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Frontal Lobe

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121. Quantification of in vivo transverse relaxation of glutamate in the frontal cortex of human brain by radio frequency pulse-driven longitudinal steady state. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Optimized four-flip angle measurements at 0°,12°, 24°, and 36° with matched repetition time were used in nine human subjects (6F, 3M; 27-49 years old) at 7 Tesla. Longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates for glutamate were measured from a 2 x 2 x 2 cm3 voxel placed in three different brain regions: gray matter-dominated medial prefrontal lobe, white matter-dominated left frontal lobe, and gray matter-dominated occipital lobe.Compared to the original MARzss technique, the scan time per voxel (...) Quantification of in vivo transverse relaxation of glutamate in the frontal cortex of human brain by radio frequency pulse-driven longitudinal steady state. The principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate plays an important role in many central nervous system disorders. Because glutamate resides predominantly in glutamatergic neurons, its relaxation properties reflect the intracellular environment of glutamatergic neurons. This study developed an improved echo time-independent technique

2019 PLoS ONE

122. Altered functional connectivity of right inferior frontal gyrus subregions in bipolar disorder: a resting state fMRI study. (Abstract)

Altered functional connectivity of right inferior frontal gyrus subregions in bipolar disorder: a resting state fMRI study. The right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) is a key cortical node in the circuits of emotion and cognitive control, and it has been frequently associated with bipolar disorder (BP); however, a reliable pattern of aberrant rIFG activation and connectivity in bipolar disorder has yet to be established. To further elucidate rIFG abnormalities in different states of bipolar (...) subregions except cluster 2(posterior-ventral rIFG). Using five subregions of rIFG as seeds, the decreased FC in bipolar disorder was mainly between posterior-ventral rIFG(cluster 2) and multiple brain regions including the postcentral gyrus, the precentral gyrus, paracentral lobule, lingual Gyrus, fusiform and cerebellum posterior lobe. These results indicated that local activity and FC were altered within specific subregions of the rIFG in BP. These findings may provide the distinct functional

2020 Journal of Affective Disorders

123. Association Between Mental Stress-Induced Inferior Frontal Cortex Activation and Angina in Coronary Artery Disease. (Abstract)

Association Between Mental Stress-Induced Inferior Frontal Cortex Activation and Angina in Coronary Artery Disease. The inferior frontal lobe is an important area of the brain involved in the stress response, and higher activation with acute mental stress may indicate a more severe stress reaction. However, it is unclear if activation of this region with stress correlates with angina in individuals with coronary artery disease.Individuals with stable coronary artery disease underwent acute (...) mental stress testing using a series of standardized speech/arithmetic stressors in conjunction with high resolution positron emission tomography imaging of the brain. Blood flow to the inferior frontal lobe was evaluated as a ratio compared with whole brain flow for each scan. Angina was assessed with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire's angina frequency subscale at baseline and 2 years follow-up.We analyzed 148 individuals with coronary artery disease (mean age [SD] 62 [8] years; 69% male, and 35.8

2020 Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging

124. Differential frontal alpha oscillations and mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness: a comparison between slow and fast propofol infusion rates. (Abstract)

Differential frontal alpha oscillations and mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness: a comparison between slow and fast propofol infusion rates. Mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness following propofol administration remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to compare frontal lobe electroencephalography activity and brainstem reflexes during intravenous induction of general anaesthesia, in patients receiving a typical bolus dose (fast infusion) of propofol

2020 Anaesthesia

125. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy. Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls.Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy (...) patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia.Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment

2012 Epilepsia

126. Language network reorganization before and after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. (Abstract)

Language network reorganization before and after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgery is the recommended treatment option for patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This method offers a good chance of seizure freedom but carries a considerable risk of postoperative language impairment. The extremely variable neurocognitive profiles in surgical epilepsy patients cannot be fully explained by extent of resection, fiber integrity, or current task-based functional MRI (...) analysis. These network changes were found preoperatively and proceeded after surgery with characteristic patterns in the left and right TLEs. Ipsilesional fronto-temporal connectivity decreased in both left and right TLE. In left TLE specifically, preoperative atypical language dominance predicted better postoperative verbal fluency and naming function. In right TLE, left frontal language dominance correlated with good semantic verbal fluency before and after surgery, and left fronto-temporal language

2020 Journal of Neurosurgery

127. Acute effect of Ethanol and Taurine on frontal cortex absolute beta power before and after exercise. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design). In each of the 4 treatments (Placebo-PL, TA, ET and TA+ET), electroencephalography (EEG) tests were conducted in order to analyze changes in absolute beta power (ABP) in the frontal lobe in 3 moments: baseline (before ingestion), peak (before (...) Acute effect of Ethanol and Taurine on frontal cortex absolute beta power before and after exercise. Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze

2018 PLoS ONE

128. The right occipital lobe and poor insight in first-episode psychosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The right occipital lobe and poor insight in first-episode psychosis. Lack of insight is a core feature of non-affective psychosis and has been associated with poorer outcomes. Brain abnormalities underlying lack of insight have been suggested, mostly in the frontal lobe, although previous research showed mixed results. We used a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis in 108 first-episode non-affective psychosis patients to investigate the pattern of brain structural abnormalities related (...) , and the middle temporal gyrus. In addition, GMV at this cluster showed a negative correlation with the score of the SUMD (r = -0.305; p = 0.001). When comparing patients with poor insight with healthy subjects overall reductions of GMV were found, mainly in frontal and occipital lobes. Hence, poor insight in non-affective psychosis seems to be associated with specific brain abnormalities in the right occipital and temporal cortical regions. Dysfunction in any combination of these areas may contribute to lack

2018 PLoS ONE

129. Early Sexual Trauma Exposure and Neural Response Inhibition in Adolescence and Young Adults: Trajectories of Frontal Theta Oscillations During a Go/No-Go Task. Full Text available with Trip Pro

disorder symptoms or externalizing psychopathology.Childhood sexual assault is associated with atypical frontal neurophysiologic development during response inhibition. This could reflect alterations in frontal lobe development, synaptic pruning, and/or cortical maturation involving neural circuits for inhibitory control. These same areas could be associated with increased risk for young adult alcohol use disorder symptoms and internalizing psychopathology. These findings support the hypothesis (...) Early Sexual Trauma Exposure and Neural Response Inhibition in Adolescence and Young Adults: Trajectories of Frontal Theta Oscillations During a Go/No-Go Task. Trauma, particularly when experienced early in life, can alter neurophysiologic and behavioral development, thereby increasing risk for substance use disorders and related psychopathology. However, few studies have empirically examined trauma using well-characterized developmental samples that are followed longitudinally.The association

2019 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

130. Frontal-subcortical behaviors during Alzheimer's disease in individuals with Down syndrome. (Abstract)

with an executive protocol developed for people with intellectual disabilities and was rated for behaviors related to frontal lobe dysfunction (disinhibition, executive dysfunction, and apathy) by an informant using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Informant-reported behaviors related to frontal lobe dysfunction were found to correlate negatively with executive function performance. Disinhibition and executive dysfunction were associated with the clinical stage of dementia. The odds of having Alzheimer's (...) Frontal-subcortical behaviors during Alzheimer's disease in individuals with Down syndrome. There is evidence that frontal-subcortical circuits play an important role in the initial presentation of dementia in Down syndrome (DS), including changes in behavior, a decline in working memory and executive dysfunction. We evaluated 92 individuals with DS (≥30 years of age), divided into 3 groups by diagnosis-stable cognition, prodromal dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Each individual was evaluated

2019 Neurobiology of Aging

131. Frontal pathways in cognitive control: direct evidence from intraoperative stimulation and diffusion tractography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal pathways in cognitive control: direct evidence from intraoperative stimulation and diffusion tractography. A key aspect of cognitive control is the management of conflicting incoming information to achieve a goal, termed 'interference control'. Although the role of the right frontal lobe in interference control is evident, the white matter tracts subserving this cognitive process remain unclear. To investigate this, we studied the effect of transient network disruption (by means (...) of direct electrical stimulation) and permanent disconnection (resulting from neurosurgical resection) on interference control processes, using the Stroop test in the intraoperative and extraoperative neurosurgical setting. We evaluated the sites at which errors could be produced by direct electrical stimulation during an intraoperative Stroop test in 34 patients with frontal right hemisphere glioma. Lesion-symptom mapping was used to evaluate the relationship between the resection cavities

2019 Brain

132. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a brief battery of six neuropsychological tasks designed to assess frontal lobe function at bedside [Neurology 55:1621-1626, 2000]. The six FAB tasks explore cognitive and behavioral domains that are thought to be under the control of the frontal lobes, most notably conceptualization and abstract reasoning, lexical verbal fluency and mental flexibility (...) , motor programming and executive control of action, self-regulation and resistance to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy.We examined the sensitivity of performance on the FAB to frontal lobe damage in right-hemisphere-damaged first-ever stroke patients based on voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping.Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping of FAB performance revealed that the integrity of the right anterior insula (BA13) is crucial for the FAB global composite score, for the FAB

2013 BMC Neurology

133. fMRI prediction of naming change after adult temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: Activation matters. Full Text available with Trip Pro

decision task, which reliably activates frontal and temporal language networks. Patients underwent temporal lobe resections (20 left resection). The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to determine language functioning before and after surgery. Language dominance was determined for Broca and Wernicke area (WA) by calculating a laterality index following statistical parametric mapping processing. We used an innovative method to generate anatomic resection masks automatically from pre- and postoperative (...) fMRI prediction of naming change after adult temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: Activation matters. We aimed to predict language deficits after epilepsy surgery. In addition to evaluating surgical factors examined previously, we determined the impact of the extent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation that was resected on naming ability.Thirty-five adults (mean age 37.5 ± 10.9 years, 13 male) with temporal lobe epilepsy completed a preoperative fMRI auditory description

2019 Epilepsia

134. Differential sensitivity of structural, diffusion, and resting-state functional MRI for detecting brain alterations and verbal memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

to which imaging alterations within left medial temporal lobe/posterior cingulate (LMT/PC) and left lateral temporal regions were associated with verbal memory performance was evaluated.Patients with left TLE and right TLE both demonstrated pronounced microstructural alterations (ie, decreased fractional anisotropy [FA] and increased mean diffusivity [MD]) spanning the entire frontal and temporolimbic SWM, which were highly lateralized to the ipsilateral hemisphere. Conversely, reductions in cortical (...) Differential sensitivity of structural, diffusion, and resting-state functional MRI for detecting brain alterations and verbal memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is known to affect large-scale gray and white matter networks, and these network changes likely contribute to the verbal memory impairments observed in many patients. In this study, we investigate multimodal imaging patterns of brain alterations in TLE and evaluate the sensitivity of different

2019 Epilepsia

135. Frontal lesions predict response to prism adaptation treatment in spatial neglect: A randomised controlled study. (Abstract)

previously demonstrated that functional improvement after prism adaptation treatment is linked to frontal lobe lesions. However, that study was a treatment-only study with no randomised control group. The current study randomised individuals with spatial neglect to receive 10 days of prism adaptation treatment or to receive only standard care (control group). Replicating our earlier results, we found that the presence of frontal lesions moderated response to prism adaptation treatment: among prism (...) Frontal lesions predict response to prism adaptation treatment in spatial neglect: A randomised controlled study. Spatial neglect commonly follows right hemisphere stroke. It is defined as impaired contralesional stimulus detection, response, or action, causing functional disability. While prism adaptation treatment is highly promising to promote functional recovery of spatial neglect, not all individuals respond. Consistent with a primary effect of prism adaptation on spatial movements, we

2018 Neuropsychological rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136. Cognitive estimation: Performance of patients with focal frontal and posterior lesions Full Text available with Trip Pro

to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET. Instead, neuropsychological studies may represent a more promising investigation tool for identifying the brain areas necessary for CET performance. We recently developed two new versions of the CET (CET (...) . The error analyses suggested that for CET-A, extreme and very extreme responses are impaired following frontal lobe damage. However, only very extreme responses are significantly more impaired following frontal lobe than posterior damage and so represent a measure restricted to frontal "executive" impairment, in addition to overall CET performance.Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Neuropsychologia

137. Frontal White Matter Hyperintensity Is Associated with Verbal Aggressiveness in Elderly Women with Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Full Text available with Trip Pro

analysis, PVH in the frontal lobe was independently associated with verbal aggressiveness after adjustment for brain atrophy and clinical confounders.The current results indicated that PVH in the frontal lobe was independently associated with verbal aggressiveness. (...) Frontal White Matter Hyperintensity Is Associated with Verbal Aggressiveness in Elderly Women with Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are exhibited in most patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Although white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is often observed with AD, the precise role of WMH in BPSD remains unclear. The current study aimed to identify the impact of regional WMH on specific features of BPSD in persons

2018 Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra

138. Anodal frontal tDCS for chronic cluster headache treatment: a proof-of-concept trial targeting the anterior cingulate cortex and searching for nociceptive correlates Full Text available with Trip Pro

between baseline and the last week of tDCS. Twenty-three patients were available for a modified ITT analysis, 21 for per-protocol analysis. We also explored treatment-related changes in thermal pain thresholds and nociceptive blink reflexes (nBR), frontal lobe function and mood scales.In the per-protocol analysis there was a mean 35% decrease of attack frequency (p = 0.0001) with 41% of patients having a ≥ 50% decrease. Attack duration and intensity were also significantly reduced. After 8 weeks (n (...) Anodal frontal tDCS for chronic cluster headache treatment: a proof-of-concept trial targeting the anterior cingulate cortex and searching for nociceptive correlates Percutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is effective in refractory chronic cluster headache (rCCH) patients. Responders to ONS differ from non-responders by greater glucose metabolism in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). We reasoned that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive approach

2018 The journal of headache and pain

139. Frontal Underactivation During Working Memory Processing in Adults With Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

duration the night before, even when habitual sleep duration was controlled for. The findings suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in the absence of evident WM difficulties in individuals with acute partial sleep deprivation. They also highlight the importance of a good night's sleep to brain health. (...) Frontal Underactivation During Working Memory Processing in Adults With Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study Individuals with partial sleep deprivation may have working memory (WM) impairment, but the underlying neural mechanism of this phenomenon is relatively unknown. The present study examined neural processing during WM performance in individuals with and without partial sleep deprivation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty college students (10

2018 Frontiers in psychology

140. Incongruent pitch cues are associated with increased activation and functional connectivity in the frontal areas Full Text available with Trip Pro

and inferior frontal areas. In addition, significantly stronger activation was observed in the inferior frontal areas during the incongruent compared to congruent conditions. Enhanced functional connectivity was found between the left temporal and bilateral frontal areas in the incongruent than congruent conditions. Increased intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric connectivity was also observed in the frontal areas. Our results suggest the involvement of the frontal lobe in top-down and bottom-up (...) Incongruent pitch cues are associated with increased activation and functional connectivity in the frontal areas Pitch plays a crucial role in music and speech perception. Pitch perception is characterized by multiple perceptual dimensions, such as pitch height and chroma. Information provided by auditory signals that are related to these perceptual dimensions can be either congruent or incongruent. To create conflicting cues for pitch perception, we modified Shepard tones by varying the pitch

2018 Scientific reports

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