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Ganglion Anatomy

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181. Systematic review of needs for medical devices for ageing populations

, machine, appliance, implant, reagent for in vitro use, software, material or other similar or related article, intended by the manufacturer to be used, alone or in combination, for human beings for one or more of the specific purpose(s) of: • diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease; • diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, alleviation of or compensation for an injury; • investigation, replacement, modification, or support of the anatomy or of a physiological process

2015 Publication 80

182. Chronic Pelvic Pain

A in pelvic pain 41 5.4.3 Sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in pelvic pain 41 5.4.4 Intermittent chronic anal pain syndrome 41 5.5 Summary 41 5.5.1 Conclusions and recommendations: anorectal pain syndrome 42 6. PERIPHERAL NERVE PAIN SYNDROMES 43 6.1 Neuropathic pain 43 6.2 Anatomy 44 6.2.1 The posterior subgluteal triangle nerves 44 6.2.2 Branches of the pudendal nerve 44 6.2.3 Anatomical relations of the pudendal nerve 44 6.2.4 Afferent nerves and the genitalia 45 6.2.5 (...) to more than one organ site, the term CPPS should be used. Many, including some of the authors of this text, never subdivide by anatomy and prefer to refer to patients with pain perceived within the pelvis and no specific disease process as suffering from CPPS, subdivided by psychological and functional symptoms. 2.4.2.2.2 Psychological considerations for classification Many CPPSs are associated with a range of concurrent negative psychological, behavioural and sexual consequences that must

2015 European Association of Urology

183. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications

surgical intervention, resulting in scarring at the targeted site, may be an independent risk factor for the subsequent development of an epidural hematoma secondary to reduced ability to absorb blood and blood products. Other locations associated with significant undesirable vascularity include the target ganglia of the middle cervical, stellate, lumbar sympathetic, and celiac plexus. For example, multiple vascular structures surround the location for stellate ganglion blockade including the vertebral (...) . Moreover, patients after various spine surgeries may develop fibrous adhesions and scar tissue, thus further compromising the capacity of the epidural space and distorting the anatomy of the epidural vessels. The risk of bleeding is further increased in pain patients taking several concomitant medications with antiplatelet effects including NSAIDs, ASA, and SSRIs. | Anatomic Considerations for Hematoma Development in Spinal and Nonspinal Areas Although most cases of a spinal hematoma have

2015 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

185. Value-based commissioning of MSK procedures

: a review of clinical and cost ef- fectiveness. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, HTA Issue 77, March 2007 http://www.cadth.ca/media/pdf/ I3003_tr_Facet_Joint_Injections_e.pdf21 Proposed policy: Funding will be considered only where the ganglion is very painful or there is doubt about the diagnosis or it is causing significant functional impairment. Ganglia are benign fluid filled, firm and rubbery lumps attached to the adjacent underlying joint capsule, ligament, tendon or tendon (...) sensitivity, joint stiffness and distal numbness. Surgical treatment for ganglia will only be funded in accordance with the criteria specified below. • The ganglia are symptomatic; OR • There is functional impairment When completing an IFR request include reference to the degree of pain and restriction of normal activities caused by the ganglion. *Taken from the Northumberland CCG Value Based Clinical Commissioning Policies The British Society for Surgery of the Hand Guidance http://www.bssh.ac.uk

2014 Evidence briefings

186. Ossification of the pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments: a computed tomography analysis of infratemporal fossa anatomical variants relevant to percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. (Abstract)

Ossification of the pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments: a computed tomography analysis of infratemporal fossa anatomical variants relevant to percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy. OBJECTIVEOssification of pterygoalar and pterygospinous ligaments traversing the superior aspect of the infratemporal fossa results in formation of osseous bars that can obstruct percutaneous needle access to the trigeminal ganglion through the foramen ovale (FO), interfere with lateral mandibular nerve block (...) , and impede transzygomatic surgical approaches. Presence of these ligaments has been studied on dry skulls, but description of their radiological anatomy is scarce, in particular on cross-sectional imaging. The aim of this study was to describe visualization of pterygoalar and pterygospinous bars on computed tomography (CT) and to review their prevalence and clinical significance.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed 200 helical sinonasal CT scans by analyzing 0.75- to 1.0-mm axial images, maximum

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

187. The Anatomical Study and Clinical Significance of the Sinuvertebral Nerves at the Lumbar Levels. (Abstract)

to the spinal canal. Sixty-one (44.20%) sinuvertebral nerve main trunks originated from the starting point of the gray ramus communicans of the nerve root; 77 (55.80%) sinuvertebral nerve main trunks originated from the anterior surface of the spinal ganglia of the nerve root.This is a systematic anatomy study that describes the sinuvertebral nerve at the lumbar level and may be of clinical importance to spinal surgeons. A comprehensive understanding of the distribution of sinuvertebral nerves may lead

2019 Spine

188. Deep brain stimulation induced normalization of the human functional connectome in Parkinson's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

brain network activity by local high frequency stimulation of the basal ganglia. Beyond clinical utility, DBS represents a powerful research platform to study functional connectomics and the modulation of distributed brain networks in the human brain. We acquired resting-state functional MRI in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease with subthalamic DBS switched on and off. An age-matched control cohort of 15 subjects was acquired from an open data repository. DBS lead placement in the subthalamic (...) nucleus was localized using a state-of-the art pipeline that involved brain shift correction, multispectral image registration and use of a precise subcortical atlas. Based on a realistic 3D model of the electrode and surrounding anatomy, the amount of local impact of DBS was estimated using a finite element method approach. On a global level, average connectivity increases and decreases throughout the brain were estimated by contrasting on and off DBS scans on a voxel-wise graph comprising eight

2019 Brain

189. Human caudate nucleus subdivisions in tinnitus modulation. (Abstract)

, the caudate body has stronger functional connectivity to the auditory cortex. These first-in-human findings provide insight into the functional anatomy of caudate nucleus subdivisions and may inform future target selection in a basal ganglia-centric neuromodulation approach to treat medically refractory tinnitus.Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01988688 (clinicaltrials.gov).

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

190. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

tumors in children; however, series from Japan and Asia report the incidence of CNS GCTs as approximately 15% of pediatric CNS tumors.[ , - ] The genetic or environmental reasons for these differences remain unknown. Anatomy CNS GCTs usually arise in the pineal and/or suprasellar regions of the brain, as solitary or multiple lesions (refer to ). The most common site of origin is the pineal region (45%), and the second most common site is the suprasellar region (30%) within the infundibulum (...) or pituitary stalk. Both of these sites are considered extra-axial or nonparenchymal CNS locations. Approximately 5% to 10% of patients present with synchronous tumors arising in both the suprasellar and pineal locations, and the histology is most frequently a germinoma.[ ] Males have a higher incidence of GCTs than do females, with males having a preponderance of pineal-region primary tumors. Other areas that may be involved, though rare, include the basal ganglia, ventricles, thalamus, cerebral

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

191. Secondary carpal tunnel syndrome

clearly occur coincidentally 'in association with' anything! Those associations which I feel are important are highlighted. Aberrant lumbricals + tenosynovial degeneration Abnormal lumbrical anatomy Abnormal palmaris longus Accessory palmaris brevis muscle Acromegaly Acute calcific periarthritis (hydroxyapatite) Acute calcifying tendonitis Acute CTS in hemophilia Acute intraneural haematoma from haemangioma Adiposis dolorosa Alcoholism ALS/Cerebellar ataxia Amyloidosis Anabolic steroid use Anomalous (...) at wrist Flex dig superfic indicis muscle in canal Flexor digitorum sublimis in carpal canal Ganglion (motor branch only) Ganglion of wrist Giant cell arteritis of the median artery Gout - tophaceous deposits on median nerve Gout (without tophi) Granulomatous tenosynovitis from Sporothrix schenckii Growth hormone abuse Guinea worm infestation Haemangioma of the median nerve Haematoma in anomalous lumbrical Haematoms secondary to warfarin therapy (acute CTS) Haemophilia Haemorrhage (Haemophilia

2013 Carpal-Tunnel.net

192. Unconventional Facial Entry Points Confirmed Using a 3D CT Reconstruction-Guided Stereotactic Approach to Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Series of Case Reports. (Abstract)

Unconventional Facial Entry Points Confirmed Using a 3D CT Reconstruction-Guided Stereotactic Approach to Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Series of Case Reports. Patients with trigeminal neuralgia who are refractory to medical therapy may choose to undergo Gasserian ganglion percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. However, in cases where the foramen ovale is difficult to access due to various anatomical anomalies, the typical estimation (...) three months after surgery. During the follow-up period, no patient reported pain recurrence.. The expectation for clinicians approaching trigeminal nerve block using a peri-oral approach should be to expect a great degree of potential variability in terms of both distances from the corner of the mouth and needle angle taken to successfully navigate the anatomy and access the foramen ovale.

2018 Pain Medicine

193. A Natural History of Skills. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, habits formation has been proposed to reflect a switch from conscious on-line control of behavior by the cortex, to a fully automated subcortical control. In this review, we propose to revalue the function of the network in light of the current experimental evidence concerning the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits in vertebrates. We briefly review the current theories and show that they could be encompassed in a broader framework of skill learning and performance (...) A Natural History of Skills. The dorsal pallium (a.k.a. cortex in mammals) makes a loop circuit with the basal ganglia and the thalamus known to control and adapt behavior but the who's who of the functional roles of these structures is still debated. Influenced by the Triune brain theory that was proposed in the early sixties, many current theories propose a hierarchical organization on the top of which stands the cortex to which the subcortical structures are subordinated. In particular

2018 Progress in Neurobiology

194. Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the Prevention of Migraines

Currently on a stable regime of more than 1 migraine preventative therapy History of intracranial aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumor, or significant head trauma Structural abnormality at the nVNS treatment site (e.g., lymphadenopathy, previous surgery, abnormal anatomy) Pain at the nVNS treatment site (e.g., dysesthesia, neuralgia, cervicalgia) Other significant pain problem (e.g., cancer pain, fibromyalgia, other head or facial pain disorder) that, in the opinion of the Investigator, may (...) , sphenopalatine ganglion stimulator, occipital nerve stimulator) Been implanted with metal cervical spine hardware or has a metallic implant near the nVNS stimulation site Known history or suspicion of secondary headache History of syncope (within the last 2 years) History of seizure (within the last 2 years) Known history or suspicion of substance abuse or addiction (within the last 5 years) Currently using marijuana (including medical marijuana) or has used marijuana (including medical marijuana

2018 Clinical Trials

195. Neuroimaging of Meckel’s cave in normal and disease conditions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuroimaging of Meckel’s cave in normal and disease conditions Meckel's cave is a dural recess in the posteromedial portion of the middle cranial fossa that acts as a conduit for the trigeminal nerve between the prepontine cistern and the cavernous sinus, and houses the Gasserian ganglion and proximal rootlets of the trigeminal nerve. It serves as a major pathway in perineural spread of pathologies such as head and neck neoplasms, automatically upstaging tumours, and is a key structure (...) to assess in cases of trigeminal neuralgia. The purpose of this pictorial review is threefold: (1) to review the normal anatomy of Meckel's cave; (2) to describe imaging findings that identify disease involving Meckel's cave; (3) to present case examples of trigeminal and non-trigeminal processes affecting Meckel's cave.• Meckel's cave contains the trigeminal nerve between prepontine cistern and cavernous sinus. • Assessment is essential for perineural spread of disease and trigeminal neuralgia. • Key

2018 Insights into imaging

196. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Eye Movements and Vestibular Function Full Text available with Trip Pro

to analogies to interpret its effects on complex appendicular and axial motor function. This review focuses on the influence of globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus DBS on ocular motor and vestibular functions. The anatomy and physiology of basal ganglia, pertinent to the principles of DBS and ocular motility, is discussed. Interpretation of the effects of electrical stimulation of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease requires understanding of baseline ocular motor function (...) Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Eye Movements and Vestibular Function Discovery of inter-latching circuits in the basal ganglia and invention of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for their modulation is a breakthrough in basic and clinical neuroscience. The DBS not only changes the quality of life of hundreds of thousands of people with intractable movement disorders, but it also offers a unique opportunity to understand how the basal ganglia interacts with other neural structures

2018 Frontiers in neurology

197. The Dorsal Column Lesion Model of Spinal Cord Injury and Its Use in Deciphering the Neuron‐Intrinsic Injury Response Full Text available with Trip Pro

to promote axonal regeneration in the injured central nervous system. The large-diameter sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia are pseudo-unipolar neurons that project one axon branch into the spinal cord, and, via the dorsal column to the brain stem, and a peripheral process to the muscles and skin. Dorsal root ganglion neurons are ideally suited to study the neuron-intrinsic injury response because they exhibit a successful growth response following peripheral axotomy, while they fail (...) to do so after a lesion of the central branch in the dorsal column. The dorsal column injury model allows the neuron-intrinsic regeneration response to be studied in the context of a spinal cord injury. Here we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this model. We describe the surgical methods used to implement a lesion of the ascending fibers, the anatomy of the sensory afferent pathways and anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral techniques to quantify regeneration

2018 Developmental neurobiology

198. Switching Language Modes: Complementary Brain Patterns for Formulaic and Propositional Language Full Text available with Trip Pro

Switching Language Modes: Complementary Brain Patterns for Formulaic and Propositional Language Language has been modeled as a rule governed behavior for generating an unlimited number of novel utterances using phonological, syntactic, and lexical processes. This view of language as essentially propositional is expanding as a contributory role of formulaic expressions (e.g., you know, have a nice day, how are you?) is increasingly recognized. The basic features of the functional anatomy (...) of this language system have been described by studies of brain damage: left lateralization for propositional language and greater right lateralization and basal ganglia involvement for formulaic expressions. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) have established a cortical-subcortical pattern of brain activity predictive of syllable rate during phonological/lexical repetition. The same analytic approach was applied to analyzing brain images obtained during spontaneous

2018 Brain connectivity

199. Mechanisms for pattern specificity of deep-brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanisms for pattern specificity of deep-brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical (...) relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network. In this work, it is shown that the clinically relevant range for both, the frequency and intensity of the electrical stimulation pattern, is an emergent property of the BG anatomy at the system-level that can be addressed using mean-field descriptive models of the BG

2017 PLoS ONE

200. The Human Cochlear Aqueduct and Accessory Canals: a Micro-CT Analysis Using a 3D Reconstruction Paradigm. (Abstract)

middle ear blood to the cranial sinus.Micro-CT with 3D surface reconstruction paradigm offers new possibilities to study the topographic anatomy of minor details in the human inner ear. The technique creates simulated transparent "castings" of the labyrinth with a coinciding surface view through enhancement of contrast between boundaries. Accessory canals that drain blood from the cochlea, spiral ganglion, and middle ear could be characterized three-dimensionally.

2018 Otology and Neurotology

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