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Ganglion Anatomy

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21. Interindividual Variations in Foveal Anatomy and Artifacts Seen on Inner Retinal Probability Maps from Spectral Domain OCT Scans of the Macula Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interindividual Variations in Foveal Anatomy and Artifacts Seen on Inner Retinal Probability Maps from Spectral Domain OCT Scans of the Macula We tested the hypothesis that variations in foveal morphology can account for artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer probability maps.A total of 126 healthy subjects were tested with spectral domain (sd) OCT. Thickness and probability maps of the macular RGC plus inner plexiform layer (RGC+) were obtained (...) in the distribution of RGC+ thickness that are not reflected in our measures warrant further investigation as potential sources of artifacts.A small proportion of circumfoveal artifacts seen on RGC+ probability maps can be explained by variations in foveal anatomy.

2018 Translational vision science & technology

22. Anatomy and neural remodeling of the renal sympathetic nerve in a canine model and patients with hypertension. (Abstract)

Anatomy and neural remodeling of the renal sympathetic nerve in a canine model and patients with hypertension. The role of renal sympathetic nerve (RSN) in hypertension should be better understood. We aimed to three-dimensionally reconstruct the renal nerves, and explore its anatomical and histochemical characteristics in hypertensive canine model and patients.Renal arteries with surrounding tissue were collected from canines and cadavers with or without hypertension. Serial renal artery (...) ganglion were significantly increased in hypertensive canines. In humans, the renal nerve was evenly distributed along the renal artery in a network pattern. The renal ganglion volume was 72.75 ± 33.43 in hypertensive patients versus 37.04 ± 23.95 μl in controls (P = 0.029) and the mean neuronal size in renal ganglion was 1187.3 ± 219.9 μm in patients versus 714.8 ± 142.7 μm in controls (P = 0.002). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the RSN was 0.153 ± 0.014 in patients versus 0.104 ± 0.019

2018 Journal of Hypertension

23. Are spinoglenoid ganglion cysts early markers of glenohumeral arthritis? (Abstract)

Are spinoglenoid ganglion cysts early markers of glenohumeral arthritis? The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and symptoms of ganglion cysts (GCs) in the spinoglenoid notch. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) the labral tears responsible for these cysts are mainly degenerative and nontraumatic, (2) spinoglenoid cysts are early magnetic resonance image (MRI) markers of eccentric posterior glenoid wear.This was a descriptive diagnostic study. Patients were (...) of GCs should be supplemented by humeral subluxation index measurement on computed tomography scan or MRI, and the patient should be informed that joint-related posterior shoulder pain might persist in cases of GC1 and GC2.Basic Science Study; Anatomy; Imaging and In Vivo.Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

24. Convection-enhanced delivery improves MRI visualization of basal ganglia for stereotactic surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to better define the anatomy. This technique could greatly improve the accuracy and success of stereotactic surgery, potentially eliminating the reliance on awake surgery. METHODS Observations were made in the clinical setting where vasogenic and cytotoxic edema improved the MRI visualization of the basal ganglia. These findings were replicated in the experimental setting using an FDA-approved intracerebral catheter that was stereotactically inserted into the thalamus or basal ganglia of 7 swine. Five (...) hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging as compared with basal ganglia nuclei, enabling better definition of the deep brain anatomy. The volume of distribution and infusion (Vd/Vi ratio) ranged from 2.5 to 4.5. There were no observed clinical effects from the infusions. Histological analysis demonstrated mild neuronal effects from saline infusions but no effects from CSF infusions. CONCLUSIONS This work provides the initial foundation for a novel approach to improve the visualization of deep brain anatomy

2016 Journal of Neurosurgery

25. Signalling by melanopsin (OPN4) expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Signalling by melanopsin (OPN4) expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of both the anatomy and function of the melanopsin system. It has become clear that rather than acting as a simple irradiance detector the melanopsin system is in fact far more complicated. The range of behavioural systems known to be influenced by melanopsin activity is increasing with time, and it is now clear that melanopsin (...) contributes not only to multiple non-image forming systems but also has a role in visual pathways. How melanopsin is capable of driving so many different behaviours is unclear, but recent evidence suggests that the answer may lie in the diversity of melanopsin light responses and the functional specialisation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (pRGC) subtypes. In this review, we shall overview the current understanding of the melanopsin system, and evaluate the evidence for the hypothesis

2016 Eye

26. Technical and surgical aspects of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) microstimulator insertion procedure. (Abstract)

Technical and surgical aspects of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) microstimulator insertion procedure. Cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating, severe form of headache. A novel non-systemic therapy has been developed that produces therapeutic electrical stimulation to the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). A transoral surgical technique for inserting the Pulsante SPG Microstimulator into the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is presented herein. Technical aspects include detailed descriptions (...) of the preoperative planning using computed tomography or cone beam computed tomography scans for presurgical digital microstimulator insertion into the patient-specific anatomy and intraoperative verification of microstimulator placement. Surgical aspects include techniques to insert the microstimulator into the proper midface location atraumatically. During the Pathway CH-1 and Pathway R-1 studies, 99 CH patients received an SPG microstimulator. Ninety-six had a microstimulator placed within the PPF during

2015 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

27. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease. (Abstract)

summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders.The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from (...) Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease. The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders.To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example.A

2015 JAMA neurology

28. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Hand and Upper Limb Pain

Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Hand and Upper Limb Pain Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Hand and Upper Limb Pain - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation (...) with chronic hand or upper limb pain. Condition or disease Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation Pain in Limb, Hand, Foot, Fingers and Toes Causalgia of Upper Limb Detailed Description: Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) stimulation is a form of Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS), which has been available and used for the treatment of chronic pain in Europe since late 2011. Clinical practice and pre/post market studies have shown that stimulation of the DRG can significantly reduce chronic intractable pain of various

2015 Clinical Trials

29. Attenuated infrared neuron stimulation response in cochlea of deaf animals may associate with the degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons Full Text available with Trip Pro

Attenuated infrared neuron stimulation response in cochlea of deaf animals may associate with the degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons We hypothesize that degenerated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in guinea pigs reduces auditory brainstem responses evoked by pulsed infrared stimulation.Pulsed infrared laser excitation can directly evoke physiological responses in neuronal and other excitable cells in vivo and in vitro. Laser pulses could benefit patients with cochlear implants to stimulate (...) the auditory system.Pulsed infrared lasers were used to study evoked optical auditory brainstem responses (oABRs) in normal hearing and deafened animals. Aslo, the morphology and anatomy of SGNs in normal hearing and deafened guinea pigs were compared.By recording oABRs evoked by varying infrared laser pulse durations, it is suggested that degeneration of SGNs in deafened guinea pigs was associated with an elevated oABR threshold and with lower amplitudes. Moreover, oABR threshold decreased while

2015 Biomedical optics express

30. Balancing the basal ganglia circuitry: A possible new role for dopamine D2 receptors in health and disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

circuit anatomy is very complex, and significant controversy exists as to how the interplay of different basal ganglia nuclei process motor information and output. We have recently identified the importance of an underappreciated collateral projection that bridges the striatal output direct pathway with the indirect pathway. These bridging collaterals are extremely plastic in the adult brain and are involved in the regulation of motor balance. Our findings add a new angle to the classical model (...) Balancing the basal ganglia circuitry: A possible new role for dopamine D2 receptors in health and disease. Current therapies for treating movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease are effective but limited by undesirable and intractable side effects. Developing more effective therapies will require better understanding of what causes basal ganglia dysregulation and why medication-induced side effects develop. Although basal ganglia have been extensively studied in the last decades, its

2015 Movement Disorders

31. Microsurgical anatomy of the central core of the brain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microsurgical anatomy of the central core of the brain. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the cortical and subcortical anatomy of the central core of the brain, defining its limits, with particular attention to the topography and relationships of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and related white matter pathways and vessels. METHODS The authors studied 19 cerebral hemispheres. The vascular systems of all of the specimens were injected with colored silicone (...) in a sequential anteroposterior disposition: the uncinate fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, and claustrocortical fibers. The putamen and the globus pallidus are between the external capsule, laterally, and the internal capsule, medially. The internal capsule is present medial to almost all insular limiting sulci and most of the insular surface, but not to their most anteroinferior portions. This anteroinferior portion of the central core has a more complex anatomy and is distinguished

2017 Journal of Neurosurgery

32. The aging rat retina: from function to anatomy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The aging rat retina: from function to anatomy. In healthy beings, age is the ultimate reason of cellular malfunction and death. In the rat retina, age causes a functional decline and loss of specific neuronal populations. In this regard, controversial conclusions have been reported for the innermost retina. Here, we have studied the albino and pigmented retina for the duration of the rat life-span. Independent of age (21 days-22 months), the electroretinographic recordings and the volume (...) of the retina and its layers are smaller in albinos. Functionally, aging causes in both strains a loss of cone- and rod-mediated responses. Anatomically, cell density decreases with age because the retina grows linearly with time; no cell loss is observed in the ganglion cell layer; and only in the pigmented rat, there is a decrease in cone photoreceptors. In old animals of both strains, there is gliosis in the superior colliculi and a diminution of the area innervated by retinal ganglion cells

2017 Neurobiology of Aging

33. The “sacral parasympathetic”: ontogeny and anatomy of a myth Full Text available with Trip Pro

The “sacral parasympathetic”: ontogeny and anatomy of a myth We recently defined genetic traits that distinguish sympathetic from parasympathetic neurons, both preganglionic and ganglionic (Espinosa-Medina et al., Science 354:893-897, 2016). By this set of criteria, we found that the sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic, not parasympathetic as has been thought for more than a century. Proposing such a belated shift in perspective begs the question why the new criterion (cell types

2017 Clinical Autonomic Research

34. Histoplasmosis by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii Observed at the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy of Lomé in Togo Full Text available with Trip Pro

Histoplasmosis by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii Observed at the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy of Lomé in Togo Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual (...) incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level. HIV infection was known in 3 patients and one patient contracted tuberculosis. The clinical manifestations were cutaneous in 7 cases, cutaneous and mucous in 3 cases, cutaneous and lymph node in 3 cases, cutaneous and bone in 2 cases, and disseminated in 2 cases. The samples examined consisted of 14 cutaneous biopsies measuring 2-3 cm and 3 ganglionic

2017 Journal of pathogens

35. Neurologic Anatomy

Neurologic Anatomy Neurologic Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Neurologic Anatomy Neurologic Anatomy Aka (...) : Neurologic Anatomy , Neuroanatomy II. Anatomy: Extracranial and Vascular Anatomy Bones See Peripheral Nerves See See See CNS Vascular Supply See III. Anatomy: Cerebrum Major divisions Anatomical landmarks (divide the cerebral lobes into further identifiable regions) Brain sulci and Brain Fissures IV. Anatomy: Cerebellum See See V. Anatomy: Brain Stem See See s Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) VI. Anatomy: Diencephalon Epithalamus (posterior) Habenula (and habenular commissure) Stria

2018 FP Notebook

36. Retinal Anatomy

Retinal Anatomy Retinal Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Retinal Anatomy Retinal Anatomy Aka: Retinal Anatomy (...) , Retina Anatomy , Retina , Macula , Fovea II. Anatomy Retina Lines the globe inner surface and contains light sensitive s that transmit signals to the Photoreceptors (rods and cones) comprise the inner, sensory layer of the Retina Macula Retinal region responsible for central vision Lies two disc diameters lateral to the optic disc Fovea Subpart of the Macula with highest (and highest cone density) Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed

2018 FP Notebook

37. Spinal Cord Anatomy

Spinal Cord Anatomy Spinal Cord Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Spinal Cord Anatomy Spinal Cord Anatomy Aka (...) : Spinal Cord Anatomy , Spinocerebellar Tract , Corticospinal tract , Spinothalamic Tract , Fasciculus Gracilis , Fasciculus Cuneatus , Nucleus Gracilis , Nucleus Cuneatus , Dorsal Propriospinal Tract , Posterior Column , Spinocervicothalamic Tract , Internal Arcuate Tract , Medial Lemniscus II. Components: Spinal Cord Levels ral Total spinal nerves: 31 pairs Spinal cord ends at L2 Spinal nerves L2 to S5 descend as individual "horse hairs" (cauda equina) Nerves exit at their respective l levels

2018 FP Notebook

38. Sources of arterial blood supply to the superior and middle cervical sympathetic ganglia and the ganglion intermédiaire Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sources of arterial blood supply to the superior and middle cervical sympathetic ganglia and the ganglion intermédiaire 14794549 2004 02 15 2018 12 01 0021-8782 84 4 1950 Oct Journal of anatomy J. Anat. Sources of arterial blood supply to the superior and middle cervical sympathetic ganglia and the ganglion intermediaire. 329-41 PATTERSON E L EL eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 OM Ganglia, Sympathetic Humans Neck Sympathetic Nervous System 5120:25327:81 NERVOUS SYSTEM

1950 Journal of anatomy

39. The origin of intramural ganglia. II. The trunk neural crest as a source of enteric ganglion cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The origin of intramural ganglia. II. The trunk neural crest as a source of enteric ganglion cells. 5803232 1969 10 03 2018 11 13 0021-8782 105 Pt 1 1969 Jul Journal of anatomy J. Anat. The origin of intramural ganglia. II. The trunk neural crest as a source of enteric ganglion cells. 89-101 Andrew A A eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 IM Animals Cervical Vertebrae Chick Embryo Ganglia embryology Germ Layers Intestines anatomy & histology embryology innervation Vagus Nerve

1969 Journal of anatomy

40. The origin of intramural ganglia. IV. The origin of enteric ganglia: a critical review and discussion of the present state of the problem. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The origin of intramural ganglia. IV. The origin of enteric ganglia: a critical review and discussion of the present state of the problem. 5543210 1971 03 31 2018 11 13 0021-8782 108 Pt 1 1971 Jan Journal of anatomy J. Anat. The origin of intramural ganglia. IV. The origin of enteric ganglia: a critical review and discussion of the present state of the problem. 169-84 Andrew A A eng Journal Article Review England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 IM Animals Cattle Cell Differentiation Cell Movement

1971 Journal of anatomy

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