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241. A Multinational, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Active Comparator, Phase III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Donepezil Transdermal Patch in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease

(cerebrovascular disease, structural or developmental anomaly, epilepsy, or communicable, degenerative, or infectious/demyelinating CNS conditions) as a cause of dementia Note: >3 lacunar infarcts over 10 mm each, or severe white matter disease equaling a rating of 3 on the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC scale) should be excluded in the study. Illiteracy Treatment with other anti-dementia drugs (galantamine, memantine, rivastigmine, tacrine), except donepezil, within the past 3 months from the date

2017 Clinical Trials

242. Randomized controlled trials in mild cognitive impairment: Sources of variability. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to industry-sponsored clinical trials involving rivastigmine, galantamine, rofecoxib, and donepezil. The data were collated for common measurement instruments. The performance of the placebo participants from these studies was tracked on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes, and for progression on these measures to prespecified clinical study endpoints. APOE status, where available, was also analyzed for its

2017 Neurology

243. Adherence and Tolerability of Alzheimer's Disease Medications: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

weeks.Caregiver-reported adherence, defined as taking or not taking study medication, and caregiver-reported adverse events, defined as the presence of an adverse event.196 participants were included with 74.0% female, 30.6% African Americans, and 72.9% who completed at least twelfth grade. Discontinuation rates after 18 weeks were 38.8% for donepezil, 53.0% for galantamine, and 58.7% for rivastigmine (P = .063) in the intent to treat analysis. Adverse events and cost explained 73.1% and 25.4

2017 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

244. Little evidence that cholinesterase inhibitors prevent progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia, but they are associated with adverse effects

reviewers appraised studies and selected double-blind RCTs comparing any cholinesterase inhibitor (galantamine, donepezil or rivastigmine) used for at least 1 month … Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. Copyright information: Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

2013 Evidence-Based Mental Health

245. Treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Systematic Review for a National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop. Full Text available with Trip Pro

case definitions of CFS, the immune modulator rintatolimod improved some measures of exercise performance compared with placebo in 2 trials (low strength of evidence). Trials of galantamine, hydrocortisone, IgG, valganciclovir, isoprinosine, fluoxetine, and various complementary medicines were inconclusive (insufficient evidence). Counseling therapies and graded exercise therapy compared with no treatment, relaxation, or support improved fatigue, function, global improvement, and work impairment

2015 Annals of Internal Medicine

246. Non-pharmacological Interventions for Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia

-pharmacological Interventions for Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia Evidence-based Synthesis Program of the effects of bright light therapy, physical activity, tactile stimulation, and the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and tacrine) on cognition, affective behavior, and sleep-wake rhythm in persons with dementia. The review attempted to quantify pooled effect sizes for each form of intervention, although the analysis was limited by substantial heterogeneity between

2011 Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports

247. 5 questions to ask when writing (and reading) about new Alzheimer’s drug research

and increasingly common disease, there are only four FDA approved medications for treating symptoms: Aricept (donepizil), Razadyne (galantamine), Namenda (memantine), Exelon (rivastigmine) and Namzaric (a combination of donepezil and memantine). None of these drugs cure or slow progression, although initially, experts and drug-makers claimed that the drugs did slow the advancement of AD. But now that the drugs have been on the market for a dozen years or more–and have been the subject of numerous post-market

2017 HealthNewsReview

249. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology Full Text available with Trip Pro

improve TDS but cannot be recommended as treatment because neuroleptics may cause TDS despite masking symptoms. Amantadine and tetrabenazine might be considered as TDS treatment (Level C). Diltiazem should not be considered as TDD treatment (Level B); galantamine and eicosapentaenoic acid may not be considered as treatment (Level C). Data are insufficient to support or refute use of acetazolamide, bromocriptine, thiamine, baclofen, vitamin E, vitamin B6, selegiline, clozapine, olanzapine, melatonin

2013 EvidenceUpdates

250. Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extract ameliorates cadmium-induced impairment in memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Galantamine (5 mg/kg), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered as a positive control. A novel-object recognition test was conducted 2 h after the final administration. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and doublecortin, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the synaptosomes of the hippocampus was also measured based on the formation of 5,5'-dithio-bis-acid nitrobenzoic acid.An increase in the preferential

2016 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

251. Use of antidementia drugs and risk of pneumonia in older persons with Alzheimer's disease. (Abstract)

Use of antidementia drugs and risk of pneumonia in older persons with Alzheimer's disease. Persons with Alzheimer's disease are at an increased risk of pneumonia, but the comparative risks during specific antidementia treatments are not known. We compared the risk of pneumonia in the use of donepezil, rivastigmine (oral, transdermal), galantamine and memantine.We used data from a nationwide cohort of community-dwelling individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during 2005-2011 in Finland (...) 0.98-1.19) and galantamine (n = 10,948) (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83-1.00) were not associated with an increased risk. These results did not change when adjusting for comorbid conditions, use of psychotropic drugs or with inverse probability of treatment weighting.The increased risk of pneumonia in this fragile group of aged persons should be taken into account. Memantine is associated with the highest risk in the comparison of antidementia drugs. KEY Message Pneumonia risk is increased in persons

2016 Annals of Medicine

252. Efficacy of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Vascular Dementia: An Updated Meta-Analysis. (Abstract)

in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) as compared to placebo, at the doses tested, that is, 5 and 10 mg/day (difference in means -1.389 and -1.680, respectively, p ≤ 0.008), but not on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (p ≥ 0.259). Galantamine also improved the ADAS-cog in comparison to the placebo (difference in means -2.191, p < 0.001), whereas, rivastigmine did not show any benefit on ADAS-cog. However, the findings with rivastigmine are difficult to interpret, given (...) there were only 2 studies. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors was associated with a twofold increase in the odds of discontinuation, due to adverse events (pooled OR 1.966, 95% CI 1.630-2.371, p < 0.001).The present results reveal the therapeutic benefits of donepezil and galantamine in patients with vascular dementia. Interestingly, the ADAS-cog and MMSE varied considerably in detecting cognitive improvement.© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

2016 European neurology

253. Characteristics of Pediatric Exposures to Antidementia Drugs Reported to a Poison Control System. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characteristics of Pediatric Exposures to Antidementia Drugs Reported to a Poison Control System. To characterize pediatric exposures to the antidementia drugs donepezil, memantine, rivastigmine, and galantamine by reviewing a poison control system's database.A retrospective review of a statewide poison control system's database identified cases of pediatric (less than 19 years of age) exposures to antidementia drugs over an 11-year period. Data collected included age, sex, drug(s) involved (...) , route of exposure, reason for exposure, symptoms, and interventions.There were 189 cases identified (53% male, median age: 2.3 years, 99% unintentional exposures). Donepezil was the most commonly reported exposure (106 cases), followed by memantine (57), galantamine (18), oral rivastigmine (16), and transdermal rivastigmine (3). Coingestants were reported in 68 (36%) cases. Symptoms were reported in 38 (20%) cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were most common (n = 21) followed by central nervous

2016 Journal of Pediatrics

254. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in bipolar disorder: A systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the efficacy and safety for multiple disease dimensions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

): there was strong evidence for no effect on mania and psychotic symptoms; low evidence indicating no effect on depression. Galantamine (studies=3; treated=21 vs. controls=20) (placebo=10, healthy subjects=10): there was strong evidence for no effect on mania; moderate evidence for no effect on depression; low evidence for no effect on global functioning. Memantine (studies=4; treated=152 vs. placebo=88): there was conflicting evidence regarding efficacy for mania, depression and global functioning.Paucity

2016 Journal of Affective Disorders

255. Response to Abid Iraqi and Terry L Hughes Full Text available with Trip Pro

United States Letter Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Comment United States J Am Geriatr Soc 7503062 0002-8614 0 Cholinesterase Inhibitors 0 Indans 0 Phenylcarbamates 0 Piperidines 0D3Q044KCA Galantamine IM J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Jan;64(1):242 26782901 J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 May;63(5):869-76 25912671 Cholinesterase Inhibitors adverse effects Dementia drug therapy Female Galantamine adverse effects Humans Indans adverse effects Male Phenylcarbamates adverse effects

2016 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

256. Zebrafish is a predictive model for identifying compounds that protect against brain toxicity in severe acute organophosphorus intoxication Full Text available with Trip Pro

degeneration. The pathophysiological pathways resulting in brain toxicity in this model are similar to those described in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of this zebrafish model by testing the effect of a panel of drugs that provide protection in mammalian models. The selected drugs included "standard therapy" drugs (atropine and pralidoxime), reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (huperzine A, galantamine, physostigmine and pyridostigmine), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA

2016 Archives of toxicology

257. Time related effects on functional brain connectivity after serotonergic and cholinergic neuromodulation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Time related effects on functional brain connectivity after serotonergic and cholinergic neuromodulation Psychopharmacological research, if properly designed, may offer insight into both timing and area of effect, increasing our understanding of the brain's neurotransmitter systems. For that purpose, the acute influence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg) and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg) was repeatedly measured in 12 healthy young volunteers (...) performance on several tests, significant effects were found on connectivity with multiple resting state networks. Serotonergic stimulation primarily reduced connectivity with the sensorimotor network and structures that are related to self-referential mechanisms, whereas galantamine affected networks and regions that are more involved in learning, memory, and visual perception and processing. These results are consistent with the serotonergic and cholinergic trajectories and their functional relevance

2016 Human brain mapping Controlled trial quality: uncertain

258. Color Change of Phenol Red by Integrated Smart Phone Camera as a Tool for the Determination of Neurotoxic Compounds Full Text available with Trip Pro

. AChE splits acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, which changes the pH of a medium, resulting in a phenol red color change. The coloration changed in presence of an AChE inhibitor. Measurements were performed on 3D-printed, tube-shaped holder, and digital photography, with subsequent analysis of red-green-blue (RGB), served for assay purposes. Calibration of AChE inhibitors, tacrine and galantamine, was performed, with limit of detection equal to 1.1 nM and 1.28 µM, respectively

2016 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

259. Repeated administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor attenuates nicotine taking in rats and smoking behavior in human smokers Full Text available with Trip Pro

nicotine taking, galantamine or donepezil was administered before 10 consecutive daily nicotine self-administration sessions. Repeated administration of 5.0 mg kg(-1) galantamine and 3.0 mg kg(-1) donepezil attenuated nicotine self-administration in rats. These effects were reinforcer-specific and not due to adverse malaise-like effects of drug treatment as repeated galantamine and donepezil administration had no effects on sucrose self-administration, ad libitum food intake and pica. The effects (...) of repeated galantamine (versus placebo) on cigarette smoking were also tested in human treatment-seeking smokers. Two weeks of daily galantamine treatment (8.0 mg (week 1) and 16.0 mg (week 2)) significantly reduced smoking rate as well as smoking satisfaction and reward compared with placebo. This translational study indicates that repeated AChEI administration reduces nicotine reinforcement in rats and smoking behavior in humans at doses not associated with tolerance and/or adverse effects.

2016 Translational psychiatry

260. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment: an observational study in Taiwan Full Text available with Trip Pro

treatment (RECAP) in Taiwan was a prospective, noninterventional, observational study with a 24-week (±8 weeks) observational period for each participant. Eligible patients were grouped into one of the two treatment cohorts based on the baseline AD therapy: oral (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine) or transdermal (rivastigmine patch). The primary end points were caregiver preference and caregiver assessment of patients' compliance to the current medication (oral or transdermal medication

2016 Patient preference and adherence

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