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Ganglion Anatomy

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121. Visual acuity in the archerfish: behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Visual acuity in the archerfish: behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology. Archerfish are known for their remarkable behavior of shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above water. Motivated by the fish's capacity to knock down small prey as high as two meters above water level, we studied the role of the retina in facilitating their excellent visual acuity. First, we show behaviorally that archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix) can detect visual structures with a minimum angle of resolution (...) in the range of 0.075°-0.15°. Then, combining eye movement measurements with a ray tracing method, we show that the image of a target on the retina coincides with the area centralis at the ventro-temporal retina. Moving down to retinal neural circuits, we then examine the ratio by which retinal ganglion cells multiplex visual information from the photoreceptors. Measuring the anatomical densities of both cell types in the area centralis, we found photoreceptor spacing to be 5.8 μm, which supports a minimum

2012 Journal of vision

122. Brain Anatomy and Its Relationship to Behavior in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Multicenter Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain Anatomy and Its Relationship to Behavior in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Multicenter Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. There is consensus that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied by differences in neuroanatomy. However, the neural substrates of ASD during adulthood, as well as how these relate to behavioral variation, remain poorly understood.To identify brain regions and systems associated with ASD in a large, well-characterized sample of adults.Multicenter case (...) matter volume in the anterior temporal and dorsolateral prefrontal regions and significant reductions in the occipital and medial parietal regions compared with controls. These regional differences in neuroanatomy were significantly correlated with the severity of specific autistic symptoms. The large-scale neuroanatomic networks maximally correlated with ASD identified by partial least-squares analysis included the regions identified by voxel-based analysis, as well as the cerebellum, basal ganglia

2012 Archives of General Psychiatry

123. Comparative anatomy of the vomeronasal organ complex in bats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative anatomy of the vomeronasal organ complex in bats. The morphology of the vomeronasal organ complex was histologically described in eight out of fourteen chiropteran species investigated. Of the six families examined, all except the family Pteropodidae (suborder Megachiroptera) were found to have at least one member possessing the organ. The organ is best developed in phyllostomatids. It is absent in vespertilionids (including a Myotis embryo) except in Miniopterus. An accessory (...) . Epithelia, vascular sinuses, vomeronasal nerves, paravomeronasal ganglia, accessory olfactory bulbs, and vomeronasal glands have been investigated. In bats with regressed or rudimentary organs (Megaderma, Rhinopoma, Rhinolophus, Hipposideros) accessory olfactory bulbs could not be identified. Thus, presence of the organ does not necessarily indicate presence of the accessory olfactory bulb. Septal pockets located superior to the organ complex and lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium

1976 Journal of anatomy

124. Basal ganglia Full Text available with Trip Pro

pallidum , thalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, subthalamic nucleus Mesencephalon Mesencephalon (midbrain): substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) , substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) Pons and cerebellum Medulla Video of relevant anatomy slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia. White matter is shown in dark gray, gray matter is shown in light gray. Anterior: , (GPe and GPi) Posterior: (STN), (SN) The basal ganglia form a fundamental component of the . In contrast to the layer that lines (...) the surface of the forebrain, the basal ganglia are a collection of distinct masses of lying deep in the brain not far from the junction of the . They lie to the side of and surround the thalamus. Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. In terms of anatomy, the basal ganglia are divided into four distinct structures, depending on how or they are (in other words depending on how close to the top of the head they are): Two

2012 Wikipedia

125. Ciliary ganglion

the (a part of the brainstem) which form with the ciliary neurons. The postganglionic axons run in the and innervate two muscles: the constricts the , a movement known as . The opposite, , is the dilation of the pupil. the contracts, releasing tension on the , making the more convex, also known as . Both of these muscles are involuntary – they are controlled by the . It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the , , and ). Contents Anatomy [ ] Scheme showing (...) ganglia". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science . 27 (9): 1428–31. . Kawasaki, A (December 1999). "Physiology, assessment, and disorders of the pupil". Current Opinion in Ophthalmology . 10 (6): 394–400. : . . Thompson, HS; Kardon, RH (June 2006). "Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD Physiologist of the pupil". Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology . 26 (2): 139–48. : . . Thompson, HS (1977). . Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society . 75 : 587–626. . . External links [ ] at Human Anatomy Online

2012 Wikipedia

126. Functional Anatomy: Dynamic States in Basal Ganglia Circuits Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional Anatomy: Dynamic States in Basal Ganglia Circuits The most appealing models of how the basal ganglia function propose distributed patterns of cortical activity selectively interacting with striatal networks to yield the execution of context-dependent movements. If movement is encoded by patterns of activity then these may be disrupted by influences at once more subtle and more devastating than the increase or decrease of neuronal firing that dominate the usual models of the circuit (...) the on-going cortical rhythms. Subsequently asynchronous firing is reinstated and striatal cell assemblies and the whole basal ganglia circuit engage in a more normal pattern of activity. We will review the different variables involved in the generation of sequential activity patterns, integrate our data on deep brain stimulation and network population dynamics, and thus provide a novel interpretation of functional aspects of basal ganglia circuitry.

2010 Frontiers in neuroanatomy

127. Endoscopic anatomy of the postganglionic pterygopalatine innervation of the posterolateral nasal mucosa. (Abstract)

Endoscopic anatomy of the postganglionic pterygopalatine innervation of the posterolateral nasal mucosa. Recent anatomic dissections have redefined the sinonasal parasympathetic pathway suggesting that individual rami project from the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) to innervate the nasal mucosa via multiple small nerve fascicles. The purpose of this study is correlate these anatomic descriptions with endoscopic findings and to define the pattern and location of the posterolateral neurovascular

2011 International forum of allergy & rhinology

128. Variation, Variability, and the Origin of the Avian Endocranium: Insights from the Anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Variation, Variability, and the Origin of the Avian Endocranium: Insights from the Anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea) The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position (...) of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria--a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria

2011 PloS one

129. Surgical anatomy of transcanal endoscopic approach to the tympanic facial nerve. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surgical anatomy of transcanal endoscopic approach to the tympanic facial nerve. Until recently, tympanic facial nerve surgery had been performed using microscopic approaches, but in recent years, exclusive endoscopic approaches to the middle ear have increasingly been used, particularly in cholesteatoma surgery. The aim of this report was to illustrate the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve during an exclusive endoscopic transcanal approach.Retrospective video review of cadaveric dissections (...) by middle ear chronic disease were also included in our study.In all 14 subjects, the transcanal endoscopic approach guaranteed direct access to the entire tympanic segment of the facial nerve after ossicular chain removal, allowing decompression of the nerve from the geniculate ganglion and the greater petrosal nerve to the second genu of the facial nerve. As in microscopic techniques, the cochleariform process and transverse crest (cog) may represent useful landmarks.The tympanic facial nerve can

2011 Laryngoscope

130. Surgical anatomy of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract. (Abstract)

Surgical anatomy of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract. In order to safely explore the medial wall of the attic, a working knowledge of the anatomy of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract is required.To clarify the surgically relevant anatomical relationships that comprise the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract.Surgical dissection of 10 fresh cadaveric temporal bones was undertaken, including measurement of distances between the key anterior supralabyrinthine (...) anatomical landmarks.The following mean distances were calculated: the labyrinthine segment between the geniculate ganglion and the ampullated end of the superior semicircular canal, 2.33 mm (range 1.75-2.75); the tympanic segment between the anterior margin of the oval window niche and the geniculate ganglion, 3.58 mm (range 3.25-4); and from the tympanic segment adjacent to the anterior margin of the oval window niche to the labyrinthine segment adjacent to the superior semicircular canal, 3.48 mm

2011 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

131. Head and neck anatomy

Head and neck anatomy Head and neck anatomy - Wikipedia Head and neck anatomy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article includes a , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient . Please help to this article by more precise citations. ( December 2017 ) ( ) This article needs additional citations for . Please help by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: – · · · · ( December 2017 ) ( ) An MRI scan of the human head. This article describes (...) the anatomy of the and of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat. Contents Structure [ ] Bones [ ] The head rests on the top part of the , with the skull joining at C1 (the first known as the ). The skeletal section of the head and neck forms the top part of the and is made up of the , bone, , and . The skull can be further subdivided into: the (8 bones: frontal, 2-parietal, occipital, 2-temporal, , ), and the facial bones

2012 Wikipedia

132. ASTRO Guideline on Definitive and Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Basal and Squamous Cell Cancers of the Skin

the nerve pathway proximal to the skull base ganglion. 51,54 For head and neck cSCCs (and rarely for BCCs) with gross perineural spread, the trigeminal and facial nerve pathways are the most important cranial nerve pathways to consider inclusion in the radiation treatment volume. Familiarity with the anatomical pathways of these nerves to their ganglia in the Meckel’s cave and the geniculate ganglion near the internal auditory meatus is required to contour the elective target volumes. Additionally (...) selection among the various RT techniques can further enhance cosmetic and functional sparing. For example, orthovoltage beam or brachytherapy techniques are well-suited for especially sensitive ocular anatomy associated with medial canthus or eyelid lesions. 10,11,20 Surgical deformity of the nose and lips can lead to poor cosmesis and compromised function lending these sites to be particularly suitable for treatment with definitive RT. 9-11,21,22 Specialized radiation techniques (eg, surface

2020 American Society for Radiation Oncology

135. Consensus Practice Guidelines on Interventions for Lumbar Facet Joint Pain from a Multispecialty, International Working Group Full Text available with Trip Pro

spread was noted in 70% of injections. In addition, a case report in an active duty service member described a spinal headache requiring an epidural blood patch following a blind lumbar facet block. Guidelines and insurance coverage The SIS guidelines state ‘fluoroscopy is mandatory for the conduct of lumbar medial branch blocks’ as it provides an overview of the bony anatomy as well as the ability to confirm contrast spread. For MBB, the nerve is not directly visible with fluoroscopy, but its (...) that in current practice, CT should not be used for thermocoagulation of the lumbar medial branches. Use of ultrasound in the lumbar spine The use of ultrasound may provide an alternate imaging modality for performance of MBB and IA injections. This modality has widespread acceptance in regional anesthesia and can visualize soft tissue anatomy, neural structures and vascular supply. In addition, ultrasound is portable, can be used in pregnancy and does not require use of protective garments. However

2020 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

136. Assessment of mediastinal mass

Assessment of mediastinal mass Assessment of mediastinal mass - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of mediastinal mass Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Mediastinal anatomy The mediastinum is the thoracic space between the visceral pleura of the lungs. The boundaries of the mediastinum are the visceral pleura, thoracic inlet (spine, first ribs, and manubrium (...) and carina Lymph nodes Oesophagus Vagus nerves Thoracic duct. Posterior mediastinal contents include: Proximal intercostal vessels Thoracic spinal ganglion Sympathetic nerve chain Lymph nodes. Differentials Thoracic aortic aneurysm Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Metastatic cancer Thymoma Lung cancer Aortic dissection Hodgkin's lymphoma Mediastinal germ cell tumour: seminoma Mediastinal germ cell tumour: non-seminoma Thymic carcinoma Primary tracheal tumours Neurogenic tumour Thyroid neoplasm Substernal goitre

2018 BMJ Best Practice

137. Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy

dysfunction, but establishing the cause of olfactory loss relies heavily on the history. Olfactory evoked potentials are available in specialist centres. Optic (II) Anatomy Axons making up the optic nerve arise from retinal ganglion cells. These axons run towards the lamina cribrosa and merge in the optic papilla. At this point, they form the optic nerve. In the orbital apex, the nerve passes through the muscle origins and enters the optic canal. The nerve continues to course upwards and inwards until (...) against resistance, show their teeth, and purse their lips. With an upper motor neuron lesion, only the lower half of the face on the contralateral side is affected, due to bilateral innervation of the upper facial muscles. With a lower motor neuron lesion, there is upper and lower weakness on the ipsilateral side. Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Anatomy Cell bodies of the vestibular division reside in the vestibular (Scarpa) ganglion in the internal acoustic meatus. Their dendrites project to the hair cells

2018 BMJ Best Practice

140. Global Vascular Guidelines for patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

on best available data, pending level 1 evidence from ongoing trials. Vein bypass may be preferred for average-risk patients with advanced limb threat and high complexity disease, while those with less complex anatomy, intermediate severity limb threat, or high patient risk may be favored for endovascular intervention. All patients with CLTI should be afforded best medical therapy including the use of antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and glycemic control agents, as well as counseling

2019 Society for Vascular Surgery

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