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Frontal Lobe

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141. Seizure duration and latency of hypermotor manifestations distinguish frontal from extrafrontal onset in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Seizure duration and latency of hypermotor manifestations distinguish frontal from extrafrontal onset in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is an epilepsy syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of sleep-related hypermotor seizures of variable complexity and duration. Seizures usually arise in the frontal lobe, but extrafrontal seizure onset zones are well described. To identify clinically relevant ictal features of SHE that could distinguish (...) a frontal from an extrafrontal onset zone, we conducted a retrospective analysis of seizure characteristics in 58 patients with drug-resistant SHE (43 frontal and 15 extrafrontal) who underwent video-stereo-electroencephalographic recordings and became seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. We found that the mean duration of electrographic seizures and clinically observable ictal manifestations were significantly shorter in frontal SHE compared to extrafrontal SHE. The mean latency between electrographic

2018 Epilepsia

142. Frontal and temporal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry in schizotypal personality disorder. (Abstract)

lobes. In the temporal lobe regions, there were no group differences in volume, but SPD had reduced right>left middle temporal gyrus volume asymmetry compared to HC and lacked the right>left asymmetry in the inferior temporal gyrus volume seen in HC. In the frontal regions, there were no differences between groups on volume or asymmetry. In the white matter tracts, SPD had reduced FA in the left sagittal stratum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased right>left asymmetry in sagittal (...) Frontal and temporal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry in schizotypal personality disorder. Abnormalities in temporal and frontal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry have been implicated in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Schizotypal personality disorder can provide insight into vulnerability and protective factors in these disorders without the confounds associated with chronic psychosis. However, multimodal imaging

2018 Schizophrenia Research

143. Emerging depression in adolescence coincides with accelerated frontal cortical thinning. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emerging depression in adolescence coincides with accelerated frontal cortical thinning. Adolescence is a transition period characterized by heightened emotional reactivity, which for some sets the stage for emerging depressive symptoms. Prior studies suggest that adolescent depression is associated with deviant cortical and subcortical brain structure. Longitudinal studies are, however, currently scarce, but critical to detect which adolescents are at risk for developing depressive symptoms.In (...) this longitudinal study, a community sample of 205 participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three biennial waves (522 scans) spanning 5 years across ages 8-25 years. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using self-report at the third time point. Mixed models were used to examine the relations between structural brain development, specifically regional change in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes (hippocampus and amygdala), and depressive symptoms.Accelerated frontal

2018 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

144. Greater body mass index is associated with reduced frontal cortical volumes among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

processed T1-weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus. General linear models assessed the association between BMI and the ROIs, controlling for age, sex and intracranial volume. We also conducted exploratory within-BD group and whole brain vertex-wise (...) Greater body mass index is associated with reduced frontal cortical volumes among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD.We

2018 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

145. Frontal cortex function as derived from hierarchical predictive coding Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal cortex function as derived from hierarchical predictive coding The frontal lobes are essential for human volition and goal-directed behavior, yet their function remains unclear. While various models have highlighted working memory, reinforcement learning, and cognitive control as key functions, a single framework for interpreting the range of effects observed in prefrontal cortex has yet to emerge. Here we show that a simple computational motif based on predictive coding can be stacked (...) hierarchically to learn and perform arbitrarily complex goal-directed behavior. The resulting Hierarchical Error Representation (HER) model simulates a wide array of findings from fMRI, ERP, single-units, and neuropsychological studies of both lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. By reconceptualizing lateral prefrontal activity as anticipating prediction errors, the HER model provides a novel unifying account of prefrontal cortex function with broad implications for understanding the frontal cortex across

2018 Scientific reports

146. Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

the group with 22q11DS only, we further tested the association between prodromal symptoms of psychosis and FC.We observed that relative to controls, individuals with 22q11DS displayed increased FC in lobar networks involving the frontal-frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-occipital ROIs. In contrast, FC between ROIs in the parietal-temporal and occipital lobes was reduced in the 22q11DS group relative to healthy controls. Moreover, positive psychotic symptoms were positively associated with increased (...) Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development

2018 Behavioral and brain functions : BBF

147. The crossed frontal aslant tract: A possible pathway involved in the recovery of supplementary motor area syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

The crossed frontal aslant tract: A possible pathway involved in the recovery of supplementary motor area syndrome Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway (...) callosum (CC). After investigating the postoperative anatomy of these resections, we identified a pattern of nonhomologous connections through the CC connecting the premotor area to the contralateral premotor and SMAs. The transcallosal fibers have projections from the previously described frontal aslant tract (FAT) and thus, we have termed this path the "crossed FAT."We hypothesize that this newly described tract may facilitate recovery from SMA syndrome by maintaining interhemispheric connectivity

2018 Brain and behavior

148. Cerebral Hemodynamics in Speech-Related Cortical Areas: Articulation Learning Involves the Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Ventral Sensory-Motor Cortex, and Parietal-Temporal Sylvian Area Full Text available with Trip Pro

, including the precentral and postcentral gyri, (iii) the opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGoperc), (iv) the temporal cortex, including the superior temporal gyrus, and (v) the inferior parietal lobe (IPL), including the supramarginal and angular gyri. The posterior Sylvian fissure at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) was selectively activated in the modified session. Furthermore, hemodynamic activity in the IFGoperc and vSMC was increased in the final half of the modified session (...) Cerebral Hemodynamics in Speech-Related Cortical Areas: Articulation Learning Involves the Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Ventral Sensory-Motor Cortex, and Parietal-Temporal Sylvian Area Although motor training programs have been applied to childhood apraxia of speech (AOS), the neural mechanisms of articulation learning are not well understood. To this aim, we recorded cerebral hemodynamic activity in the left hemisphere of healthy subjects (n = 15) during articulation learning. We used near-infrared

2018 Frontiers in neurology

149. Photobiomodulation Improves the Frontal Cognitive Function of Older Adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Photobiomodulation Improves the Frontal Cognitive Function of Older Adults. The frontal lobe hypothesis of age-related cognitive decline suggests that the deterioration of the prefrontal cortical regions that occurs with aging leads to executive function deficits. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a newly developed, noninvasive technique for enhancing brain function, which has shown promising effects on cognitive function in both animals and humans. This randomized, sham-controlled study sought (...) to examine the effects of PBM on the frontal brain function of older adults.Thirty older adults without a neuropsychiatric history performed cognitive tests of frontal function (ie, the Eriksen flanker and category fluency tests) before and after a single 7.5-minute session of real or sham PBM. The PBM device consisted of three separate light-emitting diode cluster heads (633 and 870 nm), which were applied to both sides of the forehead and posterior midline, and delivered a total energy of 1349

2018 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

150. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence (...) and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2012 Epilepsy research

151. Bilateral white matter abnormality in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bilateral white matter abnormality in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. In frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), interictal discharges and seizures are more likely to spread to contralateral hemisphere and become secondarily generalized. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) integrity in children with FLE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Children with FLE and normal MRI, and healthy controls with no neurological or psychiatric disorders underwent DTI on 3T MRI. Whole brain

2014 Epilepsy research

152. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers.Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal (...) girls and boys with ADHD.These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

2014 NeuroImage : Clinical

153. Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of frontal lobe: a case report and literature review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of frontal lobe: a case report and literature review The brain parenchymal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without systemic disease or lytic skull lesions is extremely rare. We report a 23-year-old male presenting with new onset 1 hour seizure with loss of consciousness 20 days prior to admission, and recurrent seizure 2 weeks later. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an irregularly mass with enhancement involving the right frontal lobe

2014 Chinese Journal of Cancer Research

154. Patient-specific connectivity pattern of epileptic network in frontal lobe epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Patient-specific connectivity pattern of epileptic network in frontal lobe epilepsy There is evidence that focal epilepsy may involve the dysfunction of a brain network in addition to the focal region. To delineate the characteristics of this epileptic network, we collected EEG/fMRI data from 23 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. For each patient, EEG/fMRI analysis was first performed to determine the BOLD response to epileptic spikes. The maximum activation cluster in the frontal lobe

2014 NeuroImage : Clinical

155. Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature Intracranial lipomas (ICLs) are rare lesions, the vast majority encountered as incidental findings on imaging studies. ICLs are generally pericallosal midline lesions and thought to be asymptomatic and can be accompanied by additional intracranial congenital malformations. We describe a 17-year old male with an unusual case of ICL on the frontal lobe associated with cortical dysplasia and abnormal vasculature

2014 The neuroradiology journal

156. Alterations in the Functional Connectivity of Frontal Lobe Networks Preceding Emergence Delirium in Children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alterations in the Functional Connectivity of Frontal Lobe Networks Preceding Emergence Delirium in Children. This study aimed to characterize the electroencephalogram in children who emerged with emergence delirium (ED) compared with children without ED using methods that involved the assessment of cortical functional connectivity.Children aged 5 to 15 yr had multichannel electroencephalographic recordings during induction and emergence from anesthesia during minor surgical procedures (...) frequency activity (referred to as an indeterminate state). In children with ED, arousal with delirious behavior and a variety of electroencephalogram patterns occurred during the indeterminate state, before the appearance of normal wake or sleep patterns. The electroencephalogram in children without ED progressed from the indeterminate state to classifiable sleep or drowsy states, before peaceful awakening. Statistically significant differences in frontal lobe functional connectivity were identified

2014 Anesthesiology

157. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration. Full Text available with Trip Pro

External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration. Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text].In 10 healthy males (age 20-54 yr), phenylephrine or ephedrine was infused for an ∼20

2014 British Journal of Anaesthesia

158. Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction located in the temporal or frontal lobe. (Abstract)

Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction located in the temporal or frontal lobe. The aim of the study was to compare clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) located in the temporal or frontal periventricular white matter.The study was a retrospective hospital-based study of preterm infants with a frontal PVHI (n=21; 11 (...) was noted in seven infants with a frontal PVHI and five with a temporal PVHI. There were more infants with a temporal PVHI who developed visual impairment (n=5) or behavioural problems (n=7) compared with those with a frontal PVHI (visual impairment (n=2), behavioural problems (n=3).PVHI located in the temporal or frontal lobe is almost invariably related to a typical motor outcome, but carries a risk of cognitive, behavioural, and visual problems, especially in infants with a PVHI located

2014 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

159. A decrease in spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation by phenylephrine reflects reduced skin blood flow. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A decrease in spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation by phenylephrine reflects reduced skin blood flow. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) is reduced with administration of phenylephrine, while cerebral blood flow may remain unaffected. We hypothesized that extracranial vasoconstriction explains the effect of phenylephrine on ScO2.We measured ScO2 and internal and external carotid

2014 Anesthesia and Analgesia

160. Simultaneous subdural and scalp EEG correlates of frontal lobe epileptic sources. (Abstract)

Simultaneous subdural and scalp EEG correlates of frontal lobe epileptic sources. To assess the visibility and detectability in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) of cortical sources in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) as to their localization, and the extent and amplitude of activation.We analyzed the simultaneous subdural and scalp interictal EEG recordings of 14 patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) associated with focal cortical dysplasia. Subdural spike types were identified (...) frontal, two in the dorsolateral gyri, two in the depth of dorsolateral sulci, and two in the basal frontal region. Cortical sources generating scalp-detectable spikes presented a median of 6 cm(2) of activated cortical convexity surface and a subdural spike-to-background-amplitude ratio >8. These sources were associated with a higher number of activated subdural grid contacts and a higher subdural spike-to-background amplitude ratio than sources generating non-scalp-detectable spikes.Not only

2014 Epilepsia

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