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Ganglion Anatomy

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141. Needs for medical devices for older people

of or compensation for an injury ? investigation, replacement, modification, or support of the anatomy or of a physiological process ? supporting or sustaining life ? control of conception ? disinfection of medical devices providing information by means of in vitro examination of specimens derived from the human body and which does not achieve its primary intended action by pharmacological, immunological or metabolic means, in or on the human body, but which may be assisted in its intended function by such means

2013 ASERNIP-S

142. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

. RECOGNIZED CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF MRI: A. ADULT AND PEDIATRIC BRAIN B. HEAD AND NECK C. ADULT AND PEDIATRIC SPINE D. ABDOMEN AND PELVIS (MALE AND FEMALE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM) E. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM F. CARDIOVASCULAR G. CHEST H. BREAST IMAGING I. FETAL IMAGING A. ADULT AND PEDIATRIC BRAIN ii Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an excellent imaging modality for the evaluation and assessment of the anatomy and abnormal conditions of the brain, in adult and pediatric patients. MRI (...) thrombosis and intracranial venous occlusive disease. c. Etiology of intracranial and spinal hemorrhage. d. Posttraumatic injury to cervico-cerebral vessels for evaluation of presence, nature, and extent, including dissection e. Presence and extent of atherosclerotic occlusive disease and thromboembolic phenomena. f. Presence and extent of dissection. g. Presence, location, and anatomy of extracranial and intracranial aneurysms and vascular malformations. h. Relevant vascular anatomy for preprocedural

2011 Canadian Association of Radiologists

144. Evidence-Based Guideline: Neuromuscular Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

thepresenceofamedianmononeuropathy.Electro- diagnostic studies have limitations; they are uncom- fortable and do not directly assess the anatomy of themediannerveanditssurroundingstructures. Over the past 20 years, neuromuscular ultra- sound has been introduced into electrodiagnostic laboratories as a complement to nerve conduction studies and electromyography for the diagnosis of a variety of nerve and muscle conditions. 4 CTS is the condition most commonly studied with neuro- muscular ultrasound, and individuals with CTS have (...) wrists in this population. All 19 of the Class IV articles were case reports or case series in which neuromuscular ultrasound was used to identify abnormal structures causing median mononeuropathy at the wrist. These struc- tures included traumatic neuromas, Schwannomas, lipo?bromatous hamartomas, ganglion cysts, thrombosed persistent median arteries, an abscess, and compressive gouty tophus. 55–73 Conclusion. Based on Class II evidence, neuro- muscular ultrasound of the wrist probably adds value

2012 American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

145. Ganglion and “Dendrite” Populations in EAS Ears (PubMed)

potential candidates for EAS surgery. The data may give us information about the neuroanatomic situation in EAS ears.Dendrites and ganglion cells were calculated and audiocytocochleograms constructed. The temporal bones were from the collection at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, Calif., USA. Normal human anatomy, based on surgical specimens, is presented.Inner and outer hair cells, supporting cells, ganglion cells and dendrites were preserved in the apical region. In the mid-frequency region (...) Ganglion and “Dendrite” Populations in EAS Ears The electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) technique combines electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear and utilizes both low-frequency acoustic hearing and electric stimulation of preserved neurons. We present data of ganglion cell and dendrite populations in ears from normal individuals and those suffering from adult-onset hereditary progressive hearing loss with various degrees of residual low-frequency hearing. Some of these were

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2009 Advances in oto-rhino-laryngology

146. The Relationship between Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Constituents and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Birefringence in the Primate. (PubMed)

The Relationship between Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Constituents and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Birefringence in the Primate. To determine the degree of correlation between spatial characteristics of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) birefringence (Delta n(RNFL)) surrounding the optic nerve head (ONH) with the corresponding anatomy of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and their respective organelles.RNFL phase retardation per unit depth (PR/UD, proportional to Delta n(RNFL)) was measured

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2009 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

147. Guidelines for the Surgical Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia

peristalsis and incomplete relaxation of a frequently hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to swallowing [3] . The pathological changes seen in achalasia consist of myenteric inflammation with injury to and subsequent loss of ganglion cells and fibrosis of myenteric nerves [4] . There is also a significant reduction in the synthesis of nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide [5, 6] . The probable etiology of the disease is thought to be an autoimmune-mediated destruction (...) for the long-term control of reflux [93-95] . It should be noted, however, that the Dor fundoplication may have some advantages as it leads to less disruption of the hiatal anatomy, allows coverage of the esophageal mucosa with the fundus which is especially important if a perforation has occurred, and is a quicker and easier procedure compared to a Toupet fundoplication. [96] It should also be noted that because myotomy is less likely to relieve dysphagia in patients with extremely dilated sigmoid

2011 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

148. Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Treatment for Gulf Veterans With Gulf War Illness

hemorrhage, brain tumor or significant head trauma. Patient has in the opinion of the investigator a clinically relevant structural abnormality at the gammaCore-R treatment site (e.g., neoplasm, lymphadenopathy, previous surgery, neoplasm or abnormal anatomy). Patient has pain at the gammaCore treatment site (eg, dysesthesia, neuralgia, cervicalgia). Patient has other significant pain problem (e.g., cancer pain or other head or facial pain disorder) that in the opinion of the investigator may confound (...) (systolic bp >160, or diastolic bp > 100) after 3 measurements within 24 hours. Patient is currently implanted with an electrical and/or neurostimulator device (e.g. cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator, vagal neurostimulator, deep brain stimulator, spinal stimulator, bone growth stimulator, or cochlear implant, Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulator or Occipital nerve stimulator). Patient has been implanted with metal cervical spine hardware or has a metallic implant near the gammaCore-R stimulation site

2016 Clinical Trials

149. RCT of Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation (nVNS) With gammaCore®, for the Acute Treatment of Migraine Attacks

within the last 6 months. Has had surgical intervention for migraine prevention. Has had a cervical vagotomy. Has a structural abnormality (e.g. lymphadenopathy, neoplasm, previous surgery or abnormal anatomy), or pain (e.g. dysesthesia, neuralgia and/or cervicalgia) at the stimulation treatment site. Has other significant pain problem (e.g. cancer pain, fibromyalgia or other head or facial disorder) that in the opinion of the Investigator may confound the study assessments. Is currently implanted (...) with an electrical and/or neurostimulator device (e.g. cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator, vagal neurostimulator, deep brain stimulator, spinal stimulator, bone growth stimulator, cochlear implant, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulator, or occipital nerve stimulator). Has been implanted with metal cervical spine hardware or has a metallic implant near the stimulation treatment site. Has failed an adequate trial (two months or greater) of at least 3 classes of a drug therapy for acute treatment of migraine. Has

2016 Clinical Trials

151. Infraorbital nerve: a surgically relevant landmark for the pterygopalatine fossa, cavernous sinus, and anterolateral skull base in endoscopic transmaxillary approaches. (PubMed)

carotid artery. The authors postulated, on the basis of intraoperative observations, that the infraorbital nerve (ION) is a useful surgical landmark for navigating this region; therefore, they studied the anatomy of the ION and its relationships to critical neurovascular structures and the maxillary nerve (V2) encountered in ETMAs. METHODS Endoscopic anatomical dissections were performed bilaterally in 5 silicone-injected, formalin-fixed cadaveric heads (10 sides). Endonasal transmaxillary and direct (...) to the foramen rotundum (13 ± 2.5 mm); and 4) Segment IV, the cavernous segment from the foramen rotundum to the trigeminal ganglion (15 ± 4.1 mm), which passes in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. The relationship of the ION/V2 complex to the contents of the cavernous sinus, carotid artery, and pterygopalatine fossa is described in the text. CONCLUSIONS The ION/V2 complex is an easily identifiable and potentially useful surgical landmark to the foramen rotundum, cavernous sinus, carotid artery

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2016 Journal of Neurosurgery

152. Effect of NCAM on aged-related deterioration in vision. (PubMed)

ganglion cells, thinner retinas, and fewer photoreceptor cell layers than age-matched controls. Electroretinogram testing of retinal function in young adult NCAM -/- mice showed a 2-fold increase in a- and b-wave amplitude compared with wild-type mice, but the retinal activity dropped dramatically to control levels when the animals reached 10 months. In behavioral tasks, NCAM -/- mice had no visual pattern discrimination ability and showed premature loss of vision as they aged. Together, these findings (...) demonstrate that NCAM plays significant roles in the adult visual system in establishing normal retinal anatomy, physiology and function, and in maintaining vision during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2016 Neurobiology of Aging

153. Histological verification of the prehypogastric and ovarian ganglia confirms a bilaterally symmetrical organization of the ganglia comprising the aortic plexus in female human cadavers (PubMed)

Histological verification of the prehypogastric and ovarian ganglia confirms a bilaterally symmetrical organization of the ganglia comprising the aortic plexus in female human cadavers The aortic plexus is a network of sympathetic nerves positioned along the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Recently, we characterized the aortic plexus and its ganglia (inferior mesenteric, left/right spermatic, and prehypogastric ganglion) in males; however, the literature minimally describes its anatomy in females (...) . In the present study, we conducted the first histological examination of the left and right ovarian ganglia, while also investigating whether females, like males, exhibit a prehypogastric ganglion. The ganglia were dissected from embalmed (n = 32) and fresh (n = 1) human cadavers, and H&E staining was used to confirm the presence of a left ovarian ganglion in 31/31 specimens, a right ovarian ganglion in 29/29 specimens and a prehypogastric ganglion in 25/28 specimens. Comparable to the topographic

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2016 Journal of anatomy

154. Intracranial Management of Perineural Spread in the Trigeminal Nerve (PubMed)

with radiation therapy alone and was associated with high morbidity. However, with improved imaging, surgical equipment, and better understanding of cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy and access, contemporary surgeons can improve outcomes for this disease. The aim of this paper is to describe a technique to access the interdural compartment of the CS and treat PNS of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in the intracranial trigeminal nerve and ganglion. It is based on the experience of the Queensland Skull

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2016 Journal of neurological surgery. Part B, Skull base

155. Cranial Nerve 8

, Cranial Nerve VIII , Acoustic Nerve , Cochlear Nerve , Vestibular Nerve , Vestibulocochlear Nerve , CN 8 II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Course Originates as two separate nuclei in the r nucleus (innervates ) Vestibular nucleus (innervates semicircular canals) s from both nerves join to form one trunk Passes via to their respective somatic sensory ganglia Spiral (hearing) Vestibular (balance) Auditory signals partially cross the midline Each ear's auditory signals (...) are transmitted to both s s at multiple locations (inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body) IV. Exam Cochlear Nerve See Vestibular Nerve See Vestibular Testing (Labyrinthine testing) V. References Gilman (1989) Manter and Gatz Essentials of and Neurophysiology, Davis, p. 87-113 Goldberg (2014) Clinical , p. 24-39 Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 110-129 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cranial Nerve 8

2018 FP Notebook

156. Cranial Nerve 7

, Cranial Nerve VII , Facial Nerve , CN 7 , Geniculate Ganglion , Superior Salivatory Nucleus , Superior Salivary Nucleus II. Causes: Paralysis Neoplasm (Infectious polyneuritis) Melkersson's Syndrome (Recurrent ) Poliomyelitis (ALS) III. Anatomy: Course to Geniculate Ganglion ral Facial Nerve originates in four nucleii in pons and All combine to travel via internal auditory meatus into Geniculate Ganglion Each side of the forehead is innervated by both s (but only one peripheral Facial Nerve) Forehead (...) glands and s (via submandibular ) Originates in at Superior Salivatory Nucleus (Superior Salivary Nucleus) Transmits for anterior two-thirds of Originates in at solitary tract nucleus Transmits signals of sensation along with and 10 Originates in at spinal nucleus of Minimal contribution to head sensation Facial innervation is primarily Posterior scalp is primarily spinal nerve 2 IV. Anatomy: Geniculate Ganglion to motor branches within facial canal between labyrinthine and tympanic segments Facial

2018 FP Notebook

157. Cranial Nerve 5

, Cranial Nerve V , Trigeminal Nerve , CN 5 , Trigeminal Lemniscus II. Anatomy Trigeminal Nerve Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Alveolar Nerve (V3) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology: General Largest Sensory root innervates head and face innervates mastication muscles s cross the midline in the (at the level of the motor or sensory nucleii) Cortical or thalamic CVA involving the trigeminal signals Affects the contralateral face CVA involving the trigeminal (...) signals Injures the trigeminal nucleii or crossing fibers, affecting the ipsilateral face May injure the Trigeminal Lemniscus affecting the contralateral face IV. Anatomy Trigeminal Lemniscus s from the Trigeminal nucleii cross the midline and combine to form the Trigeminal Lemniscus Trigeminal Lemniscus courses up to the contralateral Signals are ultimately transmitted to the contralateral cerebral cortex Nucleii (fibers originate in two nuclei) Motor Nucleus Small and localized to the Sensory

2018 FP Notebook

158. Cranial Nerve 3

, Cranial Nerve III , Oculomotor Nerve , CN 3 , Oculomotor Nucleus , Edinger-Westphal Nucleus II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology Parasympathetic fibers follow Cranial Nerve III Innervates the ciliary which in turn supplies sphincter pupillae and ciliaris muscles Parasympathetic impulses result in ( tion) compresses the third nerve Parasympathetic fibers are most susceptible to injury as they lie on the outside of CN III Parasympathetic fiber injury results (...) Paralysis (blown pupil or fixed, non-reactive dilated pupil): Oculomotor Nerve palsy with pupil sparing Seen as complication with VI. References Gilman (1989) Manter and Gatz Essentials of and Neurophysiology, Davis, p. 87-113 Goldberg (2014) Clinical , p. 24-39 Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 110-129 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cranial Nerve 3." Click on the image (or right click) to open

2018 FP Notebook

159. Cranial Nerve 2

, Cranial Nerve II , Optic Nerve , CN 2 II. Physiology Vision mediated via l innervation III. Anatomy IV. Course l fibers coalesce into the Optic Nerve Optic Nerves become s at the See Left (Comprises Right Visual field) Left Lateral and Right Medial Optic Nerves Right (Comprises Left Visual field) Right Lateral and Left Medial Optic Nerves V. Exam Visual Field Testing Screening: Confrontation Assessment: Perimetry VI. References Gilman (1989) Manter and Gatz Essentials of and Neurophysiology, Davis, p (...) carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Definition (CSP) second cranial nerve; conveys visual information from the retina to the brain; carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells

2018 FP Notebook

160. Lymphadenopathy

. Causes See See See See See See V. Anatomy See See VI. History: Exposures See Animal Exposures Cat Exposure ( or ) Ingestion of undercooked meat ( , , ) Rabbit, sheep or cattle wool, hair or hide ( , , ) ( or ) exposure history exposure See Occupational or hobby exposure Hunters or Trappers ( ) Fish handlers ( ) Mining, masonry or metal work (Beryllium or Silicon exposure) VII. History: Travel See Travel to Southwestern United States Travel to Southeastern or central United States Travel to Southeast (...) inflammation , lymph glands infection , glands infections lymph , Lymph gland infection , Lymphadenitis NOS (disorder) , Inflammation of lymph node (finding) , Lymph node inflamed , lymphadenitis (diagnosis) , Adenitis , Inflammation of lymph node , Lymphadenitis (disorder) , lymphadenitis , infection; lymph gland , inflammation; lymph node , lymph gland; infection , lymph node; inflammation , Adenitis, NOS , Lymphadenitis, NOS , adenitis French ADENITE , Lymphadénite SAI , Infection de ganglion

2018 FP Notebook

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