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Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis

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1. Gastrointestinal CMV Disease and Tuberculosis in an AIDS Patient: Synergistic Interaction between Opportunistic Coinfections (PubMed)

Gastrointestinal CMV Disease and Tuberculosis in an AIDS Patient: Synergistic Interaction between Opportunistic Coinfections The AIDS pandemic has made diseases such as tuberculosis, CMV disease, and other opportunistic infections more prevalent; these diseases may even be found to be associated among themselves, and the natural history of each disease may present in an unusual manner. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with HIV (CD4 of 144 cells/dL) and HCV with hematochezia due (...) to tuberculosis in the ileocecal valve and descending colon and CMV tissue invasive disease in the esophagus and descending colon. Coinfection among tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus in the gastrointestinal tract was described only once in a patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV that affected the distal ileum and ascending colon. We will discuss the peculiarities of the case and the behavior of the immune system in the face of simultaneous opportunistic infections. This is a challenging scenario that has

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2018 Case reports in medicine

2. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Presenting as Malnutrition and Distal Colonic Bowel Obstruction (PubMed)

Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Presenting as Malnutrition and Distal Colonic Bowel Obstruction Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) is rare and can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or as a primary infection with no pulmonary symptoms. It typically presents with vague abdominal symptoms, making it difficult to discern from alternative disease processes. Although the ileocecal region is the most commonly affected site, tuberculous enteritis can involve any aspect of the GI tract

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2018 Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine

3. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis following renal transplantation accompanied with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a survival case presentation. (PubMed)

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis following renal transplantation accompanied with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a survival case presentation. Post-transplant tuberculosis (PTTB) is a serious opportunistic infection in renal graft recipients with a 30-70 fold higher incidence compared to the general population. PTTB occurs most frequently within the first years after transplantation, manifesting as pulmonary or disseminated TB. Gastrointestinal TB (GITB) is a rare

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2017 BMC Gastroenterology

4. Association between enteric protozoan parasites and gastrointestinal illness among HIV- and tuberculosis-infected individuals in the Chowke district, southern Mozambique. (PubMed)

Association between enteric protozoan parasites and gastrointestinal illness among HIV- and tuberculosis-infected individuals in the Chowke district, southern Mozambique. Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan

2017 Acta Tropica

5. Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis with Gastrointestinal Involvement after Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment (PubMed)

Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis with Gastrointestinal Involvement after Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment 28416962 2018 11 13 1738-3536 80 2 2017 Apr Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis with Gastrointestinal Involvement after Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment. 210-211 10.4046/trd.2017.80.2.210 Shim Sangwoo S Department of Internal Medicine, Daegu Medical Center, Daegu, Korea. Jung Chi Young CY Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic

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2017 Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases

6. Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis

Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Gastrointestinal (...) Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Aka: Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis , Tuberculous Enteritis II. Pathophysiology Involves any part of Gastrointestinal tract Ileocecal most commonly affected Risk of contracting gastrointestinal Tb Parallels severity of pulmonary disease Transmission Swallowing infected or contaminated food Hematogenous spread Contiguous spread from involved tissue III. Symptoms Weight loss IV. Signs Blood in stool Palpable right lower quadrant mass V. Differential Diagnosis

2018 FP Notebook

7. Pulmonary tuberculosis

TB is crucial in interrupting TB transmission. Definition Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . In many cases, M tuberculosis becomes dormant before it progresses to active TB. It most commonly involves the lungs and is communicable in this form, but may affect almost any organ system including the lymph nodes, CNS, liver, bones, genitourinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. History and exam presence of risk factors cough fever anorexia weight (...) Pulmonary tuberculosis Pulmonary tuberculosis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Pulmonary tuberculosis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2018 Summary A notifiable disease. Specific risk factors include having lived in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, or Africa for years; exposure to an infectious TB case; residence in an institutional setting and homelessness. Symptoms may include

2018 BMJ Best Practice

8. Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis T T uberculosis uberculosis NICE guideline Published: 13 January 2016 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng33 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, professionals and practitioners are expected to take (...) an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Tuberculosis (NG33) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 2 of 178Contents Contents Overview 4 Who is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Preventing TB 5 1.2 Latent TB 15 1.3 Active TB 24 1.4 Drug resistant TB 40 1.5 Infection control 42 1.6 Case finding 47 1.7

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

9. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union TECHNICAL REPORT www.ecdc.europa.eu Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union Updated 2018ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union Updated 2018 ii This report of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was coordinated by Csaba Ködmön with support from Marieke J. van der Werf, Francis Drobniewski (...) ’ in 2016 and further revised and renamed ‘Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union – Updated 2018’ with changes to Chapters 6.7 and 10.4 in 2018 as new scientific evidence became available. Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union – Updated 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018. Stockholm, August 2018 ISBN 978-92-9498-264-3 doi 10.2900/914169 Catalogue number TQ-03-18

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

10. Tuberculosis infection risk, preventive therapy care cascade and incidence of tuberculosis disease in healthcare workers at Maputo Central Hospital. (PubMed)

Tuberculosis infection risk, preventive therapy care cascade and incidence of tuberculosis disease in healthcare workers at Maputo Central Hospital. Mozambican healthcare workers have high rates of latent and active tuberculosis, but occupational screening for tuberculosis is not routine in this setting. Furthermore, the specificity of tuberculin skin testing in this population compared with interferon gamma release assay testing has not been established.This study was conducted among (...) healthcare workers at Maputo Central Hospital, a public teaching quaternary care hospital in Mozambique. With a cross sectional study design, risk factors for tuberculosis were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The care cascade is reported for participants who were prescribed six months of isoniazid preventive therapy for HIV or highly reactive testing for latent tuberculosis infection. The agreement of interferon-gamma release assay results with positive tuberculin skin testing

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2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

11. Six-month therapy for abdominal tuberculosis. (PubMed)

Six-month therapy for abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs

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2016 Cochrane

12. Chapter 135 – Tuberculosis

, and gastrointestinal systems. Therapy should be determined based on consultation. The most commonly used agents are INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB. Resistant strains, including MDR-TB and XDR, have been increasing in frequency. Rosen’s In Perspective This is a huge worldwide killer! Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an airborne pathogen and easily spreads through talking, coughing and any close indoor contact. Think of: Primary TB infection – often subclinical Reactivation of TB – post-primary infection Think about (...) Chapter 135 – Tuberculosis Chapter 135 - Tuberculosis - CanadiEM Chapter 135 – Tuberculosis In , by Chris Lipp December 14, 2017 Episode 135 of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s 9th edition, Chapter 127, tuberculosis. TB, or not TB, that is the question. This episode will elucidate the early recognition, risk factors, therapy and precautions regarding this worldwide killer. Shownotes – Key concepts Early recognition of patients with risk for TB should begin at ED triage. Patients thought to have active

2017 CandiEM

13. Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children

Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children Second editionGuidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children Second editionWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children – 2 nd ed. 1.Tuberculosis – diagnosis. 2.Tuberculosis (...) – therapy. 3.Tuberculosis – prevention and control. 4.Child. 5.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant. 6.National Health Programs. 7.Guideline. I.World Health Organization ISBN 978 92 4 154874 8 (NLM classification: WF 200) © World Health Organization 2014 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO website (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41

2014 World Health Organisation Guidelines

14. Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lineages as a determinant of disease phenotypes from an immigrant rich moderate tuberculosis burden country. (PubMed)

type I and II were reported for the first time in the country among extrapulmonary cases. 'Ancestral' lineages M.bovis (OR-5.22; 95% CI-2.23-8.22, p- < 0.001) and Delhi/CAS (OR-0.57; 95% CI-0.411-0.734, p- < 0.001) were directly associated with lymph node tuberculosis and gastrointestinal tuberculosis (M. bovis-OR-0.33; 95% CI-0.085-0.567, p-0.001 and Delhi/CAS-OR-1.87; 95% CI-1.22-2.53, p- < 0.001) respectively. Among the 'Modern' lineages, EAI showed significant association to central nervous (...) system tuberculosis (OR-1.98; 95% CI-0.76-3.19, p-0.04) and Uganda-I to gastrointestinal tuberculosis (OR-2.41; 95% CI-0.77-4.06, p-0.02).The findings substantially contribute to the emerging evidences that MTBC lineages influence disease phenotypes and epidemiological consequences.

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2018 Respiratory research

15. Survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG oral vaccine during transit through a dynamic in vitro model simulating the upper gastrointestinal tract of badgers. (PubMed)

Survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG oral vaccine during transit through a dynamic in vitro model simulating the upper gastrointestinal tract of badgers. In developing an oral bait BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in badgers we wanted to understand the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and their impact on vaccine viability. Conditions mimicking stomach and small-intestine caused substantial reduction in BCG viability. We performed in vivo experiments using a telemetric pH monitoring (...) before delivery to the intestinal lymphoid tissue. There are economic arguments for reducing the dose of BCG to vaccinate badgers orally. Our findings imply this could be achieved if we can protect BCG from the harsh environment of the stomach and duodenum. TIM-1 is a valuable, non-animal model with which to evaluate and optimise formulations to maximise BCG survival in the gastrointestinal tract.

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2019 PLoS ONE

16. Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis: Official ATS/CDC/IDSA Clinical Practice Guidelines

://www.tbconsilium. org) providessimilarconsultationservicesregarding the diagno- sis and treatment of tuberculosis. Gastrointestinal reactions are common, especially early in therapy[53].Theoptimumapproachtomanagementofepigas- tric distress or nausea with tuberculosis drugs is not clear. To minimizesymptoms,patientsreceivingSATmaytakethemed- ications at bedtime. Gastrointestinal intolerance not associated with hepatotoxicity can be treated with antacids, which have less impact on absorption or peak (...) Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis: Official ATS/CDC/IDSA Clinical Practice Guidelines Clinical Infectious Diseases IDSA GUIDELINE Of?cial American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis Payam Nahid, 1 Susan E. Dorman, 2 Narges Alipanah, 1 Pennan M. Barry, 3 Jan L. Brozek, 4 Adithya Cattamanchi, 1 Lelia H. Chaisson, 1 Richard E. Chaisson, 2 Charles L

2016 American Thoracic Society

17. Side effects associated with the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at a tuberculosis referral hospital in South Korea: A retrospective study. (PubMed)

Side effects associated with the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at a tuberculosis referral hospital in South Korea: A retrospective study. Patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB) show good tolerance of the medications used and have few side effects. However, medications used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have many known side effects. Here, we studied the occurrence of side effects due to treatment of patients with MDR-TB.We conducted a retrospective (...) and consecutive review of the medical records of 256 patients who received treatment for MDR-TB between January 2006 and December 2011.One or more side effects were observed in 95 (37.1%) of the 256 patients. These side effects led to the suspension of the use of 1 or more drugs from the regimen of individualized treatment prescribed for 44 of the patients (17.2%). The side effects observed most frequently included gastrointestinal disturbance (18.4%), psychiatric disorder (5.5%), arthralgia (4.7%), hepatitis

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2017 Medicine

18. F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography Findings of Isolated Gastric Tuberculosis mimicking Gastric Cancer and Lymphoma (PubMed)

F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography Findings of Isolated Gastric Tuberculosis mimicking Gastric Cancer and Lymphoma Tuberculosis (TB) infection is still a challenging health issue, especially in developing countries. Diagnosing extrapulmonary infections, especially isolated organ involvement, is difficult in most cases even with the radiological, endoscopic, and histopathological examinations done for accurate diagnosis. Here we describe a case of isolated (...) gastric TB with specific F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings mimicking gastric cancer/ lymphoma.A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain in the epigastric region, weight loss, and fever especially at nights for 2 months. Physical examination was normal. Hemoglobin was 9.6 gm/dL; the patient had iron deficiency anemia. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy was suggestive of gastric ulcer mimicking

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2018 Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology

19. Putting in harm to cure: Drug related adverse events do not affect outcome of patients receiving treatment for multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Experience from a tertiary hospital in Italy. (PubMed)

Putting in harm to cure: Drug related adverse events do not affect outcome of patients receiving treatment for multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. Experience from a tertiary hospital in Italy. Treatment of multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is challenging because it mostly relies on drugs with lower efficacy and greater toxicity than those used for drug-susceptible TB.Aim of the study was to describe the frequency and type of adverse drug reactions in a cohort of MDR-TB patients (...) %) were serious AEs (SAEs). One third of the total adverse drug reactions (134/409; 32.8%) was of gastrointestinal origin, followed by 47/409 (11.5%) ototoxic drug reactions, thirty-five (8.6%) regarded central nervous system and 33 (8.1%) affected the liver. All 63 SAEs required treatment suspension with 61 SAEs out of 63 (96.8%) occurring during the first six months of treatment. Factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome were smoking (p = 0.039), alcohol abuse (p = 0.005) and homeless

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2019 PLoS ONE

20. Demographic risk factors for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among adolescents and adults in Saudi Arabia. (PubMed)

Demographic risk factors for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among adolescents and adults in Saudi Arabia. Despite low infectious potential of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), it poses significant clinical challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Understanding the main demographical risk factors for disease characteristics of EPTB plays a crucial role in speeding up diagnosis process and improving overall clinical experience. The aim of this study was to investigate the main (...) demographical and clinical risk factors for EPTB among adults and adolescents for the first time in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out on a collection of 902 extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates with demographical and clinical data. All isolates were subjected to spoligotyping and 24-loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. The association between two potential variables was assessed using odd ratios (OR) calculations. Independent risk factors for EPTB

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2019 PLoS ONE

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