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Ganglion Anatomy

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101. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

years are considered cured of their tumor. Survival rates for other embryonal tumors are generally poorer, ranging from less than 5% to 50%; specifics are discussed within each subgroup in the summary.[ - ] Figure 1. Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), and other parts of the brain. The posterior fossa is the region below the tentorium, which separates the cortex from the cerebellum

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

102. Ossification of the pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments: a computed tomography analysis of infratemporal fossa anatomical variants relevant to percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. (PubMed)

Ossification of the pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments: a computed tomography analysis of infratemporal fossa anatomical variants relevant to percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. OBJECTIVEOssification of pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments traversing the superior aspect of the infratemporal fossa results in formation of osseous bars that can obstruct percutaneous needle access to the trigeminal ganglion through the foramen ovale (FO), interfere with lateral mandibular nerve block (...) , and impede transzygomatic surgical approaches. Presence of these ligaments has been studied on dry skulls, but description of their radiological anatomy is scarce, in particular on cross-sectional imaging. The aim of this study was to describe visualization of pterygoalar and pterygospinous bars on computed tomography (CT) and to review their prevalence and clinical significance.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed 200 helical sinonasal CT scans by analyzing 0.75- to 1.0-mm axial images, maximum

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

103. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

tumors in children; however, series from Japan and Asia report the incidence of CNS GCTs as approximately 15% of pediatric CNS tumors.[ , - ] The genetic or environmental reasons for these differences remain unknown. Anatomy CNS GCTs usually arise in the pineal and/or suprasellar regions of the brain, as solitary or multiple lesions (refer to ). The most common site of origin is the pineal region (45%), and the second most common site is the suprasellar region (30%) within the infundibulum (...) hemispheres, and medulla.[ , ] Figure 1. Anatomy of the inside of the brain. The supratentorium contains the cerebrum, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), choroid plexus, hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, and optic nerve. The infratentorium contains the cerebellum and brain stem. Molecular Features In a study of 62 cases of intracranial GCTs, next-generation sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, and expression array showed frequent mutations in the KIT/RAS signaling

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

104. Systematic review of needs for medical devices for ageing populations

, machine, appliance, implant, reagent for in vitro use, software, material or other similar or related article, intended by the manufacturer to be used, alone or in combination, for human beings for one or more of the specific purpose(s) of: • diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease; • diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of or compensation for an injury; • investigation, replacement, modification, or support of the anatomy or of a physiological process


105. Waiting Room Neurology • UCEM

good patient flow, incurs a minimum of cost and gives the clinician the satisfaction of shoving something into an orifice. References Trick of the Trade [ALiEM] Maizels, M; Scott B; Cohen W; Chen W. Intranasal lidocaine for treatment of migraine: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. JAMA 1996;27:319-21. [ ] Piagkou, M et al The pterygopalatine ganglion and its role in various pain syndromes: from anatomy to clinical practice. Pain Pract. 2012;12(5):399-412. [ ] Jenkin, SB; Tepper, SJ (...) . Neurostimulation for Primary Headache Disorders, Part 1: Pathophysiology and Anatomy, History of Neuromodulation in Headache Treatment, and Review of Peripheral Neuromodulation in Primary Headaches. Headache 2011;51:1254-1266. [ ] Martelletti, P et al Neuromodulation of chronic headaches: position statement from the European Headache Federation. J Headache Pain 2013;14(1):86. [ ] Khan, S; Schoenen, J; Ashina, M. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine: What is the rationale? Cephalalgia 2014;34(5

2017 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

106. Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques. (PubMed)

of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia, with a special focus on the anatomy of the maxillary fossa and canines. This study shows that the fossa, presumably for the venom-producing gland, is directly linked to the maxillary canal, which carries the trigeminal nerve (responsible for the sensitivity of the face). The peculiar anatomy of the maxillary canal suggests important reorganisation in the somatosensory system and that a ganglion could possibly have been present in the maxillary fossa instead of a venom (...) Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques. Euchambersia mirabilis is an iconic species of Permo-Triassic therapsid because of its unusually large external maxillary fossa linked through a sulcus to a ridged canine. This anatomy led to the commonly accepted conclusion that the large fossa accommodated a venom gland. However, this hypothesis remains untested so far. Here, we conducted a μCT scan assisted reappraisal

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2017 PLoS ONE

107. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications

. Moreover, patients after various spine surgeries may develop fibrous adhesions and scar tissue, thus further compromising the capacity of the epidural space and distorting the anatomy of the epidural vessels. The risk of bleeding is further increased in pain patients taking several concomitant medications with antiplatelet effects including NSAIDs, ASA, and SSRIs. | Anatomic Considerations for Hematoma Development in Spinal and Nonspinal Areas Although most cases of a spinal hematoma have (...) a multifactorial etiology, certain anatomic features may pose higher risks secondary to the anatomy and vascular supply of that specific spinal location. It is important for interventional pain physicians to apply knowledge of spinal and epidural anatomy during preprocedural planning. Contents of the epidural space include the epidural fat, dural sac, spinal nerves, extensive venous plexuses, lymphatics, and connective tissue (eg, plica mediana dorsalis and scar tissue after previous surgical intervention

2015 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

108. The Second ASRA Practice Advisory on Neurologic Complications Associated With Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

associated with nerve injury. These injuries often present as diffuse sensorimotor deficits (Class I). Consider delaying placement of regional blocks if assessment of postoperative nerve function is important for the surgeon (Class III). | ANATOMY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF NEURAXIAL INJURY Since our 2008 practice advisory, we have expanded recommendations on 5 specific topics that relate to the anatomy and pathophysiology of spinal cord injury associated with regional anesthesia and pain medicine: spinal (...) the controversy surrounding this topic, the panel views wakefulness as yet another monitor of patient well-being during procedural interventions and as such suggests that wakefulness could be considered a component of vigilant patient care, just as ultrasound guidance, PNS, and expert observation are. Recommendations for performing procedures on anesthetized or deeply sedated patients are presented in . | ANATOMY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PNI The pathophysiology and etiology of PNI associated with regional

2015 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

110. Chronic Pelvic Pain

A in pelvic pain 41 5.4.3 Sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in pelvic pain 41 5.4.4 Intermittent chronic anal pain syndrome 41 5.5 Summary 41 5.5.1 Conclusions and recommendations: anorectal pain syndrome 42 6. PERIPHERAL NERVE PAIN SYNDROMES 43 6.1 Neuropathic pain 43 6.2 Anatomy 44 6.2.1 The posterior subgluteal triangle nerves 44 6.2.2 Branches of the pudendal nerve 44 6.2.3 Anatomical relations of the pudendal nerve 44 6.2.4 Afferent nerves and the genitalia 45 6.2.5 (...) to more than one organ site, the term CPPS should be used. Many, including some of the authors of this text, never subdivide by anatomy and prefer to refer to patients with pain perceived within the pelvis and no specific disease process as suffering from CPPS, subdivided by psychological and functional symptoms. Psychological considerations for classification Many CPPSs are associated with a range of concurrent negative psychological, behavioural and sexual consequences that must

2015 European Association of Urology

111. AIUM Practice Parameter for the Performance of Selected Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

techniques. The choice of joint entry site for an ultrasound-guided procedure is situation specific and depends on patient position and regional anatomy, localization of fluid (if any), the proximity of neurovascular structures, and clinician preference. 34,37,42,44,45,71 Whereas ultrasound-guided joint injections may be performed with smaller-gauge nee- dles, larger-gauge needles are recommended for aspiration (eg, 20 gauge or larger). 6. After intra-articular needle positioning, the clinician may

2014 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

114. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

reentrant wavelets associated with heterogeneous conduction and refractoriness; 2) ≥1 rapidly firing foci, which may be responsive to activity from cardiac ganglion plexi; and 3) ≥1 rotors, or spiral wave reentrant circuits. , , , With a single rapid focus or rotor excitation, wave fronts may encounter refractory tissue and break up during propagation, resulting in irregular or fibrillatory conduction. , , Both rapid focal firing and reentry may be operative during AF. These presumed mechanisms have (...) ablation targeting of these sites often terminated or slowed AF. Other investigators, using a noninvasive continuous biatrial mapping system, report contrasting results, observing mostly evidence for multiple wavelets and focal sites rather than rotor activity. Some investigators targeted regions in which electrogram recordings show rapid complex atrial fractionated electrograms, which are thought to be indicative of the substrate for AF or markers for ganglion plexi (see Section for ablation

2014 American Heart Association

115. Secondary carpal tunnel syndrome

clearly occur coincidentally 'in association with' anything! Those associations which I feel are important are highlighted. Aberrant lumbricals + tenosynovial degeneration Abnormal lumbrical anatomy Abnormal palmaris longus Accessory palmaris brevis muscle Acromegaly Acute calcific periarthritis (hydroxyapatite) Acute calcifying tendonitis Acute CTS in hemophilia Acute intraneural haematoma from haemangioma Adiposis dolorosa Alcoholism ALS/Cerebellar ataxia Amyloidosis Anabolic steroid use Anomalous (...) at wrist Flex dig superfic indicis muscle in canal Flexor digitorum sublimis in carpal canal Ganglion (motor branch only) Ganglion of wrist Giant cell arteritis of the median artery Gout - tophaceous deposits on median nerve Gout (without tophi) Granulomatous tenosynovitis from Sporothrix schenckii Growth hormone abuse Guinea worm infestation Haemangioma of the median nerve Haematoma in anomalous lumbrical Haematoms secondary to warfarin therapy (acute CTS) Haemophilia Haemorrhage (Haemophilia


116. Superior Hypogastric Blockade for Postoperative Pain

information from the pelvic viscera to the spinal cord, interruption of sympathetic pathways will be necessary. The sympathetic nerve block on the sympathetic nervous system for the management of chronic pelvic pain has been proposed at three main levels: ganglion impar, hypogastric plexus and L2 lumbar sympathetic blocks. By following the pelvic anatomy, there could be an alternative way for acute pain relief for abdominal hysterectomy: superior hypogastric block. The superior hypogastric plexus lies (...) , and structures like vertebral column (for posterior) and guts (for anterior) are being on the way of the needle, these percutaneous blocks are associated with serious complications. Performing SHP during hysterectomy surgery, gives advantages to rule out these complications by exploring the whole intraabdominal anatomy. The investigators' theory is to find out if SHP blocks (during pelvic surgery) are useful for decreasing VAS pain scores and opioid consumption for postoperative pain. Condition or disease

2018 Clinical Trials

117. Association of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease With Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Findings. (PubMed)

Association of Preclinical Alzheimer Disease With Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Findings. Biomarker testing for asymptomatic, preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) is invasive and expensive. Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive technique that allows analysis of retinal and microvascular anatomy, which is altered in early-stage AD.To determine whether OCTA can detect early retinal alterations in cognitively normal study participants with preclinical AD (...) , media opacity, diabetes, or uncontrolled hypertension were excluded. Data were collected from July 1, 2016, through September 30, 2017, and analyzed from July 30, 2016, through December 31, 2017.Automated measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, ganglion cell layer thickness, inner and outer foveal thickness, vascular density, macular volume, and foveal avascular zone were collected using an OCTA system from both eyes of all participants. Separate model III analyses of covariance were

2018 JAMA ophthalmology

118. Substance P Modulation of Human and Murine Corneal Neovascularization. (PubMed)

, and intrastromal sutures. After death, CNV (blood and lymphatic) and leukocyte infiltration were quantified by CD31, LYVE1, and CD45 immunofluorescence, respectively. Trigeminal ganglions were collected for quantitatitive PCR IL1β quantification. Hematoxylin-eosin corneal cross sections and whole-mounted β-3-tubulin nerve staining were used to compare anatomy and nerve density of wild-type (WT) versus Tac1-KO normal mice.SP tear levels correlate positively with CNV extension in patients (r = 0.49, P = 0.03 (...) ). After disepithelization, Tac1-KO corneas showed reduced blood and lymphatic vascularization (-34% and -51% respectively) compared with the WT counterpart. CD45+ leukocytes infiltrating the cornea were reduced in Tac1-KO mice as opposed to WT in the disepithelization (P = 0.0001), alkali burn (P = 0.0258), and suture (P = 0.0149) models. Tac1-KO mice showed reduced IL1β expression in the trigeminal ganglion. Normal WT and Tac1-KO corneas did not show significant differences in transparency, thickness

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

119. The Human Cochlear Aqueduct and Accessory Canals: a Micro-CT Analysis Using a 3D Reconstruction Paradigm. (PubMed)

middle ear blood to the cranial sinus.Micro-CT with 3D surface reconstruction paradigm offers new possibilities to study the topographic anatomy of minor details in the human inner ear. The technique creates simulated transparent "castings" of the labyrinth with a coinciding surface view through enhancement of contrast between boundaries. Accessory canals that drain blood from the cochlea, spiral ganglion, and middle ear could be characterized three-dimensionally.

2018 Otology and Neurotology

120. Neuroimaging of Meckel’s cave in normal and disease conditions (PubMed)

Neuroimaging of Meckel’s cave in normal and disease conditions Meckel's cave is a dural recess in the posteromedial portion of the middle cranial fossa that acts as a conduit for the trigeminal nerve between the prepontine cistern and the cavernous sinus, and houses the Gasserian ganglion and proximal rootlets of the trigeminal nerve. It serves as a major pathway in perineural spread of pathologies such as head and neck neoplasms, automatically upstaging tumours, and is a key structure (...) to assess in cases of trigeminal neuralgia. The purpose of this pictorial review is threefold: (1) to review the normal anatomy of Meckel's cave; (2) to describe imaging findings that identify disease involving Meckel's cave; (3) to present case examples of trigeminal and non-trigeminal processes affecting Meckel's cave.• Meckel's cave contains the trigeminal nerve between prepontine cistern and cavernous sinus. • Assessment is essential for perineural spread of disease and trigeminal neuralgia. • Key

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2018 Insights into imaging

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