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Frontal Lobe

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161. Patient-specific connectivity pattern of epileptic network in frontal lobe epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Patient-specific connectivity pattern of epileptic network in frontal lobe epilepsy There is evidence that focal epilepsy may involve the dysfunction of a brain network in addition to the focal region. To delineate the characteristics of this epileptic network, we collected EEG/fMRI data from 23 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. For each patient, EEG/fMRI analysis was first performed to determine the BOLD response to epileptic spikes. The maximum activation cluster in the frontal lobe

2014 NeuroImage : Clinical

162. Bilateral white matter abnormality in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bilateral white matter abnormality in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. In frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), interictal discharges and seizures are more likely to spread to contralateral hemisphere and become secondarily generalized. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) integrity in children with FLE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Children with FLE and normal MRI, and healthy controls with no neurological or psychiatric disorders underwent DTI on 3T MRI. Whole brain

2014 Epilepsy research

163. Diagnosing frontal lobe epilepsy in the ED. (Abstract)

Diagnosing frontal lobe epilepsy in the ED. Frontal lobe seizures are a common form of epilepsy. It has a variable presentation and can often be missed in the emergency department (ED). Missing this diagnosis can lead to a delay in treatment and poor outcome for cognitive function. We hereby present a case of a 14-year-old girl who presented to our ED after the development of abnormal movements. Knowledge of the anatomy behind the development of partial seizures and the best testing modality (...) can aid in the diagnosis. In this review, we attempt to discuss the pathophysiology of frontal lobe epilepsy and what physical examination findings and testing will best lead to a diagnosis.

2014 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

164. A decrease in spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation by phenylephrine reflects reduced skin blood flow. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A decrease in spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation by phenylephrine reflects reduced skin blood flow. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) is reduced with administration of phenylephrine, while cerebral blood flow may remain unaffected. We hypothesized that extracranial vasoconstriction explains the effect of phenylephrine on ScO2.We measured ScO2 and internal and external carotid

2014 Anesthesia and Analgesia

165. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration. Full Text available with Trip Pro

External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration. Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text].In 10 healthy males (age 20-54 yr), phenylephrine or ephedrine was infused for an ∼20

2014 British Journal of Anaesthesia

166. Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction located in the temporal or frontal lobe. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction located in the temporal or frontal lobe. The aim of the study was to compare clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) located in the temporal or frontal periventricular white matter.The study was a retrospective hospital-based study of preterm infants with a frontal PVHI (n=21; 11 (...) was noted in seven infants with a frontal PVHI and five with a temporal PVHI. There were more infants with a temporal PVHI who developed visual impairment (n=5) or behavioural problems (n=7) compared with those with a frontal PVHI (visual impairment (n=2), behavioural problems (n=3).PVHI located in the temporal or frontal lobe is almost invariably related to a typical motor outcome, but carries a risk of cognitive, behavioural, and visual problems, especially in infants with a PVHI located

2014 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

167. DEPDC5 mutations in families presenting as autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

DEPDC5 mutations in families presenting as autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. To study the prevalence of DEPDC5 mutations in a series of 30 small European families with a phenotype compatible with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE).Thirty unrelated families referred with ADNFLE were recruited in France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, and Norway. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 10 probands and direct sequencing of the DEPDC5 coding sequence in 20

2014 Neurology

168. Intravenous or local injections of flavoxate into the rostral pontine reticular formation inhibit urinary frequency induced by activation of medial frontal lobe neurons in rats. (Abstract)

Intravenous or local injections of flavoxate into the rostral pontine reticular formation inhibit urinary frequency induced by activation of medial frontal lobe neurons in rats. The rostral pontine reticular formation has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition by facilitating lumbosacral glycinergic neurons. We assessed the influence of the rostral pontine reticular formation on the micturition reflex after noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe. We also examined the relation (...) between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation.Continuous cystometry was performed in 28 female rats. After the interval between bladder contractions was shortened by noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe we injected glutamate or flavoxate hydrochloride in the rostral pontine reticular formation or intravenously injected flavoxate or propiverine. The change in bladder activity was examined.Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened

2014 Journal of Urology

169. Simultaneous subdural and scalp EEG correlates of frontal lobe epileptic sources. (Abstract)

Simultaneous subdural and scalp EEG correlates of frontal lobe epileptic sources. To assess the visibility and detectability in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) of cortical sources in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) as to their localization, and the extent and amplitude of activation.We analyzed the simultaneous subdural and scalp interictal EEG recordings of 14 patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) associated with focal cortical dysplasia. Subdural spike types were identified (...) frontal, two in the dorsolateral gyri, two in the depth of dorsolateral sulci, and two in the basal frontal region. Cortical sources generating scalp-detectable spikes presented a median of 6 cm(2) of activated cortical convexity surface and a subdural spike-to-background-amplitude ratio >8. These sources were associated with a higher number of activated subdural grid contacts and a higher subdural spike-to-background amplitude ratio than sources generating non-scalp-detectable spikes.Not only

2014 Epilepsia

170. Proteomic profiling of the phosphoproteins in the rat thalamus, hippocampus and frontal lobe after propofol anesthesia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Proteomic profiling of the phosphoproteins in the rat thalamus, hippocampus and frontal lobe after propofol anesthesia. Propofol is a safe and effective intravenous anesthetic that is widely used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgery. However, the mechanism by which propofol exerts its anesthetic effect remains unknown. The rapid onset of phosphorylation modifications coincides with that of propofol anesthesia.Propofol-anesthetized rat models were built (...) and phosphorylated proteins in the thalamus, hippocampus and frontal lobe were enriched the to analyze the changes in these phosphoproteins after propofol anesthesia.Sixteen of these phosphoprotein spots were successfully identified using MALDI-TOF MS and a subsequent comparative sequence search in the Mascot database. Of these proteins, keratin 18 and the tubulin 2c chain are cytoskeletal proteins; keratin 18 and gelsolin are relevant to alcohol drowsiness. Based on Western blot analysis, we also confirmed

2014 BMC Anesthesiology

171. Effect of phenylephrine vs. ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia: an open label randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of phenylephrine vs. ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia: an open label randomized controlled trial. During caesarean section spinal anesthesia may provoke maternal hypotension that we prevent by administration of phenylephrine and/or ephedrine. Phenylephrine is however reported to reduce the near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) but whether that is the case for patients exposed to spinal anesthesia (...) ).In the choice between phenylephrine and ephedrine for maintenance of blood pressure during caesarean section with spinal anesthesia, ephedrine maintains frontal lobe oxygenation and maternal heart rate with a similar increase in fetal heart rate as elicited by phenylephrine.Clinical trials NCT 01509521 and EudraCT 2001 006103 35.

2014 Frontiers in physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

172. Temporal lobe thickness and verbal memory in first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Temporal lobe thickness and verbal memory in first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Cortical thinning in frontal and temporal regions has been reported in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and, less consistently, among their unaffected first-degree relatives. Likewise, first-degree relatives demonstrate attenuated differences in neurocognitive performance relative to healthy controls, indicating that neurocognitive performance may be an important endophenotype (...) of the disorder. Less is known about how cortical thickness relates to neurocognitive performance in these individuals. Given the robust nature of temporal structural abnormalities in schizophrenia, this study aimed to identify how temporal lobe cortical thickness might relate to verbal memory in first-degree relatives. Unaffected parents and siblings of individuals with adult-onset schizophrenia (N=62) and individuals in healthy control families (N=70) participating in the UCLA Family Study received

2018 Schizophrenia Research

173. Disrupted dynamic network reconfiguration of the language system in temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

regions into four subsystems (i.e. bilateral frontal and temporal), we observed regional specialization in both the probability of transient interactions and the frequency of such changes, in both healthy controls and patients during task performance but not rest. Furthermore, we found that both left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients displayed reduced interactions within the left frontal 'core' subsystem compared to the healthy controls, while left temporal lobe epilepsy patients were unique (...) Disrupted dynamic network reconfiguration of the language system in temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy tends to reshape the language system causing maladaptive reorganization that can be characterized by task-based functional MRI, and eventually can contribute to surgical decision making processes. However, the dynamic interacting nature of the brain as a complex system is often neglected, with many studies treating the language system as a static monolithic structure. Here, we

2018 Brain

174. Does bilingualism increase brain or cognitive reserve in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy? Full Text available with Trip Pro

patients performed worse than HC on TMT-B. In addition, differences in group means between bilingual and monolingual patients on TMT-B approached significance when controlling for the extent of WM damage (P = .071; d = 0.62), suggesting a tendency toward higher performance for bilingual patients.Despite poorer integrity of regional frontal lobe WM, bilingual patients performed similarly to monolingual patients and HC on EF measures. These findings align with studies suggesting that bilingualism may (...) Does bilingualism increase brain or cognitive reserve in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy? Bilingual healthy adults have been shown to exhibit an advantage in executive functioning (EF) that is associated with microstructural changes in white matter (WM) networks. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often show EF deficits that are associated with WM compromise. In this study, we investigate whether bilingualism can increase cognitive reserve and/or brain reserve in bilingual patients

2018 Epilepsia

175. Closing-in Behavior and Parietal Lobe Deficits: Three Single Cases Exhibiting Different Manifestations of the Same Behavior Full Text available with Trip Pro

and its association with frontal lobe dysfunction. We describe three patients in whom CIB was associated with posterior parietal deficits of different etiologies (stroke in Patient 1 and dementia in Patients 2 and 3). In copying figures, Patient 1 produced the shape with high accuracy but the rendering overlapped the model, while for Patients 2 and 3 the copies were distorted but overlapping or in close proximity to the target. In gesture imitation, Patient 2 performed the gestures toward (...) Closing-in Behavior and Parietal Lobe Deficits: Three Single Cases Exhibiting Different Manifestations of the Same Behavior Closing-in behavior (CIB) is observed in copying tasks (graphic or gestural) when the copy is performed near or on the top of the model. This symptom has been classically considered to be a manifestation of constructional apraxia and is often associated with a visuospatial impairment. More recent work emphasizes the attentional and/or executive nature of the behavior

2018 Frontiers in psychology

176. Invasive nasal histiocytic sarcoma as a cause of temporal lobe epilepsy in a cat Full Text available with Trip Pro

into the cranial vault affecting predominantly the right frontal lobe and temporal lobe. Histopathological examination of the tumour revealed a histiocytic sarcoma.This is the first report of a cat with clinical signs of temporal lobe epilepsy due to an invasive, histiocytic sarcoma. Histiocytic sarcoma, although rare, should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for soft tissue masses extending through the cribriform plate. Other differential diagnoses are primary nasal neoplasia (eg (...) Invasive nasal histiocytic sarcoma as a cause of temporal lobe epilepsy in a cat A 10-year-old neutered female domestic shorthair cat was presented with an acute onset of neurological signs suggestive of a right-sided forebrain lesion, temporal lobe epilepsy and generalised seizure activity. MRI of the head revealed an expansile soft tissue mass in the caudal nasal passages (both sides but predominantly right-sided) involving the ethmoid bone and extending through the cribriform plate

2018 JFMS Open Reports

177. Revealing the Dynamic Modulations That Underpin a Resilient Neural Network for Semantic Cognition: An fMRI Investigation in Patients With Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection Full Text available with Trip Pro

that follow from ATL damage. To test these possibilities, 34 postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 20 age-matched controls were scanned whilst completing semantic tasks. Pictorial tasks, which produced bilateral frontal and temporal activation, showed few activation differences between patients and control participants. Written word tasks, however, produced a left-lateralized activation pattern and greater differences between the groups. Patients with right ATL resection increased activation (...) Revealing the Dynamic Modulations That Underpin a Resilient Neural Network for Semantic Cognition: An fMRI Investigation in Patients With Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection One critical feature of any well-engineered system is its resilience to perturbation and minor damage. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how resilience is achieved in higher cognitive systems, which we explored through the domain of semantic cognition. Convergent evidence implicates the bilateral anterior

2018 Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)

178. Tonic Upward Eyeball Deviation Mimicking Non-Convulsive Occipital Lobe Status Epilepticus That Was Induced by Hydrocephalus Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tonic Upward Eyeball Deviation Mimicking Non-Convulsive Occipital Lobe Status Epilepticus That Was Induced by Hydrocephalus Several seizure-like symptoms are difficult to differentiate from epileptic convulsion, and then if they were misdiagnosed, they could be led to grave prognosis. A 41-year-old man was referred to the emergency room due to unconsciousness. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed acute subdural hemorrhage along the left frontal lobe, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (...) in the left temporo-occipital lobe. After emergent decompressive craniectomy, he recovered an alert mental state but became progressively drowsy. Four days later, virtually continuous tonic upward eyeball deviation was observed. He had been taking antiepileptic drugs following an occipital lobectomy 20 years prior due to intractable epilepsy, and we assumed these upward eyeball deviations were symptoms of non-convulsive occipital lobe status epilepticus. Hence, doses and classes of antiepileptic drugs

2018 Journal of epilepsy research

179. Predicting patterns of failure in temporal lobe GBMs: possible implications on radiotherapy treatment portals Full Text available with Trip Pro

); 5 adjacent regional sites (occipital lobe, inferior frontal lobe, caudate/thalamus/internal/external capsules, fornix/ventricular trigone), and 5 distant failure sites (ventricles, contralateral hemisphere, brainstem, leptomeninges and spine). Extension along major neuroanatomical pathways at initial presentation and at first documented Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) failure were categorised into anterior, superior, medial and posterior pathways.Of the 100 patients, 86 had radiological (...) Predicting patterns of failure in temporal lobe GBMs: possible implications on radiotherapy treatment portals Characterise patterns of failure of Temporal Lobe (TL) Glioblastoma (GBM) following treatment with relation to normal temporal lobe anatomy and neural pathways.335 GBM patients received radiotherapy between 03/2007 and 07/2014, 100 were located in TL. Site of initial tumour and subsequent relapse were subdivided into 5 local TL sites (anterior, lateral, medial, posterior and superior

2018 Radiation oncology (London, England)

180. The anterior-ventrolateral temporal lobe contributes to boosting visual working memory capacity for items carrying semantic information Full Text available with Trip Pro

was significantly more efficient for famous faces, compared to unknown faces; (3) the right anterior-ventrolateral temporal lobe (ATL) causally mediated this superior WM storage for famous faces. Specifically, disrupting the ATL (a region tuned to semantic knowledge including person identity) selectively hinders WM accrual for celebrity faces while leaving the accrual for unfamiliar faces intact. Further, this 'semantically-accelerated' storage is impervious to disruption of the right middle frontal gyrus (...) The anterior-ventrolateral temporal lobe contributes to boosting visual working memory capacity for items carrying semantic information Working memory (WM) is a buffer that temporarily maintains information, be it visual or auditory, in an active state, caching its contents for online rehearsal or manipulation. How the brain enables long-term semantic knowledge to affect the WM buffer is a theoretically significant issue awaiting further investigation. In the present study, we capitalise

2018 NeuroImage

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