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Ganglion Anatomy

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141. ACR–ASNR–SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Neuroradiologic Imaging Revised

for CT perfusion studies should be able to demonstrate familiarity with the anatomy and especially the physiology and pathophysiology of those organs and anatomic areas that are being examined. These physicians should be able to provide evidence of training and requisite competence needed to perform CT perfusion studies successfully. A. Physician Examinations must be performed under the supervision of and interpreted by a physician with the following qualifications: 1. Certification in Radiology (...) with this technique [78]. Most commonly, selective axial sections are obtained through the basal ganglia to image the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Protocols may be adjusted to evaluate anterior or posterior cerebral circulation [12,79]. The total volume and injection rate of contrast material should be optimized for each pathophysiologic situation being investigated, with a minimum volume of 40 mL and a minimum injection rate of 4 mL/s. The higher the injection rate, the better the peak opacification

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

143. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

segment infarction was most common, venous periventricular infarction was next highest and accounted for 75% of subcortical injuries. Motor outcomes in this cohort were predicted by basal ganglia involvement, including leg hemiparesis, spasticity, and need for assistive devices. Nonmotor outcomes were associated with cortical involvement, including cognitive/behavioral outcomes, visual deficits, and epilepsy. Risk Factors Risk factors include both maternal and neonatal factors. Normal activation

2019 American Heart Association

144. Chronic Pelvic Pain

colpopexy: management of postoperative pudendal nerve entrapment. Obstet Gynecol, 1996. 88: 713. 218. Fisher, H.W., et al. Nerve injury locations during retropubic sling procedures. Int Urogynecol J, 2011. 22: 439. 219. Moszkowicz, D., et al. Where does pelvic nerve injury occur during rectal surgery for cancer? Colorectal Dis, 2011. 13: 1326. 220. Ashton-Miller, J.A., et al. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2007. 1101: 266. 221. Amarenco, G., et al. [Perineal neuropathy

2019 European Association of Urology

145. BSPGHAN Motility Working Group consensus statement- Anorectal manometry in children with defecation disorders Full Text available with Trip Pro

anatomy of the patient Skin excoriation The ability of the subject to understand the commands “squeeze” and “push.” 5.5 The catheter is zeroed at the anal verge to calibrate and then lubricated with a manufacturer recommended lubricant. 5.6 a. In HRAM, the catheter is inserted into the rectum and pull back slightly until the anal canal is located. Once the anal canal is located, the probe is taped to the buttock cheeks to avoid movement. 5.6. b. If conventional ARM catheter is used, a pull‐through (...) dyssynergia Cough Assessment of sacral reflex arc Impaired response Suggestive of damage to sacral reflex arc RAIR Functional assessment of presence of endogenous anorectal neural network Positive RAIR : Excludes Hirschsprung's disease Negative RAIR : Possible Hirschsprung's disease (aganglionic rectal biopsy) Anal sphincter achalasia (ganglionic rectal biopsy) Partial RAIR has been suggested in anorectal inflammatory conditions (eg, allergy) Rectal sensation Assessment of rectal sensation Help understand

2020 British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition

148. Chronic Pelvic Pain

colpopexy: management of postoperative pudendal nerve entrapment. Obstet Gynecol, 1996. 88: 713. 218. Fisher, H.W., et al. Nerve injury locations during retropubic sling procedures. Int Urogynecol J, 2011. 22: 439. 219. Moszkowicz, D., et al. Where does pelvic nerve injury occur during rectal surgery for cancer? Colorectal Dis, 2011. 13: 1326. 220. Ashton-Miller, J.A., et al. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2007. 1101: 266. 221. Amarenco, G., et al. [Perineal neuropathy

2018 European Association of Urology

149. Shoulder Pain - Atraumatic

, demonstrating accuracies in the detection of rotator cuff and adjacent soft-tissue abnormalities equivalent to MRI [6]. US is usually well tolerated and, as with MRI, involves no ionizing radiation. Imaging in real time allows direct functional assessment of the shoulder during provocative maneuvers (ie, impingement) as well as providing guidance for a variety of interventions. As in other modalities, the upper extremity must be positioned to optimally visualize the anatomy of interest. Discussion (...) of neurogenic pain. US Shoulder Paralabral cysts that extend to the spinoglenoid notch, suprascapular notch, and quadrilateral space can be identified by US. Based on loss in muscle bulk and increased echogenicity due to replacement by fat, US can also evaluate associated loss of muscle bulk. Paralabral or ganglion cyst aspiration under US guidance can be attempted [92,93]. The suprascapular nerve may occasionally be visualized on US in the spinoglenoid notch adjacent to the suprascapular artery [94]. Bone

2018 American College of Radiology

150. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications

for the subsequent development of an epidural hematoma secondary to reduced ability to absorb blood and blood products. Other locations associated with significant undesirable vascularity include the target ganglia of the middle cervical, stellate, lumbar sympathetic, and celiac plexus. For example, multiple vascular structures surround the location for stellate ganglion blockade including the vertebral, ascending cervical, and inferior thyroid arteries. The vertebral artery, which arises from the subclavian (...) , ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, spondylolisthesis, or spondylosis, which may compress the epidural venous plexus within tight epidural spaces. Moreover, patients, after various spine surgeries, may develop fibrous adhesions and scar tissue, thus further compromising the capacity of the epidural space and distorting the anatomy of the epidural vessels. The risk of bleeding is further increased in pain patients taking several concomitant medications with antiplatelet effects including NSAIDs, ASA

2018 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

151. Chronic Knee Pain

and there is clinical evidence or concern for lumbar spine pathology. CT Knee CT without intravenous (IV) contrast may be indicated to evaluate the patellofemoral anatomy in the setting of chronic knee pain related to repetitive patellofemoral subluxation or maltracking [15]. CT can also be used to evaluate trochlear morphology and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance. CT with IV contrast is usually not indicated when initial radiograph is negative or demonstrates a joint effusion. CT without and with IV (...) , adhesive capsulitis, medial plicae, discoid meniscus, tumors, ganglion cysts, pigmented villonodular synovitis, osteophytes, and osteonecrosis [15,19,36-45]. MRI without and with IV contrast is not usually indicated when initial radiograph is negative or demonstrates a joint effusion. However, contrast-enhanced images may be more accurate in diagnosing other causes of chronic knee pain, such as Hoffa’s disease, deep infrapatellar bursitis, patellofemoral friction syndrome, and adhesive capsulitis [15

2018 American College of Radiology

153. Herpes Zoster - Diagnosis

TheguidelineprojecthasbeenfundedbytheEuropeanAcademyofDermatologyandVenereology(EADV)witha researchgrantspeci?callyfortheguidelineproject.TheEADVdidnotin?uencetheprojectdevelopmentor conduct. Abbreviations AGREE II: Appraisal ofGuidelines Research and Evaluation Instrument II ARN: acute retinal necrosis CNS: centralnervous system COI: con?icts ofinterest DFA: direct?uorescent antibody DRG: dorsal root ganglia EADV: European Academyof Dermatology andVenereology EDF: European Dermatology Forum gE: glycoproteine E GRADE: Grading ofRecommendations Assessment, Development (...) ). Clinicalbackground/Introduction Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) and zoster-associated pain (ZAP) result from a reactivation of varicella zoster viruses (VZV) per- sisting in the sensory nerve ganglia after the primary infection with VZV. 1 Primary infection usually occurs during childhood and leads to varicella (chickenpox), characterized by a general- ized rash, during which a latent infection in sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) along the entire neuroaxis is established. When virus-speci?c cellular

2017 European Dermatology Forum

155. CRACKCast 107 – Peripheral Nerve Disorders

), or a local issue, e.g., atrophic, dry skin. Refer to figure 97.2 in Rosen’s 9 th Edition for schematic representation of the anatomy of the peripheral nervous system and its interface with the central nervous system When something goes wrong with the PNS, 1 of 3 issues may develop: Myelinopathies , in which the primary site of involvement is limited to the myelin sheath surrounding the axon; Axonopathies , in which the primary site of involvement is the axon, with or without secondary demyelination (...) names of a radial mononeuropathy? How does it present? Remember your anatomy? Yeah… that is what we thought: Anatomy: Rises from the C5 to T1 nerve roots. “After exiting the brachial plexus, it passes behind the proximal humerus in the spiral groove and takes a lateral (radial) course down the upper arm (Fig. 97.3). At about the level of the antecubital fossa, it bifurcates into the posterior interosseous (pure motor) and superficial radial (pure sensory) nerves.” – Steward JD 3 rd Edition Motor

2017 CandiEM

157. AIUM Practice Parameter for the Performance of a Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Examination

, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, or lipoma), ganglion, epidermal inclusion cyst, foreign body, or isolated tendon injury. Tenosynovitis, nerve entrapment syndromes, and peripheral nerve disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome can also be evaluated. In a patient with suspected inflammatory arthritis, the hands and wrists should be evaluated for synovial hypertrophy, joint effusion, bony erosions, tenosynovitis, crystal deposition, and tendon rupture. Power or color Doppler imaging should also be used (...) and the radial artery for occult ganglion cysts, which can originate from the radiocarpal joint capsule, scaphotrapezial joint, or flexor carpi radialis tendon sheath itself. On the ulnar side, branches of the ulnar nerve and artery lie within the ulnar tunnel. The flexor carpi ulnaris tendon and pisiform bone border the ulnar aspect of the tunnel. All of the tendons can be followed to their sites of insertion if clinically indicated. 2. Ulnar—Placing the transducer transversely on the ulnar styloid

2017 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

159. Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

with hemorrhagic stroke (58%), epileptic seizure(s) (34%), or other symptoms such as progressive neurological deficit (8%). , , , bAVMs are characterized by their unique anatomy and hemodynamic physiology: direct connections from artery to vein with no intervening capillary bed ( ). These connections consist of a tangle of abnormal dilated channels that are neither arterial nor venous. This tangle is called the nidus. Blood is shunted from artery to vein through the nidus, resulting in higher-than-normal flow (...) (<1-mm diameter), aneurysms, , smaller bAVM nidi (<10 mm), and venous outflow anatomy. , These features, although not essential in making the diagnosis of bAVM, are important in treatment planning. For a subset of patients with acute hemorrhagic bAVMs and those without ICH presentation, MR may identify prior subclinical microhemorrhage using susceptibility-weighted imaging ( ). In a review of 975 cases, Guo et al noted evidence of old hemorrhage by susceptibility-weighted imaging in 6.5

2017 American Heart Association

160. Management of brain arteriovenous malformations

interval [CI], 0.01–0.10) and a prevalence of detected asymptomatic or symptomatic bAVMs in the population of 10 to 18 per 100 000 adults (95% CI, 0.010–0.018). , The new detection rate (incidence) is ≈1.3 per 100 000 person-years. In population-based studies, symptomatic bAVMs manifest with hemorrhagic stroke (58%), epileptic seizure(s) (34%), or other symptoms such as progressive neurological deficit (8%). , , , bAVMs are characterized by their unique anatomy and hemodynamic physiology: direct (...) undergoing MRA in the setting of ICH yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80–1.00) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97–1.00). MRA, both time-of-flight and contrast-bolus type, is more limited in the detection of smaller vessels (<1-mm diameter), aneurysms, , smaller bAVM nidi (<10 mm), and venous outflow anatomy. , These features, although not essential in making the diagnosis of bAVM, are important in treatment planning. For a subset of patients with acute hemorrhagic bAVMs and those without ICH

2017 American Academy of Neurology

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