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Ganglion Anatomy

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121. The Dorsal Column Lesion Model of Spinal Cord Injury and Its Use in Deciphering the Neuron‐Intrinsic Injury Response (PubMed)

to promote axonal regeneration in the injured central nervous system. The large-diameter sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia are pseudo-unipolar neurons that project one axon branch into the spinal cord, and, via the dorsal column to the brain stem, and a peripheral process to the muscles and skin. Dorsal root ganglion neurons are ideally suited to study the neuron-intrinsic injury response because they exhibit a successful growth response following peripheral axotomy, while they fail (...) to do so after a lesion of the central branch in the dorsal column. The dorsal column injury model allows the neuron-intrinsic regeneration response to be studied in the context of a spinal cord injury. Here we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model. We describe the surgical methods used to implement a lesion of the ascending fibers, the anatomy of the sensory afferent pathways and anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral techniques to quantify regeneration

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2018 Developmental neurobiology

122. Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the Prevention of Migraines

Currently on a stable regime of more than 1 migraine preventative therapy History of intracranial aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumor, or significant head trauma Structural abnormality at the nVNS treatment site (e.g., lymphadenopathy, previous surgery, abnormal anatomy) Pain at the nVNS treatment site (e.g., dysesthesia, neuralgia, cervicalgia) Other significant pain problem (e.g., cancer pain, fibromyalgia, other head or facial pain disorder) that, in the opinion of the Investigator, may (...) , sphenopalatine ganglion stimulator, occipital nerve stimulator) Been implanted with metal cervical spine hardware or has a metallic implant near the nVNS stimulation site Known history or suspicion of secondary headache History of syncope (within the last 2 years) History of seizure (within the last 2 years) Known history or suspicion of substance abuse or addiction (within the last 5 years) Currently using marijuana (including medical marijuana) or has used marijuana (including medical marijuana

2018 Clinical Trials

123. Unconventional Facial Entry Points Confirmed Using a 3D CT Reconstruction-Guided Stereotactic Approach to Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Series of Case Reports. (PubMed)

Unconventional Facial Entry Points Confirmed Using a 3D CT Reconstruction-Guided Stereotactic Approach to Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Series of Case Reports. Patients with trigeminal neuralgia who are refractory to medical therapy may choose to undergo Gasserian ganglion percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. However, in cases where the foramen ovale is difficult to access due to various anatomical anomalies, the typical estimation (...) three months after surgery. During the follow-up period, no patient reported pain recurrence.. The expectation for clinicians approaching trigeminal nerve block using a peri-oral approach should be to expect a great degree of potential variability in terms of both distances from the corner of the mouth and needle angle taken to successfully navigate the anatomy and access the foramen ovale.

2018 Pain Medicine

124. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

at diagnosis.[ ] Anatomy NSCLC arises from the epithelial cells of the lung of the central bronchi to terminal alveoli. The histological type of NSCLC correlates with site of origin, reflecting the variation in respiratory tract epithelium of the bronchi to alveoli. Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus. Adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma usually originate in peripheral lung tissue. Anatomy of the respiratory system. Pathogenesis Smoking-related lung carcinogenesis

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

125. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of neuroblastoma without clinical detection in the first year of life is at least as prevalent as clinically detected neuroblastoma.[ - ] Epidemiologic studies have shown that environmental or other exposures have not been unequivocally associated with increased or decreased incidences of neuroblastoma.[ ] Anatomy Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla and paraspinal or periaortic regions where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present (refer to ). Figure 1. Neuroblastoma may be found (...) diarrhea caused by the secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide by the tumor, or they may have protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal lymphangiectasia.[ ] Vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion may also occur with chemotherapeutic treatment, and tumor resection reduces vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion.[ ] Presence of Horner syndrome: Horner syndrome is characterized by miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis. It may be caused by neuroblastoma in the stellate ganglion, and children with Horner

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

126. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

years are considered cured of their tumor. Survival rates for other embryonal tumors are generally poorer, ranging from less than 5% to 50%; specifics are discussed within each subgroup in the summary.[ - ] Figure 1. Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), and other parts of the brain. The posterior fossa is the region below the tentorium, which separates the cortex from the cerebellum

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

127. Glaucoma

is a group of eye diseases that cause progressive optic neuropathy, and in which intraocular pressure (IOP) is a key modifiable factor. Glaucoma is commonly associated with raised IOP and is characterized by: Visual field defects. Changes to the optic nerve head such as pathological cupping or, as a late sign, pallor of the optic disc. Ocular hypertension is where there is consistently or recurrently elevated IOP (greater than 21 mmHg) but with no signs of glaucoma. [ ; ; ] Anatomy and physiology What (...) is the anatomy and physiology of the eye relevant to glaucoma? The descriptions of the anatomy and physiology of the eye may be more easily understood when read with the aid of a diagram of the eye, such as that on the website of the . Anterior chamber The anterior chamber is the fluid-filled space between the iris and the cornea. The anterior chamber angle is the angle between the iris and the cornea where they join the sclera towards the outside of the eye. The trabecular meshwork is situated in the apex

2016 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

128. Pre-oxygenation Methods in Bariatric Patients

of up to 7 minutes are possible. Apnoea time is a potentially hazardous period during induction of anaesthesia and it is particularly so in patients with severe obesity. On the one hand, obesity makes the upper airway anatomy difficult, and on the other hand, lung collapse (atelectasis) caused by abdominal contents compressing the base of the lungs reduces the amount of oxygen available within the lungs. Apnoea time can be as short of 30 seconds. Identifying the most effective method of pre (...) Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: Undecided Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Anesthetics Nicotine Central Nervous System Depressants Physiological Effects of Drugs Ganglionic Stimulants Autonomic Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Nicotinic Agonists Cholinergic Agonists Cholinergic Agents

2017 Clinical Trials

129. Anatomical Analysis of the Retinal Specializations to a Crypto-Benthic, Micro-Predatory Lifestyle in the Mediterranean Triplefin Blenny Tripterygion delaisi (PubMed)

specializations in aquatic animals, only a few have focused on small benthic fishes that occupy a heterogeneous and spatially complex visual environment. This study investigates the general retinal anatomy including the topography of both the photoreceptor and ganglion cell populations and estimates the spatial resolving power (SRP) of the eye of the Mediterranean triplefin Tripterygion delaisi. Retinal wholemounts were prepared to systematically and quantitatively analyze photoreceptor and retinal ganglion

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2017 Frontiers in neuroanatomy

130. Novel Markers for Detecting Early Progression of Glaucoma

. Accurate tracking of blood flow in the ONH is a logical step, but has evaded researchers for several reasons including the highly reflective ONH tissue which variably inhibits signal penetration making the complex nature of retinal and posterior ciliary contributions to ONH flow difficult to segregate. Even though glaucoma damage originates in the ONH, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons may show the earliest functional alterations as they have high metabolic demand and vulnerability to damage. Therefore (...) , tracking blood flow in the RNFL, which is highly segmental and resolvable, could be a better and more sensitive approach compared to that in the ONH. The macula contains almost 50% of the entire RGC population; likewise, monitoring blood flow in the macular inner vascular plexus corresponding to the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is likely to be highly informative for glaucoma progression. OCT based angiography (OCTA), which maps vessel density in different retinal vascular beds with unparalleled axial

2017 Clinical Trials

131. Anatomical organization and neural pathways of the ovarian plexus nerve in rats (PubMed)

Anatomical organization and neural pathways of the ovarian plexus nerve in rats In this work, a detailed anatomical description of the ovarian plexus nerve (OPN) in rats is presented. The distribution of the OPN was analyzed by gross anatomy; the features of the superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) were determined by histological studies; and the localization of the postganglionic neurons innervating the ovary were identified with retrograde tracer. We studied 19 adult cyclic rats of the CIIZ-V (...) strain.We found that the right OPN originates from the celiac ganglion, the lumbar ganglion of the sympathetic trunk (LGST) and the SMG. The left OPN originates from the LGST and the anastomotic branch from the splanchnic nerve. The SMG was attached to the inferior vena cava containing sympathetic neurons that innervate the right ovary through the OPN, and which is anatomically single. When the tracer was injected into the right ovary, only the SMG showed positive neurons, while when the tracer

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2017 Journal of ovarian research

132. Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma: a brief review (PubMed)

Biomechanical aspects of axonal damage in glaucoma: a brief review The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intraocular pressure (IOP); and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp). We note

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2017 Experimental eye research

133. An experimental animal model for percutaneous procedures used in trigeminal neuralgia (PubMed)

An experimental animal model for percutaneous procedures used in trigeminal neuralgia This study describes an experimental rabbit model that allows the reproduction of percutaneous operations that are used in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Attention was given to an exact anatomical description of the rabbit's middle cranial fossa as well as the establishment of conditions for a successful procedure.Morphometric measurements were taken from 20 rabbit skulls and CT scans. The anatomy (...) of the trigeminal nerve, as well as its surrounding structures, was assessed by bilateral dissection of 13 New Zealand white rabbits (NWR). An ideal approach of placing a needle through the foramen ovale to reach the TG was sought. Validation of correct placement was realized by fluoroscopy and confirmed by dissection.Precise instructions for successful reproduction of percutaneous procedures in NWR were described. According to morphological measurements, for balloon compression of the trigeminal ganglion (TG

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2017 Acta neurochirurgica

134. Optical clearing of the eye using the See Deep Brain technique (PubMed)

Optical clearing of the eye using the See Deep Brain technique PurposeTissue clearing has been used in anatomy for the first time in Germany over a century ago. Neuronal tissue, like cortex, was investigated in mice using a water-based optical clearing method termed See Deep Brain (SeeDB). However, although the eye belongs to the central nervous system, this histological technique was not applied in the eye up to date. We applied SeeDB for the visualization of intraocular structures.Patients (...) human and chicken eyes after SeeDB treatment. Macroscopical anatomy of the choroid (partially transparent due to the remaining retinal pigment epithelium and melanocytes) showing vessels and other related structures was possible without preparing slides. Mice optic nerves were also transparent after SeeDB treatment.ConclusionThe SeeDB method allows visualization of intraocular structures through a completely translucent sclera. This innovative processing technique could facilitate comprehensive

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2017 Eye

135. Neural circuit inference from function to structure (PubMed)

Neural circuit inference from function to structure Advances in technology are opening new windows on the structural connectivity and functional dynamics of brain circuits. Quantitative frameworks are needed that integrate these data from anatomy and physiology. Here, we present a modeling approach that creates such a link. The goal is to infer the structure of a neural circuit from sparse neural recordings, using partial knowledge of its anatomy as a regularizing constraint. We recorded visual (...) responses from the output neurons of the retina, the ganglion cells. We then generated a systematic sequence of circuit models that represents retinal neurons and connections and fitted them to the experimental data. The optimal models faithfully recapitulated the ganglion cell outputs. More importantly, they made predictions about dynamics and connectivity among unobserved neurons internal to the circuit, and these were subsequently confirmed by experiment. This circuit inference framework promises

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2017 Current biology : CB

136. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry. (PubMed)

attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells.Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions (...) , efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

2017 Retina

137. Systematic review on needs for medical devices for older people

of or compensation for an injury ? investigation, replacement, modification, or support of the anatomy or of a physiological process ? supporting or sustaining life ? control of conception ? disinfection of medical devices providing information by means of in vitro examination of specimens derived from the human body and which does not achieve its primary intended action by pharmacological, immunological or metabolic means, in or on the human body, but which may be assisted in its intended function by such means


139. NASPGHAN Guidelines for Training in Pediatric Gastroenterology

A pediatric gastroenterologist is expected to be an expert in the anatomy and physiology of a large segment of the human body G.G.C. has received compensation from the National Institutes of Health; M.C. has served on the speakers’ bureau and consulted for Nestle and served on the board of directors of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition; S.H.E. has consulted for Prometheus Labs; J.F. or her institution has received compensation from the Improve Care Now collaborative and Providence

2013 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

140. Diagnosis and Management of Achalasia

of the disease is degeneration of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus of the esophageal body and the LES. Although the cause for the degenerative processes is unclear, the end result of the infl ammatory process is loss of inhibitory neurotransmitters nitrous oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide and consequently imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Th is results in unopposed cholinergic activity that leads to incomplete relaxation of the LES and aperistalsis due to loss of latency (...) response in achalasia. Utilizing interpolation techniques to bridge the pressure sensors in HRM, Clouse and Staiano ( 24,25 ) created an analysis paradigm that portrays the pressure signal through the esophagus in a seamless dynamic space-time continuum in the form of esophageal pressure topography. Th is analysis technique merged anatomy with pressure mechanics and provided improved accuracy in identifying landmarks and distinguishing pressure patterns. Esophageal pressure topography has allowed

2013 American College of Gastroenterology

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