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Ganglion Anatomy

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161. Cranial Neuropathy

should be emphasized: 1. Because of the complex anatomic structures within the brain and brain stem and because the cranial nerves may take long, circuitous routes to their destinations, a detailed knowledge of cranial nerve anatomy is essential for proper clinical localization of potential lesions and for appropriate application of specific imaging protocols. 2. Because some individual nerve fibers, such as the autonomic nerves, may travel with several different cranial nerves from their nuclei (...) that predicting the prognosis is difficult [95]. CT CT provides useful information regarding temporal bone fractures and trauma, presurgical osseous anatomy, nerve involvement with inflammatory middle ear disease, foraminal expansion, patterns of bone erosion, and intrinsic bone tumor matrices [83,84,96-98]. In patients with risk for contrast allergy and contrast-induced nephropathy, noncontrast CT may be sufficient if patients cannot undergo MRI. A dedicated temporal bone CT with thin sections should

2017 American College of Radiology

162. Chronic Wrist Pain

is not routinely used in the diagnosis of Kienböck’s disease. Arthrography X-ray arthrography is not routinely used in the diagnosis of Kienböck’s disease. Variant 9: Chronic wrist pain. Palpable mass or suspected occult ganglion cyst. Radiographs normal or nonspecific. Next study. MRI MRI (without or without and with IV contrast) or US are alternative initial examinations that are usually appropriate in this setting. Fluid-filled and synovial-lined structures (including ganglia, cysts, bursa, and tendon ACR (...) Appropriateness Criteria ® 14 Chronic Wrist Pain sheaths) are well depicted with MRI. MRI is useful for diagnosing infectious and noninfectious tenosynovitis in both the flexor and extensor wrist compartments [46]. Occult ganglion cysts are also easily identified with MRI, but some authors recommend use of IV contrast to distinguish ganglia from synovitis [47]. For noncystic soft- tissue masses, MRI may demonstrate findings that are diagnostic for certain benign conditions (eg, lipomas, hemangiomas, benign

2017 American College of Radiology

163. Health Technology Update — Issue 18

, called neurostimulation, may offer patients with cluster headaches an alternative form of pain relief. How It Works The Sphenopalatine Ganglion The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is a triangular collection of neurons located in the middle of the face. 5 Because the SPG plays a role in controlling blood flow and the activity of chemical messengers — neurotransmitters — that influence pain, researchers are interested in how stimulating or blocking nerve signals in the SPG can affect pain, including pain (...) Following preoperative imaging to determine the mid-facial anatomy of the patient and select an appropriate size of implant, patients receive general anesthesia, and then the device is implanted through a small incision in the top of the mouth near the first or second molars. 9,10 The device is implanted on the side of the head where the cluster headaches most often occur. 9 Correct placement of the device is confirmed using imaging during the surgery and again one day after the procedure. 9 Who Might

2017 CADTH - Health Technology Update

164. CRACKCast E085 – Aortic Dissection

on the topic. As with anything in medicine, its all about the anatomy and what goes wrong with it: Made up of three layers: intima, media, and adventitia Dissecting aorta is the correct term, as the common dissecting aortic aneurysm is a misnomer: most dissections do not have aneurysm. The Aorta is tres importante: Rupture through it or occlusion of it will kill you pretty quick. Pathophysiology: As the heart pendulum’s (swings) side to side it applies force (flexion forces) to ascending and descending (...) Tamponade Pericardium Hemothorax Thorax Horner Syndrome Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion Stroke / Syncope Brachiocephalic, common carotid, left subclavian Upper extremity pulselessness, hypotension, pain Subclavian Paraplegia Intercostal / Spinal / Vertebral arteries Back or flank pain: renal failure Renal artery Abdo pain: mesenteric ischemia Celiac / mesenteric arteries Lower extremity pain / pulselessness / weakness Common iliac artery Next, we need to talk diagnostic tests: CT Chest

2017 CandiEM

166. Many Roads to Motor Deficits: Loss of Dopamine Signaling in Direct or Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway Leads to Akinesia through Distinct Physiological Mechanisms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Many Roads to Motor Deficits: Loss of Dopamine Signaling in Direct or Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway Leads to Akinesia through Distinct Physiological Mechanisms 21151744 2012 10 02 2018 11 13 1662-453X 4 2010 Frontiers in neuroscience Front Neurosci Many Roads to Motor Deficits: Loss of Dopamine Signaling in Direct or Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway Leads to Akinesia through Distinct Physiological Mechanisms. 168 10.3389/fnins.2010.00168 Calhoon Gwendolyn G GG Department of Anatomy

2010 Frontiers in neuroscience

167. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia Full Text available with Trip Pro

such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr (...) Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases

2010 Frontiers in neuroanatomy

168. Glaucoma

) but with no signs of glaucoma. [ ; ; ] Anatomy and physiology What is the anatomy and physiology of the eye relevant to glaucoma? The descriptions of the anatomy and physiology of the eye may be more easily understood when read with the aid of a diagram of the eye, such as that on the website of the . Anterior chamber The anterior chamber is the fluid-filled space between the iris and the cornea. The anterior chamber angle is the angle between the iris and the cornea where they join the sclera towards (...) ) due to reduced drainage of aqueous humour from the anterior chamber. The cause of the reduced drainage is not clear. There may be subtle age-related changes in the structure of the trabecular meshwork which affect the drainage. The visual loss due to POAG is due to damage to retinal ganglion cells due to the raised IOP causing mechanical pressure damage to the axons (nerve fibres) of the cells as they pass over the optic nerve head. But, ischaemic damage may contribute due to pressure on the blood

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

169. A novel radiological classification system for cerebral gliomas: The Brain-Grid. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A novel radiological classification system for cerebral gliomas: The Brain-Grid. Standard radiological/topographical classifications of gliomas often do not reflect the real extension of the tumor within the lobar-cortical anatomy. Furthermore, these systems do not provide information on the relationship between tumor growth and the subcortical white matter architecture. We propose the use of an anatomically standardized grid system (the Brain-Grid) to merge serial morphological magnetic (...) space. Major white matter pathways were reconstructed with a deterministic tracking algorithm on a reference atlas and analyzed using the Brain-Grid system.In all, 48 brain grid voxels (areas defined by 3 coordinates, axial (A), coronal (C), sagittal (S) and numbers from 1 to 4) were delineated in each MRI sequence and on the tractographic atlas. The number of grid voxels infiltrated was consistent, also in the MNI space. The sub-cortical insula/basal ganglia (A3-C2-S2) and the fronto-insular region

2019 PLoS ONE

170. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

with high-grade tumors generally have a less favorable prognosis, but this is somewhat dependent on subtype. The PDQ childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are organized primarily according to the WHO classification of nervous system tumors.[ , ] For a full description of the classification of nervous system tumors and a link to the corresponding treatment summary for each type of brain tumor, refer to the PDQ summary on . Anatomy Childhood astrocytomas can occur anywhere in the central nervous (...) system (CNS) (refer to the ). Refer to for the most common CNS location for each tumor type. Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord, optic nerve, hypothalamus, and other parts of the brain. Clinical Features Presenting symptoms for childhood astrocytomas depend on the following: CNS location. Size of the tumor. Rate of tumor growth. Chronologic and developmental age of the child. In infants and young children, low-grade astrocytomas presenting

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

171. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of intermediate differentiation, has been identified but is not considered an embryonal tumor and primarily arises in adults.[ ] The PDQ childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are organized primarily according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors.[ ] For a full description of the classification of nervous system tumors and a link to the corresponding treatment summary for each type of brain tumor, refer to the PDQ summary on . Anatomy Figure 1. Anatomy

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

172. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

without clinical detection in the first year of life is at least as prevalent as clinically detected neuroblastoma.[ - ] Epidemiologic studies have shown that environmental or other exposures have not been unequivocally associated with increased or decreased incidences of neuroblastoma.[ ] Anatomy Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla and paraspinal or periaortic regions where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present (refer to ). Figure 1. Neuroblastoma may be found in the adrenal glands (...) neuroblastoma group, and 8% in the low-risk neuroblastoma group. The high-risk group included tumors with ALK aberrations, consisting of ALK co-amplification with MYCN amplification, which may also result in ALK activation. In a study that compared the genomic data of primary diagnostic neuroblastomas originating in the adrenal gland (n = 646) with that of neuroblastomas originating in the thoracic sympathetic ganglia (n = 118), 16% of thoracic tumors harbored ALK mutations.[ ] Small-molecule ALK kinase

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

173. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

at diagnosis.[ ] Anatomy NSCLC arises from the epithelial cells of the lung of the central bronchi to terminal alveoli. The histological type of NSCLC correlates with site of origin, reflecting the variation in respiratory tract epithelium of the bronchi to alveoli. Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus. Adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma usually originate in peripheral lung tissue. Anatomy of the respiratory system. Pathogenesis Smoking-related lung carcinogenesis

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

174. CRACKCast E043 – Spinal Injuries

loss may be variable in distribution and fibers cross over variable one or two segments above. Most patients become ambulatory again. 7) Describe the following clinical syndromes Wallenburgs Syndrome (aka lateral medullary syndrome) Loss of PICA circulation to the brain… remember your anatomy…PICA supplied by vertebral artery. Results in ischemia to lateral medulla = wallowing difficulty, or dysphagia, slurred speech, ataxia, facial pain, vertigo, nystagmus, Horner’s syndrome, diplopia, ataxia (...) tachycardia from disruption of autonomic ganglia. Should only be considered IF: Flaccid and areflexic Reflex tachycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction absent Exclusion of hemorrhage, tamponade, and tension pneumothorax 16) Define spinal shock As mentioned earlier – temporary loss of neurologic function and autonomic tone below the level of an acute spinal cord lesion 17) What is the risk of cervical injury in Down’s Syndrome? Rheumatoid Arthritis? Atlantoaxial instability leading to subluxation

2016 CandiEM

176. Impact of Hypertension on Cognitive Function: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the BBB (see Blood-Brain Barrier below), an inflammatory reaction may ensue that is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species and protease upregulation. Clinical measures of aortic and large-artery stiffening are good predictors of cerebrovascular events and VCI. Small-Vessel Disease Hypertension causes typical alterations in small arteries and arterioles supplying the subcortical and basal ganglia white matter, resulting in small-vessel disease (SVD), a major cause of lacunar strokes

2016 American Heart Association

178. Functional atlases for analysis of motor and neuropsychological outcomes after medial globus pallidus and subthalamic stimulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional atlases for analysis of motor and neuropsychological outcomes after medial globus pallidus and subthalamic stimulation. Anatomical atlases have been developed to improve the targeting of basal ganglia in deep brain stimulation. However, the sole anatomy cannot predict the functional outcome of this surgery. Deep brain stimulation is often a compromise between several functional outcomes: motor, fluency and neuropsychological outcomes in particular. In this study, we have developed

2018 PLoS ONE

179. Radiologic Management of Mesenteric Ischemia

mesenteric venous anatomy [10]. Overview of Therapeutic Modalities Treatments for mesenteric ischemia attempt to reverse the underlying cause, with the goal of prevention of bowel infarction. Treatment choice depends on the underlying etiology of ischemia. For patients with mesenteric arterial occlusive disease there has been a shift away from surgical treatment (eg, embolectomy, endarterectomy, and arterial bypass) towards endovascular approaches including thrombolysis and clot retrieval in cases (...) been postulated to limit blood flow to the bowel, with resulting ischemic symptoms, or to irritate the celiac ganglion, which results in abdominal pain. Compression of the celiac artery may be a normal finding in asymptomatic patients and is well characterized [24]. Therefore, supportive treatment with analgesics and continued diagnostic evaluation for alternate causes of abdominal pain might be reasonable first steps in patients with suspected median arcuate ligament syndrome. Patients

2016 American College of Radiology

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