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1. Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation Improves Gait Parameters in Subjects With Parkinson Disease and Freezing of Gait: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation Improves Gait Parameters in Subjects With Parkinson Disease and Freezing of Gait: A Randomized Clinical Trial. This study aimed to assess spatiotemporal gait parameters and range of motion of lower limbs in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD) and freezing of gait, treated with automated mechanical peripheral stimulation (AMPS) or AMPS SHAM (placebo).This randomized clinical trial included 30 subjects allocated into two groups: AMPS (15 subjects (...) with PD) and AMPS SHAM (15 subjects with PD). Fourteen age-matched healthy subjects were also included as a reference group. Both PD groups received the treatment twice a week during 4 weeks. Automated mechanical peripheral stimulation was applied using a commercial medical device (Gondola) and consisted of mechanical pressure in four areas of feet. For AMPS SHAM group, a subliminal stimulus was delivered. Gait analysis were measured before, after the first, after the fourth, and after the eighth

2018 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation

2. Cognitive and motor dual task gait training exerted specific training effects on dual task gait performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled pilot study. (PubMed)

Cognitive and motor dual task gait training exerted specific training effects on dual task gait performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled pilot study. Gait impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are aggravated under dual task conditions. Providing effective training to enhance different dual task gait performance is important for PD rehabilitation. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task (...) gait performance in PD. Eighteen PD participants (n = 6 per training group) were assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or general gait training (control) group randomly. The training was 30 min each session, 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes including gait performance during cognitive dual task, motor dual task, and single walking were assessed at pre- and post-training. The results showed decreased double support time during

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2019 PLoS ONE

3. Assessment of gait disorders in children

Assessment of gait disorders in children Assessment of gait disorders in children - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of gait disorders in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Limp Limp is defined as an asymmetric gait, and is a deviation from the normal gait pattern expected for a child's age. Causes can vary from benign to potentially life threatening (e.g (...) ., infection, tumours, child abuse). Appropriate evaluation requires an understanding and knowledge of normal and abnormal gait patterns, potential causes, and 'red flags'. Beresford MW, Cleary AG. Evaluation of a limping child. Curr Pediatr. 2005;15:15-22. The assessment of limp will depend on whether the presentation is acute or not. Kimura Y. Common presenting problems. In: Arthritis in children and adolescents: juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Szer I, Kimura Y, Malleson PN, et al (eds). Oxford: Oxford

2018 BMJ Best Practice

4. Effects of backward gait training on balance, gross motor function, and gait in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

Effects of backward gait training on balance, gross motor function, and gait in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review To investigate the effects of backward gait training on balance, gross motor function, and gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy.PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Science Direct, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Google Scholar were searched up to May 2018.Randomized controlled trials were included if they involved any form of backward (...) gait training for children with cerebral palsy. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using PEDro scale, with any confliction resolved by the third author. Modified Sackett Scale was used to determine the level of evidence for each outcome.Out of 1492 papers screened, 7 studies with 172 participants met the inclusion criteria. The duration of treatment ranged from 15 to 25 minutes, three times a week and for 6-12 weeks. The quality

2018 EvidenceUpdates

5. The effect of gait speed and gait phase to the allocation of attention during dual task gait (PubMed)

The effect of gait speed and gait phase to the allocation of attention during dual task gait [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the change of allocation of attention caused by a difference in gait phase and gait speed. We also determined the relationship between attentional demand and gait automaticity change caused by the gait speed alteration. [Subjects and Methods] Ten male participated. Participants were instructed to perform the probe reaction time (RT) task during (...) treadmill walking in four different gait speed conditions (60%, 80%, 100%, and 120% of preferred speed). Walking ratio in each gait speed conditions were calculated, and RTs and walking ratios were compared in each gait speed condition and in the single-support and double-support gait phase. [Results] RTs were significantly delayed with decline of gait speed. Walking ratio was significantly decreased in proportion of decrement of gait speed. There was no difference of gait phase between single-support

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2018 Journal of physical therapy science

6. Polypharmacy, Gait Performance, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Results from the Gait and Brain Study. (PubMed)

Polypharmacy, Gait Performance, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Results from the Gait and Brain Study. Polypharmacy, defined as the use of five or more medications, has been repeatedly linked to fall incidence, and recently it was cross-sectionally associated with gait disturbances. Our objectives were to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between polypharmacy and gait performance in a well-established clinic-based cohort study. We also assessed whether gait (...) impairments could mediate associations between number of medications and fall incidence.Prospective cohort of community-dwelling older adults, with 5 years of follow-up.Geriatric clinics in an academic hospital in London, ON, Canada.Community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older (n = 249; 76.6 ± 8.6 y; 63% women).Number of medications, quantitative spatiotemporal gait parameters, and fall incidence during follow-up.The number of medications was cross-sectionally associated with poor gait performance

2019 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

7. Information presentation through a head-worn display ("smart glasses") has a smaller influence on the temporal structure of gait variability during dual-task gait compared to handheld displays (paper-based system and smartphone). (PubMed)

Information presentation through a head-worn display ("smart glasses") has a smaller influence on the temporal structure of gait variability during dual-task gait compared to handheld displays (paper-based system and smartphone). The need to complete multiple tasks concurrently is a common occurrence both daily life and in occupational activities, which can often include simultaneous cognitive and physical demands. As one example, there is increasing availability of head-worn display (...) technologies that can be employed when a user is mobile (e.g., while walking). This new method of information presentation may, however, introduce risks of adverse outcomes such as a decrement to gait performance. The goal of this study was thus to quantify the effects of a head-worn display (i.e., smart glasses) on motor variability during gait and to compare these effects with those of other common information displays (i.e., smartphone and paper-based system). Twenty participants completed four walking

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2018 PLoS ONE

8. Virtual reality gait training versus non-virtual reality gait training for improving participation in subacute stroke survivors: study protocol of the ViRTAS randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Virtual reality gait training versus non-virtual reality gait training for improving participation in subacute stroke survivors: study protocol of the ViRTAS randomized controlled trial. A stroke often results in gait impairments, activity limitations and restricted participation in daily life. Virtual reality (VR) has shown to be beneficial for improving gait ability after stroke. Previous studies regarding VR focused mainly on improvements in functional outcomes. As participation in daily (...) life is an important goal for rehabilitation after stroke, it is of importance to investigate if VR gait training improves participation. The primary aim of this study is to examine the effect of VR gait training on participation in community-living people after stroke.The ViRTAS study comprises a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. Fifty people between 2 weeks and 6 months after stroke, who experience constraints with walking in daily life, are randomly assigned

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2019 Trials

9. Gait speed assessed by a 4-m walk test is not representative of daily-life gait speed in community-dwelling adults. (PubMed)

Gait speed assessed by a 4-m walk test is not representative of daily-life gait speed in community-dwelling adults. Standardized tests of gait speed are regarded as being of clinical value, but they are typically performed under optimal conditions, and may not reflect daily-life gait behavior. The aim of this study was to compare 4-m gait speed to the distribution of daily-life gait speed.The cross-sectional Grey Power cohort included 254 community-dwelling participants aged 18 years (...) or more.Pearson's correlations were used to compare gait speed assessed using a timed 4-m walk test at preferred pace, and daily-life gait speed obtained from tri-axial lower-back accelerometer data over seven consecutive days.Participants (median age 66.7 years [IQR 59.4-72.5], 65.7% female) had a mean 4-m gait speed of 1.43 m/s (SD 0.21), and a mean 50th percentile of daily-life gait speed of 0.90 m/s (SD 0.23). Ninety-six percent had a bimodal distribution of daily-life gait speed, with a mean 1st peak

2019 Maturitas

10. Anodal transcranial patterned stimulation of the motor cortex during gait can induce activity-dependent corticospinal plasticity to alter human gait. (PubMed)

Anodal transcranial patterned stimulation of the motor cortex during gait can induce activity-dependent corticospinal plasticity to alter human gait. The corticospinal system and local spinal circuits control human bipedal locomotion. The primary motor cortex is phase-dependently activated during gait; this cortical input is critical for foot flexor activity during the swing phase. We investigated whether gait-combined rhythmic brain stimulation can induce neuroplasticity in the foot area (...) of the motor cortex and alter gait parameters. Twenty-one healthy subjects participated in the single-blinded, cross-over study. Each subject received anodal transcranial patterned direct current stimulation over the foot area of the right motor cortex during gait, sham stimulation during gait, and anodal transcranial patterned direct current stimulation during rest in a random order. Six subjects were excluded due to a failure in the experimental recording procedure. Complete-case analysis was performed

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2018 PLoS ONE

11. Age-related gait standards for healthy children and young people: the GOS-ICH paediatric gait centiles. (PubMed)

Age-related gait standards for healthy children and young people: the GOS-ICH paediatric gait centiles. To develop paediatric gait standards in healthy children and young people.This observational study aims to address the lack of population standards for gait measurements in children. Analysing gait in children affected by neurological or musculoskeletal conditions is an important component of paediatric assessment but is often confounded by developmental changes. The standards presented here (...) do not require clinician expertise to interpret and offer an alternative to developmental tables of normalised gait data. Healthy children aged 1-19 years were recruited from community settings in London and Hertfordshire, UK. The GAITRite walkway was used to record measurements for each child for velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and stance, single and double support (as percentage of gait cycle). We fitted generalised linear additive models for location, scale and shape (gamlss

2019 Archives of Disease in Childhood

12. Role of muscle power output as a mediator between gait variability and gait velocity in hospitalized older adults. (PubMed)

Role of muscle power output as a mediator between gait variability and gait velocity in hospitalized older adults. Acute illness requiring hospitalization is a sentinel event leading to functional decline and frequently, long-term disability in older adults. Although functional decline has become a key outcome during and after hospitalization, there is currently no gold standard for measuring functional impairment. The purpose of this study was to compare gait characteristics and muscle (...) performance endpoints of hospitalized older adults based on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score (0-12 points) obtained at admission, and to determine the association underlying the gait impairment. A total of 130 hospitalized older adults (aged ≥75) were included. The primary endpoints were differences in functional capacity between groups, assessed with the 6-m Gait Velocity Test (GVT), verbal and arithmetic GVT, followed by gait pattern data recorded using an inertial sensor unit

2019 Experimental Gerontology

13. Bilateral High Hip Center Provides Gait Parameters Similar to Anatomical Reconstruction: A Gait Analysis Study in Hip Replacement Patients With Bilateral Developmental Dysplasia. (PubMed)

Bilateral High Hip Center Provides Gait Parameters Similar to Anatomical Reconstruction: A Gait Analysis Study in Hip Replacement Patients With Bilateral Developmental Dysplasia. Total hip arthroplasty in severe dysplasia is challenging due to diminished periacetabular bone stock and the highly placed femoral head. Although anatomical reconstruction of the hip, with required interventions such as subtrochanteric osteotomy and graft usage, is the main aim of the procedure, good long-term (...) clinical outcomes of the high hip center technique have also been reported. Information regarding the effect of hip center placement on gait characteristics is limited; therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the differences in gait parameters between the high hip center technique and anatomical reconstruction of the hip.Twenty patients (40 hips) with bilateral Crowe type III-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent bilateral total hip arthroplasty and completed at least 2 years

2019 Journal of Arthroplasty

14. Gait-Synchronized Rhythmic Brain Stimulation Improves Poststroke Gait Disturbance. (PubMed)

Gait-Synchronized Rhythmic Brain Stimulation Improves Poststroke Gait Disturbance. Background and Purpose- Gait disturbance is one of serious impairments lowering activity of daily life in poststroke patients. The patients often show reduced hip and knee joint flexion and ankle dorsiflexion of the lower limbs during the swing phase of gait, which is partly controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1). In the present study, we investigated whether gait-synchronized rhythmic brain stimulation (...) targeting swing phase-related M1 activity can improve gait function in poststroke patients. Methods- Eleven poststroke patients in the chronic phase participated in this single-blind crossover study. Each patient received oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation over the affected M1 foot area and sham stimulation during treadmill gait. The brain stimulation was synchronized with individual gait rhythm, and the electrical current peaks reached immediately before initiation of the swing phase

2019 Stroke

15. Brain Activity during Mental Imagery of Gait Versus Gait-Like Plantar Stimulation: A Novel Combined Functional MRI Paradigm to Better Understand Cerebral Gait Control (PubMed)

Brain Activity during Mental Imagery of Gait Versus Gait-Like Plantar Stimulation: A Novel Combined Functional MRI Paradigm to Better Understand Cerebral Gait Control Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI (...) ) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots. The Korvit stimulator was used through two different modes, namely an organized ("gait like") sequence and a destructured (chaotic) pattern. Eighteen right-handed young healthy volunteers were recruited (mean age, 27 ± 4.7 years). Mental imagery activated a broad neuronal

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2017 Frontiers in human neuroscience

16. Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative (PubMed)

Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1) to give (...) consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2) to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities. Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium) participated in this initiative. First, they identified items

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2017 Frontiers in human neuroscience

17. Gait-like vibration training improves gait abilities: a case report of a 62-year-old person with a chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (PubMed)

Gait-like vibration training improves gait abilities: a case report of a 62-year-old person with a chronic incomplete spinal cord injury The purpose of this single-subject case study was to quantify the effect of gait-like vibration training on gait abilities after an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). A 62-year-old male with a chronic American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D SCI at T11 completed nine sessions of gait-like vibration training in a standing position. Self-selected (...) gait speed and distance covered within 6 min were determined before and after training to evaluate the impact of training on gait performance. Associated changes in gait kinematics were assessed with a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Results showed an improvement of gait speed (0.26 vs 0.35 m s-1) and distance (23 vs 37 m) after nine gait-like vibration training sessions (+34.6%; +60.9%). In addition, more bilateral hip extension and larger left hip range of motion improved hip-knee

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2016 Spinal cord series and cases

18. Variability of spatial temporal gait parameters and center of pressure displacements during gait in elderly fallers and nonfallers: A 6-month prospective study. (PubMed)

Variability of spatial temporal gait parameters and center of pressure displacements during gait in elderly fallers and nonfallers: A 6-month prospective study. Considering that most of the falls in elderly population arise during walking, tests derived from walking performance would be desirable for comprehensive fall risk assessment. The analysis of spatial temporal parameters and the center of pressure displacement, which represents the interaction between the human body and the ground (...) , would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to compare spatial temporal gait parameters and their variability and the variability of the center of pressure displacement between elderly fallers and nonfallers during gait at self-selected, defined and fast speeds. A prospective study design was used. At the baseline, measurements of ground reaction force during gait at self-selected, defined and fast walking speeds by two force plates were performed. In addition, the Tinetti balance assessment tool

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2017 PLoS ONE

19. Path Finder for freezing of gait in people with Parkinson?s disease

Path Finder for freezing of gait in people with Parkinson?s disease P Path Finder for freezing of gait in people with ath Finder for freezing of gait in people with P Parkinson arkinson’s disease ’s disease Medtech innovation briefing Published: 25 January 2019 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib170 pathways Summary Summary The technology technology described in this briefing is Path Finder laser shoe attachment. It is used as a walking aid and is designed to help prevent freezing of gait in people (...) be used in physiotherapy as a training tool for people with early stages of Parkinson's disease. The main points from the e main points from the evidence vidence summarised in this briefing are from 1 case report and 2 observational pilot studies involving a total of 21 adults with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait symptoms. They show that Path Finder has the potential to reduce freezing of gait and the risk of falls in patients with Parkinson's disease. K Ke ey uncertainties y uncertainties

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

20. The effects of robot-assisted gait training using virtual reality and auditory stimulation on balance and gait abilities in persons with stroke. (PubMed)

The effects of robot-assisted gait training using virtual reality and auditory stimulation on balance and gait abilities in persons with stroke. Robot-assisted gait training provide a big therapeutic advantage in functional mobility for postural control.The purpose of this study was investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training using virtual reality and auditory stimulation on balance and gait abilities in stroke patients.All subjects were randomly divided into three groups where (...) twelve subjects were in the Virtual reality robot-assisted gait training group (VRGT), twelve subjects in the auditory stimulation robot-assisted gait training group (ARGT), and sixteen subjects in the control group. Subjects received virtual reality and auditory stimulation while undergoing robot-assisted gait training for 45 minutes, three times a week for 6 weeks, and all subjects had undergone general physical therapy for 30 minutes, five times a week for 6 weeks. All subjects were assessed

2018 NeuroRehabilitation

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