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Ganglion Anatomy

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161. Autonomic Nervous System

Nervous System Aka: Autonomic Nervous System , Autonomic System , Autonomic Pathway , Postganglionic Autonomic Fibers , Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers II. Definitions Autonomic Nervous System System of internal regulation for times of both rest (parasympathetic) and stress (sympathetic) III. Anatomy: General Central control (especially and solitary nucleus) based on peripheral visceral afferent signals Primarily two pathway See Preganglionic and Postganglionic s as below Regulates involuntary actions (...) Internal organs (e.g. cardiopulmonary and s) Glands (e.g. lacrimal, ry, sweat) IV. Anatomy: Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Systems Parasympathetic and s typically counter one another with opposing actions Signals originate in the Sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and nucleii ( , , , ) Energy conserving (anabolic) system activated in rest and relaxation situations Decreases , and pupil size ( ) Stimulates gastrointestinal activity, ry secretion and urinary contraction Signals originate in the spinal cord

2018 FP Notebook

162. Basal Ganglia

Striatum , Caudate Nucleus , Putamen , Globus Pallidus , Substantia Nigra , Nucleus Accumbens , Subthalamic Nucleus II. Anatomy: Components Dorsal Striatum (Caudate Nucleus, Putamen) Medial Dorsal Striatum (Caudate Nucleus) (courses between the Caudate Nucleus and Putamen) Lateral Dorsal Striatum (Putamen) Globus Pallidus Substantia Nigra ( ) Divided into the pars compacta and pars reticulata containing cells in pars compacta produce which is transmitted to the Dorsal Striatum results when production (...) is deficient Functions Movement including eye movement (see Pars compacta as above Reward-seeking and addiction Nucleus Accumbens Subthalamic Nucleus III. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) IV. Pathophysiology Basal Ganglia degeneration Substantia Nigra degeneration Other s See (e.g. , ) Hemiballismus V. References Goldberg (2014) Clinical , Medmaster, p. 61-4 Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 104 Images

2018 FP Notebook

163. Extraocular Movement

Aka: Extraocular Movement , Oculomotor Nerve Structure , Conjugate Gaze , Pontine Paramedian Reticular Formation , Lateral Gaze Center , Paraabducens Nucleus , Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus II. Definitions Conjugate Gaze Movement of both eyes in the same direction at the same time III. Anatomy: Innervation Cerebral Cortex Voluntary Conjugate Gaze (Brodmann's Area 8) Involuntary Conjugate Gaze (Areas 17-19) s (nucleus in ) (nucleus in ) (nucleus in pons) Nucleii and Pathways Lateral Gaze Center (...) are transmitted via Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus to (medial rectus) Medial rectus directs the right eye to also look left IV. Anatomy: Extraocular Muscles: Innervated by CN 3 with 2 exceptions Medial Range of Motion Medial Rectus ( ) Lateral Range of Motion Lateral Rectus ( ) Upward Range of Motion Superior Rectus ( ) Inferior Oblique ( ) Downward Range of Motion Inferior Rectus ( ) Superior Oblique ( ) V. Anatomy: Images See Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th

2018 FP Notebook

164. Chorda Tympani

. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Chorda Tympani." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Structure of chorda tympani (C0008483) Definition (MSH) A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle (...) Part, Organ, or Organ Component ( T023 ) MSH SnomedCT 6739000 English Chorda Tympani Nerve , Chorda Tympani Nerves , Nerve, Chorda Tympani , Nerves, Chorda Tympani , Tympani Nerve, Chorda , Tympani Nerves, Chorda , chorda tympani nerve , CT - Chorda tympani , Radix parasympathica ganglii submandibularis , Parasympathetic root of submandibular ganglion , chorda tympani , Chorda tympani , Structure of chorda tympani (body structure) , Structure of chorda tympani French Nerf de la corde du tympan

2018 FP Notebook

165. Catheter Ablation Versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (CASA-AF)

(PVI) using a radiofrequency (RF) clamp device. Posterior wall will be isolated in a box fashion with cool rail bipolar RF device. This will include ganglionated plexi ablation +/- LAA excision/exclusion. Catheter Ablation Group Patients will undergo pulmonary vein isolation and linear ablations in the left and right atrium. There will be a 3 month blanking period and symptomatic atrial arrhythmia may have catheter ablation during the period of 12 month follow up. The primary end point of the study (...) Ablation Versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (CASA-AF) Study Start Date : June 2015 Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 30, 2019 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 31, 2019 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Thoracoscopic surgical ablation Pulmonary vein isolation, ganglionic plexi ablation, left atrial appendage

2016 Clinical Trials

166. Retrograde Melanopsin Signaling Increases With Age in Retinal Degenerate Mice Lacking Rods and the Majority of Cones. (PubMed)

Retrograde Melanopsin Signaling Increases With Age in Retinal Degenerate Mice Lacking Rods and the Majority of Cones. Following on from reports of retrograde retinal signaling in mice, we sought to investigate the influence of age and retinal location on this phenomenon using mice that lack rods and the majority of cones.We used functional anatomy for c-fos (Fos) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to measure light-driven activation of dopamine neurons along a dorsal-ventral transect in C3H/He wild (...) -type and rodless-coneless rd/rd cl (rdcl) mice aged 3, 5, and >14 months. A parallel series of retinae from 3-month-old mice was also stained for cone opsins and melanopsin.Analysis by confocal microscopy revealed light-driven Fos activation in TH cells residing in the middorsal retina of the youngest rdcl mice. This region was largely devoid of residual cones but contained a large number of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and the highest density of melanopsin neurites

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

167. Alterations in Retinal Layer Thickness and Reflectance at Different Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography. (PubMed)

-proliferative DR (NPDR) groups and 22 control subjects (CNTL). A customized image segmentation method identified eight retinal layer interfaces and generated en face thickness maps and reflectance images for nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCLIPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor outer segment layer (OSL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mean thickness and intensity values were calculated in nine (...) macular subfields for each retinal layer.En face thickness maps and reflectance images of retinal layers in CNTL subjects corresponded to normal retinal anatomy. Total retinal thickness correlated negatively with age in nasal subfields (R ≤-0.31; P ≤ 0.03, N = 51). In NDR subjects, NFL and OPL thickness were decreased (P = 0.05), and ONL thickness was increased (P = 0.04) compared to CNTL. In NPDR subjects, GCLIPL thickness was increased in perifoveal subfields (P< 0.05) and INL intensity was higher

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

168. Sensory neurons that detect stretch and nutrients in the digestive system (PubMed)

approaches allowed targeted investigation of gut-to-brain afferents involved in homeostatic responses to ingested nutrients (GPR65 neurons) and mechanical distension of the stomach and intestine (GLP1R neurons). Optogenetics, in vivo ganglion imaging, and genetically guided anatomical mapping provide direct links between neuron identity, peripheral anatomy, central anatomy, conduction velocity, response properties in vitro and in vivo, and physiological function. These studies clarify the roles of vagal

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2016 Cell

169. Anatomy of the carotid sinus nerve and surgical implications in carotid sinus syndrome. (PubMed)

Anatomy of the carotid sinus nerve and surgical implications in carotid sinus syndrome. The carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) is characterized by syncope and hypotension due to a hypersensitive carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation. Some patients ultimately require surgical sinus denervation, possibly by transection of its afferent nerve (carotid sinus nerve [CSN]). The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the CSN and its branches.Twelve human carotid bifurcations were (...) ). Separate connections to pharyngeal branches of the vagus (X) nerve (6/12), vagus nerve itself (3/12), sympathetic trunk (2/12), as well as the superior cervical ganglion (2/12) were commonly observed. The CSN always ended in a network of small separate branches innervating both carotid sinus and carotid body.Anatomical position of the CSN and its side branches and communications is diverse. From a microanatomical standpoint, CSN transection as a single treatment option for patients with CSS

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2009 Journal of Vascular Surgery

170. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

tumors in children; however, series from Japan and Asia report the incidence of CNS GCTs as approximately 15% of pediatric CNS tumors.[ , - ] The genetic or environmental reasons for these differences remain unknown. Anatomy CNS GCTs usually arise in the pineal and/or suprasellar regions of the brain, as solitary or multiple lesions (refer to ). The most common site of origin is the pineal region (45%), and the second most common site is the suprasellar region (30%) within the infundibulum (...) hemispheres, and medulla.[ , ] Figure 1. Anatomy of the inside of the brain. The supratentorium contains the cerebrum, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), choroid plexus, hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, and optic nerve. The infratentorium contains the cerebellum and brain stem. Molecular Features In a study of 62 cases of intracranial GCTs, next-generation sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, and expression array showed frequent mutations in the KIT/RAS signaling

2015 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

171. Distinct expression patterns for type II topoisomerases IIA and IIB in the early foetal human telencephalon (PubMed)

their expression in the early foetal human telencephalon between 9 and 12 post-conceptional weeks. TOP2A immunoreactivity was restricted to cell nuclei of the proliferative layers of the cortex and ganglionic eminences (GE), including the ventricular zone and subventricular zone (SVZ) closely matching expression of the proliferation marker KI67. Comparison with sections immunolabelled for NKX2.1, a medial GE (MGE) marker, and PAX6, a cortical progenitor cell and lateral GE (LGE) marker, revealed that TOP2A (...) that TOP2A mRNA is restricted to cells in the G2/M phase of division. Thus, during early development, TOP2A is likely to have a role in cell proliferation, whereas TOP2B is expressed in post-mitotic cells and may be important in controlling expression of long genes even at this early stage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

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2015 Journal of anatomy

172. Optic Nerve Head and Intraocular Pressure in the Guinea Pig Eye (PubMed)

Optic Nerve Head and Intraocular Pressure in the Guinea Pig Eye The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age (...) , fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles

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2015 Experimental eye research

173. Single-cell analysis of peptide expression and electrophysiology of right parietal neurons involved in male copulation behavior of a simultaneous hermaphrodite (PubMed)

were able to reconstruct a chemical map of the right parietal ganglion revealing a striking correlation with the earlier electrophysiological and neuroanatomical studies. Neurons can be divided into two main groups: (i) neurons that express heptapeptides and (ii) neurons that do not. The neuronal projection of the different neurons into the penial nerve reveals a pattern where (spontaneous) activity is related to branching pattern. This heterogeneity in both neurochemical anatomy and branching (...) of the sexual role as a male is coordinated via a neuronal communication regulated by many peptidergic neurons, clustered in the cerebral and pedal ganglia and dispersed in the pleural and parietal ganglia. By combining single-cell matrix-assisted laser mass spectrometry with retrograde staining and electrophysiology, we analyzed neuropeptide expression of single neurons of the right parietal ganglion and their axonal projections into the penial nerve. Based on the neuropeptide profile of these neurons, we

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2015 Invertebrate Neuroscience

174. A Randomized, Multicentre, Double-blind, Parallel, Sham-controlled Study of the gammaCore

to provide written Informed Consent. Exclusion Criteria: Has a concomitant medical condition that will require oral or injectable steroids during the study. Has a history of any intracranial aneurysm, intracranial haemorrhage, brain tumour or significant head trauma. Has a structural abnormality at the gammaCore®-R treatment site (e.g lymphadenopathy previous surgery or abnormal anatomy). Has pain at the gammaCore®-R treatment site (e.g.dysesthesia, neuralgia and/or cervicalgia). Has other significant (...) . cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator, vagal neurostimulator, deep brain stimulator, spinal stimulator, bone growth stimulator cochlear implant, Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulator or Occipital nerve stimulator). Has been implanted with metal cervical spine hardware or has a metallic implant near the gammaCore®-R stimulation site. Has a known history of suspicion of secondary headache. Has a history of syncope (within the last five years). Has a history of seizures (within the last five years). Has

2015 Clinical Trials

175. Relating structure and function of inner hair cell ribbon synapses (PubMed)

Relating structure and function of inner hair cell ribbon synapses In the mammalian cochlea, sound is encoded at synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Each SGN receives input from a single IHC ribbon-type active zone (AZ) and yet SGNs indefatigably spike up to hundreds of Hz to encode acoustic stimuli with submillisecond precision. Accumulating evidence indicates a highly specialized molecular composition and structure of the presynapse, adapted (...) gained from recent studies of the molecular anatomy and physiology of IHC ribbon synapses.

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2015 Cell and tissue research

176. Innervation patterns may limit response to endovascular renal denervation. (PubMed)

Innervation patterns may limit response to endovascular renal denervation. Renal denervation is a new interventional approach to treat hypertension with variable results.The purpose of this study was to correlate response to endovascular radiofrequency ablation of renal arteries with nerve and ganglia distributions. We examined how renal neural network anatomy affected treatment efficacy.A multielectrode radiofrequency catheter (15 W/60 s) treated 8 renal arteries (group 1). Arteries (...) and kidneys were harvested 7 days post-treatment. Renal norepinephrine (NEPI) levels were correlated with ablation zone geometries and neural injury. Nerve and ganglion distributions and sizes were quantified at discrete distances from the aorta and were compared with 16 control arteries (group 2).Nerve and ganglia distributions varied with distance from the aorta (p < 0.001). A total of 75% of nerves fell within a circumferential area of 9.3, 6.3, and 3.4 mm of the lumen and 0.3, 3.0, and 6.0 mm from

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2014 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

177. Extradural Nerve Anastomosis Technique for Bladder Reinnervation in Spinal Cord Injury: Anatomical Feasibility Study in Human Cadavers. (PubMed)

. However, because of the complex surgical procedures and extensive bony destruction, its clinical use is not widely promoted.Nine formalin-fixed cadavers were used. The distance between the nerve root outlet and ganglion center, the neighboring nerve root-outlet distance, and the gross anatomy of the extradural spinal root were measured with a surgical microscope. The number of nerve fibers from the T7 to S4 ventral roots (VRs) was calculated by immunohistochemical staining.The longest and shortest

2014 Spine

178. A Randomised Pilot Study to Assess Differences in Stimulation Induced Paresthesia Between 2 Spinal Cord Stimulation Systems

Between Two Different Spinal Cord sTimulation dEvices: the Axium® DoRsal Root Ganglion Stimulation System Versus the Prime Advanced Dorsal Column Stimulation System Study Start Date : September 2014 Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : December 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Active Comparator: Axium SCS System Implantation with the Axium Neurostimulator (...) Device: Treatment with the Axium SCS system Active Comparator: Medtronic SCS System Implantation with the Medtronic Prime Advanced Dorsal Column Stimulation System Device: Treatment with the Medtronic SCS System Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Specificity of Stimulation Induced Paresthesia [ Time Frame: 3 Months post implantation ] A comparative analysis will be made between groups to determine the percentage of a patients painful and non-painful anatomy that is covered

2014 Clinical Trials

179. The heart's ‘little brain’ controlling cardiac function in the rabbit (PubMed)

as well as to influence the actions of the extrinsic nerves. To investigate this, an isolated, perfused, innervated rabbit Langendorff heart preparation was considered the best option. Although ganglionic plexuses have been well described for several species, there was no full description of the anatomy and histochemistry of rabbit hearts. To this end, rabbit intrinsic ganglia were located using acetylcholinesterase histology (n = 33 hearts). This revealed six generalized ganglionic regions, defined (...) The heart's ‘little brain’ controlling cardiac function in the rabbit What is the topic of this review? The topic of the review is the intrinsic cardiac nervous system in the rabbit. What advances does it highlight? The anatomy of rabbit intrinsic ganglia is similar to that of other species, including humans. Immunohistochemistry confirms the presence of cholinergic and adrenergic neurones, with a striking arrangement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cell bodies. Activation

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2014 Experimental physiology

180. Hand tumors: I. skin and soft-tissue tumors of the hand. (PubMed)

Hand tumors: I. skin and soft-tissue tumors of the hand. Hand tumors of the skin and soft tissue are frequently encountered by plastic surgeons. Although similar to lesions affecting other parts of the body, the presentation, workup, and treatment options often differ in the hand secondary to its complex anatomy and functional significance. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of those lesions that commonly arise in the hand-including epidermal inclusion cysts, ganglion cysts

2014 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

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