain cases it can be found to be very helpful in treating the symptom of athetosis. Drugs can also be used in the treatment of athetosis, however their collective effectiveness is not very convincing. There is not a single drug that is a standard among treatment. Many different medicines can be used, including: , though not practical due to respiratory paralysis (...) , the extent of the uncontrolled movement was limited to the fingers and toes. In association with this, he noted that the patients' calves and forearms were oftentimes flexed and that movements were generally slow. Over the period of time leading into the late 20th century, the definition of athetosis was expanded to include movements of the neck, tongue, face, and even the trunk. Along with the expansion of the symptoms came the recognition that it was a part of many medical conditions, including

2012 Wikipedia

10996. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

to focus on and complete tasks such as schoolwork. , Symptoms , excessive activity, Usual onset Before age 6–12 Duration >6 months Causes Both and Based on symptoms after other possible causes ruled out Normally active young child, , , , Treatment , lifestyle changes, medications Medication , , Frequency 51.1 million (2015) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) is a of the type. It is characterized by , excessive activity, and which is not . There are also often problems with regulation (...) of normative behaviors. recommendations vary by country and usually involve some combination of , lifestyle changes, and medications. The British guideline only recommends medications as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and for medication to be considered in those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling, though for adults medications are a first-line treatment. Canadian and American guidelines recommend that medications and behavioral therapy

2012 Wikipedia

10997. Ataxia telangiectasia

relationships should be monitored carefully. Physical therapy is useful to maintain strength and general cardiovascular health. Horseback therapy and exercises in a swimming pool are often well-tolerated and fun for people with A–T. However, no amount of practice will slow the cerebellar degeneration or improve neurologic function. Exercise to the point of exhaustion should be avoided. Hearing is normal throughout life. Books on tape may be a useful adjunct to traditional school materials. Early use (...) for the development of breast cancer compared to the general population. This includes all mothers of A–T children and some female relatives. Current consensus is that special screening tests are not helpful, but all women should have routine cancer surveillance. Skin [ ] A–T can cause features of early aging such as premature graying of the hair. It can also cause (an auto-immune disease causing loss of skin pigment resulting in a blotchy “bleach-splashed” look), and warts which can be extensive and recalcitrant

2012 Wikipedia

10998. Assisted reproductive technology Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The term "liberal eugenics" was coined by bioethicist . Liberal eugenics is aimed at "improving" the genotypes of future generations through screening and genetic modification to eliminate "undesirable" traits. The term "reprogenetics" was coined by , a professor of at , in his 1997 book Remaking Eden . The philosophical movement associated with these speculative uses is . When is discussed in this context it usually in context of allowing parents to select desirable traits in an unborn child (...) . . 129954761. Agar, Nicholas (2006). . ActionBioscience.org . ^ Smith, Kevin R.; Chan, Sarah; Harris, John (2012). . Archives of Medical Research . 43 (7): 491–513. : . . Ishii, T (August 2015). "Germline genome-editing research and its socioethical implications". Trends in Molecular Medicine . 21 (8): 473–81. : . . Lanphier, Edward; Urnov, Fyodor; Haecker, Sarah Ehlen; Werner, Michael; Smolenski, Joanna (2015-03-26). . Nature . 519 (7544): 410–411. : . : . . Cohen, I. Glenn; Adashi, Eli Y. (2016-08-05

2012 Wikipedia

10999. Ashutosh Tewari Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cancer-Urologic Oncology Outcomes at the Brady Urology Foundation of . He is a tenured Professor of Urology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. In addition, Tewari directs a program in Robotic Prostatectomy and Prostate Cancer Outcomes that has conducted research comparing robotic surgery outcomes versus those of and open surgeries. Tewari is an Attending at the in . Medical degree [ ] Receiving his from (GSVM) in city of , India, Tewari graduated with honors in 1984 with 17 gold academic (...) harmonic generation, 2009 Best Scientific Paper (Urology) Award, Society of Laporoendoscopic Surgeons, Orlando, Florida, 2008 Grand Prize, International College of Surgeons Research Essay Award, 2008 Best Basic Science Research Abstract Award, Sexual Medicine Society of North America Annual Meeting, 2008 Best Research Abstract, American Urological Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 2008 First Prize Winner, Anatomic foundations for nerve sparing robotic prostatectomy: Correlations between

2012 Wikipedia

11000. Aspartame controversy

been followed properly for aspartame. The irregularities fueled a , which the "Nancy Markle" email hoax circulated, along with claims — counter to the weight of medical evidence — that numerous health conditions (such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus, , blindness, spasms, shooting pains, seizures, headaches, depression, anxiety, memory loss, birth defects, and death ) are caused by the consumption of aspartame in normal doses. Aspartame is a of the / . Potential health risks have been examined (...) by then FDA Commissioner Alexander Schmidt after review by the FDA's . Searle had submitted 168 studies : 20 on aspartame, including seven animal studies that were considered crucial by the FDA. : 21 Soon afterwards, , a professor of psychiatry and prominent critic of , along with James Turner, a public-interest lawyer and author of an anti-food-additive book, filed a petition for a public hearing, citing safety concerns. : 38 : 63–4 Other criticisms presented in the 1996 60 Minutes special of the Searle

2012 Wikipedia

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