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Ganglion Anatomy

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641. Cerebral Palsy (Diagnosis)

Cerebral Palsy (Diagnosis) Cerebral Palsy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE3OTU1NS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Cerebral Palsy Updated: Aug 22, 2018 Author (...) [ , ] Stereotactic basal ganglia surgery: May improve rigidity, choreoathetosis, and tremor Orthopedic surgical intervention: To treat scoliosis, joint contractures or dislocation See and for more detail. Next: Background The term cerebral palsy (CP) was originally coined more than a century ago and loosely translates as "brain paralysis." However, cerebral palsy is not a single diagnosis but an "umbrella" term describing motor or postural abnormalities that are noted during early development, and are due

2014 eMedicine.com

642. Coccyx Pain (Diagnosis)

differentiating luxation, hypermobility, and normal mobility. Spine . 1996 Nov 15. 21(22):2588-93. . Wood KB, Mehbod AA. Operative treatment for coccygodynia. J Spinal Disord Tech . Dec 2004. 17(6):511-5. . Kerr EE, Benson D, Schrot RJ. Coccygectomy for chronic refractory coccygodynia: clinical case series and literature review. J Neurosurg Spine . 2011 May. 14(5):654-63. . Oh CS, Chung IH, Ji HJ, et al. Clinical implications of topographic anatomy on the ganglion impar. Anesthesiology . Jul 2004. 101(1):249 (...) Coccyx Pain (Diagnosis) Coccyx Pain: Practice Essentials, Anatomy, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzA5NDg2LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Coccyx Pain Updated: Mar 08, 2019 Author: Patrick M Foye

2014 eMedicine.com

644. Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Nonmalignant (Diagnosis)

Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Nonmalignant (Diagnosis) Nonmalignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia: Introduction, Definition of Terms, and Anatomy, Trichomycosis and Folliculitis, Balanoposthitis, Balanitis, and Candidiasis Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do (...) ?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvNDU1MDIxLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Nonmalignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia Updated: Feb 11, 2017 Author: Douglas C Parker, MD, DDS; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Nonmalignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia Introduction, Definition of Terms, and Anatomy Nonmalignant lesions account for most dermatologic disorders seen

2014 eMedicine.com

645. Dementia: Overview of Pharmacotherapy (Diagnosis)

period; this agent is used as an adjunct to levodopa in patients with motor fluctuations. Previous Next: Anatomy Parkinson disease is predominantly a disorder of the basal ganglia, which are a group of nuclei situated at the base of the forebrain. The striatum, composed of the caudate and putamen, is the largest nuclear complex of the basal ganglia. The striatum receives excitatory input from several areas of the cerebral cortex, as well as inhibitory and excitatory input from the dopaminergic cells (...) Dementia: Overview of Pharmacotherapy (Diagnosis) Parkinson Disease: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTgzMTE5MS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Parkinson Disease

2014 eMedicine.com

646. Bell Palsy (Diagnosis)

Bell Palsy (Diagnosis) Bell Palsy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE0NjkwMy1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Bell Palsy Updated: Nov 08, 2018 Author: Danette C (...) -nerve ganglia. [ ] (See Etiology.) Bell palsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders affecting the cranial nerves, and it is the most common cause of facial paralysis worldwide. It is thought to account for approximately 60-75% of cases of acute unilateral facial paralysis. Bell palsy is more common in adults, in people with diabetes, and in pregnant women. (See Epidemiology.) Diagnosis Determining whether facial nerve paralysis is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis

2014 eMedicine.com

647. Bell Palsy (Diagnosis)

Bell Palsy (Diagnosis) Bell Palsy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE0NjkwMy1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Bell Palsy Updated: Nov 08, 2018 Author: Danette C (...) -nerve ganglia. [ ] (See Etiology.) Bell palsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders affecting the cranial nerves, and it is the most common cause of facial paralysis worldwide. It is thought to account for approximately 60-75% of cases of acute unilateral facial paralysis. Bell palsy is more common in adults, in people with diabetes, and in pregnant women. (See Epidemiology.) Diagnosis Determining whether facial nerve paralysis is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis

2014 eMedicine.com

648. Arteriovenous Malformations (Diagnosis)

based on location and vascular anatomy Brain AVMs of Spetzler-Martin grade III can often be treated with a multimodal approach that uses embolization followed by surgical extirpation. If the lesion has a high surgical risk based on location and vascular anatomy, radiation therapy may be performed after embolization AVMs of Spetzler-Martin grade IV or V are often not amenable to surgical treatment alone because of the high procedural risk; these AVMs can be treated using a combined multimodal (...) %; patients with nonhemorrhagic presentation 0–3%). [ , ] Hemorrhage rates progressively converge with time for both patients groups after 1 year. [ ] Clinical and angiographic features associated with the risk for hemorrhagic presentation are male gender, small AVM size, location in the basal ganglia or posterior fossa, deep venous drainage, single or only few draining veins, high pressure in the feeding arteries as measured during angiography, and intranidal and flow-related feeding artery aneurysms

2014 eMedicine.com

649. Aphasia (Diagnosis)

in the parietal lobe, and expression in the frontal lobe, descending via the corticobulbar tracts to the internal capsule and brainstem, with modulatory effects of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Aphasia syndromes have been described based on patterns of abnormal language expression, repetition, and comprehension. These classical syndromes have been roughly correlated with specific left hemisphere locations, though clear overlaps and individual differences make the aphasia syndromes limited (...) A, Godefroy O, Delmaire C, et al. The anatomy of aphasia revisited. Neurology . 2000 Mar 14. 54(5):1117-23. . Naeser MA, Helm-Estabrooks N, Haas G, et al. Relationship between lesion extent in 'Wernicke's area' on computed tomographic scan and predicting recovery of comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia. Arch Neurol . 1987 Jan. 44(1):73-82. . Hillis AE, Gold L, Kannan V, et al. Site of the ischemic penumbra as a predictor of potential for recovery of functions. Neurology . 2008 Jul 15. 71(3):184-9. . Binder

2014 eMedicine.com

650. Anterior Circulation Stroke (Diagnosis)

Anterior Circulation Stroke (Diagnosis) Anterior Circulation Stroke: Origins and Sites of Occlusion, Circulatory Anatomy, Ischemic Patterns Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE1OTkwMC1vdmVydmlldw (...) carotid artery occlusion are, most commonly, artery-to-artery embolism or propagating thrombus and perfusion failure from distal insufficiency. The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the largest of the intracerebral vessels and supplies through its pial branches almost the entire convex surface of the brain, including the lateral frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes; insula; claustrum; and extreme capsule. The lenticulostriate branches of the MCA supply the basal ganglia, including the caput nuclei

2014 eMedicine.com

651. Nerve Block, Oral

W Van Meter, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Jeff Burgess, DDS, MSD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Oral Nerve Block Overview Overview An oral nerve block is a simple and effective way to manage orofacial pain without distorting the anatomy of a and without the use of narcotics. This article highlights the indications, equipment, contraindications, complications, and approach to performing the more commonly used oral nerve blocks. The technique section displays a step-by-step method (...) for each block; illustrations depict the area to be anesthetized and the position of the needle in relation to the anatomy. Next: Indications See the list below: Toothache, pulpitis, or root impaction Orofacial laceration repair (eg, , , mucosal) Postextraction pain, including dry socket and fractures Previous Next: Contraindications See the list below: Hypersensitivity or allergy to local anesthetic agents Distortion of landmarks needed to perform the nerve block Patient who are uncooperative because

2014 eMedicine.com

652. Adhesive Capsulitis (Diagnosis)

neuromodulatory concepts of joint pain into the authors' proposed pathoetiologic model of FS leaves room for the exploration of therapeutic modalities, such as bupivacaine suprascapular nerve blocks, stellate-ganglion blocks, and intra-articular morphine injections, to treat the pain associated with FS. Ischemia of the soft tissues may link the apparently distinct and separate pathophysiologic entities observed in FS, namely, neurologically mediated pain and fibromatosis-like contracture. The histologic (...) . 63(3):302-9. . . Bunker TD, Anthony PP. The pathology of frozen shoulder. A Dupuytren-like disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br . 1995. 77(5):677-83. Neer CS 2nd, Satterlee CC, Dalsey RM, et al. The anatomy and potential effects of contracture of the coracohumeral ligament. Clin Orthop . 1992 Jul. (280):182-5. . Ozaki J, Nakagawa Y, Sakurai G, et al. Recalcitrant chronic adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Role of contracture of the coracohumeral ligament and rotator interval in pathogenesis

2014 eMedicine.com

653. Corticosteroid Injections of Joints and Soft Tissues (Diagnosis)

syndromes Fasciitis Ganglion Cysts Neuromas A study by Rhon et al indicated that corticosteroid injections and physical therapy are equally effective in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome, although patients receiving corticosteroids may require more medical visits related to their condition. The study, a randomized, single-blind, comparative-effectiveness, parallel-group trial, involved 104 adult patients (aged 18-65 years) with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome. One group of patients (...) with as little pain and as few complications as possible. The technique is similar for muscle, periarticular, or articular injections. Selection of the site and careful attention to surface and deep anatomy are of paramount importance. [ ] Injections in the vicinity of known nerve or arterial landmarks should not be attempted. For example, a lateral epicondyle injection is relatively easy. An injection into at the medial epicondyle (near the ulnar nerve) carries greater risk, and extra care must be taken

2014 eMedicine.com

654. Diabetic Neuropathy (Diagnosis)

Diabetic Neuropathy (Diagnosis) Diabetic Neuropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE3MDMzNy1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Diabetic Neuropathy Updated: Jan (...) physical, occupational, speech, and recreational therapy. (See Medication.) Previous Next: Anatomy A review of the anatomy of the peripheral nervous system can facilitate understanding of the classification of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neurons can be categorized broadly as motor, sensory, or autonomic. Motor neurons originate in the central nervous system (CNS) and extend to the anterior horn of the spinal cord. From the anterior horn, they exit the spinal cord (via ventral roots

2014 eMedicine.com

655. Diabetic Neuropathy (Diagnosis)

Diabetic Neuropathy (Diagnosis) Diabetic Neuropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE3MDMzNy1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Diabetic Neuropathy Updated: Jan (...) physical, occupational, speech, and recreational therapy. (See Medication.) Previous Next: Anatomy A review of the anatomy of the peripheral nervous system can facilitate understanding of the classification of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neurons can be categorized broadly as motor, sensory, or autonomic. Motor neurons originate in the central nervous system (CNS) and extend to the anterior horn of the spinal cord. From the anterior horn, they exit the spinal cord (via ventral roots

2014 eMedicine.com

656. Esophageal Motility Disorders (Diagnosis)

observed in a patient with manometry confirmed findings of diffuse esophageal spasm (DES). Image courtesy of Andrew Taylor, MD, Professor, Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison. Response to amyl nitrate, with disappearance of the spasm on esophagram. Image courtesy of Andrew Taylor, MD, Professor, Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison. Anatomy The tubular esophagus is a muscular organ (...) Achalasia is the best defined primary motility disorder and the only one with an established pathology. The predominant neuropathologic process of achalasia involves the loss of ganglion cells from the wall of the esophagus, starting at the LES and developing proximally. The degree of ganglion cell loss parallels the disease duration such that, at 10 years, ganglion cells are likely completely absent. At the LES, the loss of inhibitory nerves is demonstrated by loss of nitric oxide synthase

2014 eMedicine.com

657. Anesthesia, Nose

ganglion (through the nasopalatine nerve) provide sensation to most of the septum. The cribriform plate holds the special sensory branches of the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I). See the image below. Innervation of the nasal cavity. For a more complete discussion of nasal anatomy, see . Next: Indications Internal nose See the list below: Examination with nasal speculum Abscess drainage Incision of [ , , ] Nasotracheal intubation [ , ] Nasal endoscopy [ ] Transnasal office-based (...) , medical risk factors, or operating room availability. Depending on the indication, satisfactory nasal anesthesia may be obtained by the use of topical sprays and pledgets, local injections, regional nerve blocks, or a combination of these. A comprehensive knowledge of the medications, techniques, and anatomy is the key to providing safe, timely, affordable, and effective local anesthesia. Nasal innervation The understanding of nasal innervation can be simplified by dividing it into the internal

2014 eMedicine.com

658. Prostate Cancer: Cryotherapy (Diagnosis)

planning Relevant anatomy The prostate gland rests in the pelvis on the urogenital diaphragm. It lies inferior to the bladder, anterior to the rectum (from which it is separated by Denonvilliers aponeurosis [fascia]), and posterior to the retropubic space of Retzius. It is bounded bilaterally by the levator ani musculature. The prostate surrounds the prostatic urethra. The prostate receives its blood supply from the inferior vesical and middle rectal branches of the internal iliac arteries and drains (...) and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase in the rat penis and pelvic ganglia. J Urol . 1998 Dec. 160(6 Pt 1):2245-52. . Robinson JW, Donnelly BJ, Saliken JC, Weber BA, Ernst S, Rewcastle JC. Quality of life and sexuality of men with prostate cancer 3 years after cryosurgery. Urology . 2002 Aug. 60(2 Suppl 1):12-8. . Ellis DS, Manny TB Jr, Rewcastle JC. Cryoablation as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer followed by penile rehabilitation. Urology . 2007 Feb. 69(2):306-10. . Janzen NK

2014 eMedicine.com

659. Epidural Steroid Injections (Diagnosis)

by spinal stenosis is probably related to the inhibition of normal nerve root vascular flow with resultant nerve root nutrition, nerve root edema, and nerve root dysfunction. Chronic nerve root compression can induce axon ischemia, impede venous return, promote plasma protein extravasation, and cause local inflammation. If dorsal root ganglia are chronically compressed and irritated, this theoretically can lead to their sensitization and resultant radicular pain. Similar mechanisms of radicular pain (...) are postulated to occur in the thoracic and cervical spine as well. In summary, clinical practice and animal research suggest that radicular pain is the result of inflammation of the nerve root in the epidural space provoked by leakage of disk material, compression of the nerve root vasculature, and/or irritation of dorsal root ganglia from spinal stenosis. Previous Next: Rationale for Use of Steroids in Back Pain Since lumbar radicular pain may originate from inflammation of the epidural space and the nerve

2014 eMedicine.com

660. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Adults (Diagnosis)

understanding of the anatomy, biochemistry, ontogeny, and physiology of GnRH neurons aids in understanding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of KS and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors The decapeptide GnRH is derived from posttranslation processing of a tripartite 92–amino acid (AA) pre-pro-GnRH. The first 23 AA is a signal peptide and the last 56 AA is known as GnRH–associated protein (GAP). GnRH (...) from the olfactory placode to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus in mammals. The olfactory placode is composed of thickened ectoderm that is lateral to the head of the developing embryo and invaginates to form simple olfactory pits on either side of the nasal septum. The lateral epithelium of the olfactory pits gives rise to the olfactory nerves. The medial portion develops into the site of initial GnRH appearance and the terminal nerves. The terminal nerves, ganglionated cranial nerves

2014 eMedicine.com

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