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Frontal Lobe

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121. The right occipital lobe and poor insight in first-episode psychosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The right occipital lobe and poor insight in first-episode psychosis. Lack of insight is a core feature of non-affective psychosis and has been associated with poorer outcomes. Brain abnormalities underlying lack of insight have been suggested, mostly in the frontal lobe, although previous research showed mixed results. We used a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis in 108 first-episode non-affective psychosis patients to investigate the pattern of brain structural abnormalities related (...) , and the middle temporal gyrus. In addition, GMV at this cluster showed a negative correlation with the score of the SUMD (r = -0.305; p = 0.001). When comparing patients with poor insight with healthy subjects overall reductions of GMV were found, mainly in frontal and occipital lobes. Hence, poor insight in non-affective psychosis seems to be associated with specific brain abnormalities in the right occipital and temporal cortical regions. Dysfunction in any combination of these areas may contribute to lack

2018 PLoS ONE

122. Frontal pathways in cognitive control: direct evidence from intraoperative stimulation and diffusion tractography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal pathways in cognitive control: direct evidence from intraoperative stimulation and diffusion tractography. A key aspect of cognitive control is the management of conflicting incoming information to achieve a goal, termed 'interference control'. Although the role of the right frontal lobe in interference control is evident, the white matter tracts subserving this cognitive process remain unclear. To investigate this, we studied the effect of transient network disruption (by means (...) of direct electrical stimulation) and permanent disconnection (resulting from neurosurgical resection) on interference control processes, using the Stroop test in the intraoperative and extraoperative neurosurgical setting. We evaluated the sites at which errors could be produced by direct electrical stimulation during an intraoperative Stroop test in 34 patients with frontal right hemisphere glioma. Lesion-symptom mapping was used to evaluate the relationship between the resection cavities

2019 Brain

123. Early Sexual Trauma Exposure and Neural Response Inhibition in Adolescence and Young Adults: Trajectories of Frontal Theta Oscillations During a Go/No-Go Task. Full Text available with Trip Pro

disorder symptoms or externalizing psychopathology.Childhood sexual assault is associated with atypical frontal neurophysiologic development during response inhibition. This could reflect alterations in frontal lobe development, synaptic pruning, and/or cortical maturation involving neural circuits for inhibitory control. These same areas could be associated with increased risk for young adult alcohol use disorder symptoms and internalizing psychopathology. These findings support the hypothesis (...) Early Sexual Trauma Exposure and Neural Response Inhibition in Adolescence and Young Adults: Trajectories of Frontal Theta Oscillations During a Go/No-Go Task. Trauma, particularly when experienced early in life, can alter neurophysiologic and behavioral development, thereby increasing risk for substance use disorders and related psychopathology. However, few studies have empirically examined trauma using well-characterized developmental samples that are followed longitudinally.The association

2019 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

124. Frontal-subcortical behaviors during Alzheimer's disease in individuals with Down syndrome. (Abstract)

with an executive protocol developed for people with intellectual disabilities and was rated for behaviors related to frontal lobe dysfunction (disinhibition, executive dysfunction, and apathy) by an informant using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Informant-reported behaviors related to frontal lobe dysfunction were found to correlate negatively with executive function performance. Disinhibition and executive dysfunction were associated with the clinical stage of dementia. The odds of having Alzheimer's (...) Frontal-subcortical behaviors during Alzheimer's disease in individuals with Down syndrome. There is evidence that frontal-subcortical circuits play an important role in the initial presentation of dementia in Down syndrome (DS), including changes in behavior, a decline in working memory and executive dysfunction. We evaluated 92 individuals with DS (≥30 years of age), divided into 3 groups by diagnosis-stable cognition, prodromal dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Each individual was evaluated

2019 Neurobiology of Aging

125. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a brief battery of six neuropsychological tasks designed to assess frontal lobe function at bedside [Neurology 55:1621-1626, 2000]. The six FAB tasks explore cognitive and behavioral domains that are thought to be under the control of the frontal lobes, most notably conceptualization and abstract reasoning, lexical verbal fluency and mental flexibility (...) , motor programming and executive control of action, self-regulation and resistance to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy.We examined the sensitivity of performance on the FAB to frontal lobe damage in right-hemisphere-damaged first-ever stroke patients based on voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping.Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping of FAB performance revealed that the integrity of the right anterior insula (BA13) is crucial for the FAB global composite score, for the FAB

2013 BMC Neurology

126. fMRI prediction of naming change after adult temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: Activation matters. Full Text available with Trip Pro

decision task, which reliably activates frontal and temporal language networks. Patients underwent temporal lobe resections (20 left resection). The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to determine language functioning before and after surgery. Language dominance was determined for Broca and Wernicke area (WA) by calculating a laterality index following statistical parametric mapping processing. We used an innovative method to generate anatomic resection masks automatically from pre- and postoperative (...) fMRI prediction of naming change after adult temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: Activation matters. We aimed to predict language deficits after epilepsy surgery. In addition to evaluating surgical factors examined previously, we determined the impact of the extent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation that was resected on naming ability.Thirty-five adults (mean age 37.5 ± 10.9 years, 13 male) with temporal lobe epilepsy completed a preoperative fMRI auditory description

2019 Epilepsia

127. Differential sensitivity of structural, diffusion, and resting-state functional MRI for detecting brain alterations and verbal memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

to which imaging alterations within left medial temporal lobe/posterior cingulate (LMT/PC) and left lateral temporal regions were associated with verbal memory performance was evaluated.Patients with left TLE and right TLE both demonstrated pronounced microstructural alterations (ie, decreased fractional anisotropy [FA] and increased mean diffusivity [MD]) spanning the entire frontal and temporolimbic SWM, which were highly lateralized to the ipsilateral hemisphere. Conversely, reductions in cortical (...) Differential sensitivity of structural, diffusion, and resting-state functional MRI for detecting brain alterations and verbal memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is known to affect large-scale gray and white matter networks, and these network changes likely contribute to the verbal memory impairments observed in many patients. In this study, we investigate multimodal imaging patterns of brain alterations in TLE and evaluate the sensitivity of different

2019 Epilepsia

128. Frontal lesions predict response to prism adaptation treatment in spatial neglect: A randomised controlled study. (Abstract)

previously demonstrated that functional improvement after prism adaptation treatment is linked to frontal lobe lesions. However, that study was a treatment-only study with no randomised control group. The current study randomised individuals with spatial neglect to receive 10 days of prism adaptation treatment or to receive only standard care (control group). Replicating our earlier results, we found that the presence of frontal lesions moderated response to prism adaptation treatment: among prism (...) Frontal lesions predict response to prism adaptation treatment in spatial neglect: A randomised controlled study. Spatial neglect commonly follows right hemisphere stroke. It is defined as impaired contralesional stimulus detection, response, or action, causing functional disability. While prism adaptation treatment is highly promising to promote functional recovery of spatial neglect, not all individuals respond. Consistent with a primary effect of prism adaptation on spatial movements, we

2018 Neuropsychological rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

129. Cognitive estimation: Performance of patients with focal frontal and posterior lesions Full Text available with Trip Pro

to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET. Instead, neuropsychological studies may represent a more promising investigation tool for identifying the brain areas necessary for CET performance. We recently developed two new versions of the CET (CET (...) . The error analyses suggested that for CET-A, extreme and very extreme responses are impaired following frontal lobe damage. However, only very extreme responses are significantly more impaired following frontal lobe than posterior damage and so represent a measure restricted to frontal "executive" impairment, in addition to overall CET performance.Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Neuropsychologia

130. Frontal White Matter Hyperintensity Is Associated with Verbal Aggressiveness in Elderly Women with Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Full Text available with Trip Pro

analysis, PVH in the frontal lobe was independently associated with verbal aggressiveness after adjustment for brain atrophy and clinical confounders.The current results indicated that PVH in the frontal lobe was independently associated with verbal aggressiveness. (...) Frontal White Matter Hyperintensity Is Associated with Verbal Aggressiveness in Elderly Women with Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are exhibited in most patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Although white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is often observed with AD, the precise role of WMH in BPSD remains unclear. The current study aimed to identify the impact of regional WMH on specific features of BPSD in persons

2018 Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra

131. Anodal frontal tDCS for chronic cluster headache treatment: a proof-of-concept trial targeting the anterior cingulate cortex and searching for nociceptive correlates Full Text available with Trip Pro

between baseline and the last week of tDCS. Twenty-three patients were available for a modified ITT analysis, 21 for per-protocol analysis. We also explored treatment-related changes in thermal pain thresholds and nociceptive blink reflexes (nBR), frontal lobe function and mood scales.In the per-protocol analysis there was a mean 35% decrease of attack frequency (p = 0.0001) with 41% of patients having a ≥ 50% decrease. Attack duration and intensity were also significantly reduced. After 8 weeks (n (...) Anodal frontal tDCS for chronic cluster headache treatment: a proof-of-concept trial targeting the anterior cingulate cortex and searching for nociceptive correlates Percutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is effective in refractory chronic cluster headache (rCCH) patients. Responders to ONS differ from non-responders by greater glucose metabolism in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). We reasoned that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive approach

2018 The journal of headache and pain

132. Frontal Underactivation During Working Memory Processing in Adults With Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

duration the night before, even when habitual sleep duration was controlled for. The findings suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in the absence of evident WM difficulties in individuals with acute partial sleep deprivation. They also highlight the importance of a good night's sleep to brain health. (...) Frontal Underactivation During Working Memory Processing in Adults With Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study Individuals with partial sleep deprivation may have working memory (WM) impairment, but the underlying neural mechanism of this phenomenon is relatively unknown. The present study examined neural processing during WM performance in individuals with and without partial sleep deprivation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty college students (10

2018 Frontiers in psychology

133. Incongruent pitch cues are associated with increased activation and functional connectivity in the frontal areas Full Text available with Trip Pro

and inferior frontal areas. In addition, significantly stronger activation was observed in the inferior frontal areas during the incongruent compared to congruent conditions. Enhanced functional connectivity was found between the left temporal and bilateral frontal areas in the incongruent than congruent conditions. Increased intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric connectivity was also observed in the frontal areas. Our results suggest the involvement of the frontal lobe in top-down and bottom-up (...) Incongruent pitch cues are associated with increased activation and functional connectivity in the frontal areas Pitch plays a crucial role in music and speech perception. Pitch perception is characterized by multiple perceptual dimensions, such as pitch height and chroma. Information provided by auditory signals that are related to these perceptual dimensions can be either congruent or incongruent. To create conflicting cues for pitch perception, we modified Shepard tones by varying the pitch

2018 Scientific reports

134. Seizure duration and latency of hypermotor manifestations distinguish frontal from extrafrontal onset in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Seizure duration and latency of hypermotor manifestations distinguish frontal from extrafrontal onset in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is an epilepsy syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of sleep-related hypermotor seizures of variable complexity and duration. Seizures usually arise in the frontal lobe, but extrafrontal seizure onset zones are well described. To identify clinically relevant ictal features of SHE that could distinguish (...) a frontal from an extrafrontal onset zone, we conducted a retrospective analysis of seizure characteristics in 58 patients with drug-resistant SHE (43 frontal and 15 extrafrontal) who underwent video-stereo-electroencephalographic recordings and became seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. We found that the mean duration of electrographic seizures and clinically observable ictal manifestations were significantly shorter in frontal SHE compared to extrafrontal SHE. The mean latency between electrographic

2018 Epilepsia

135. Frontal and temporal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry in schizotypal personality disorder. (Abstract)

lobes. In the temporal lobe regions, there were no group differences in volume, but SPD had reduced right>left middle temporal gyrus volume asymmetry compared to HC and lacked the right>left asymmetry in the inferior temporal gyrus volume seen in HC. In the frontal regions, there were no differences between groups on volume or asymmetry. In the white matter tracts, SPD had reduced FA in the left sagittal stratum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased right>left asymmetry in sagittal (...) Frontal and temporal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry in schizotypal personality disorder. Abnormalities in temporal and frontal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry have been implicated in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Schizotypal personality disorder can provide insight into vulnerability and protective factors in these disorders without the confounds associated with chronic psychosis. However, multimodal imaging

2018 Schizophrenia Research

136. Emerging depression in adolescence coincides with accelerated frontal cortical thinning. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emerging depression in adolescence coincides with accelerated frontal cortical thinning. Adolescence is a transition period characterized by heightened emotional reactivity, which for some sets the stage for emerging depressive symptoms. Prior studies suggest that adolescent depression is associated with deviant cortical and subcortical brain structure. Longitudinal studies are, however, currently scarce, but critical to detect which adolescents are at risk for developing depressive symptoms.In (...) this longitudinal study, a community sample of 205 participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three biennial waves (522 scans) spanning 5 years across ages 8-25 years. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using self-report at the third time point. Mixed models were used to examine the relations between structural brain development, specifically regional change in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes (hippocampus and amygdala), and depressive symptoms.Accelerated frontal

2018 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

137. Greater body mass index is associated with reduced frontal cortical volumes among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

processed T1-weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus. General linear models assessed the association between BMI and the ROIs, controlling for age, sex and intracranial volume. We also conducted exploratory within-BD group and whole brain vertex-wise (...) Greater body mass index is associated with reduced frontal cortical volumes among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD.We

2018 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

138. Frontal cortex function as derived from hierarchical predictive coding Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal cortex function as derived from hierarchical predictive coding The frontal lobes are essential for human volition and goal-directed behavior, yet their function remains unclear. While various models have highlighted working memory, reinforcement learning, and cognitive control as key functions, a single framework for interpreting the range of effects observed in prefrontal cortex has yet to emerge. Here we show that a simple computational motif based on predictive coding can be stacked (...) hierarchically to learn and perform arbitrarily complex goal-directed behavior. The resulting Hierarchical Error Representation (HER) model simulates a wide array of findings from fMRI, ERP, single-units, and neuropsychological studies of both lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. By reconceptualizing lateral prefrontal activity as anticipating prediction errors, the HER model provides a novel unifying account of prefrontal cortex function with broad implications for understanding the frontal cortex across

2018 Scientific reports

139. Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

the group with 22q11DS only, we further tested the association between prodromal symptoms of psychosis and FC.We observed that relative to controls, individuals with 22q11DS displayed increased FC in lobar networks involving the frontal-frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-occipital ROIs. In contrast, FC between ROIs in the parietal-temporal and occipital lobes was reduced in the 22q11DS group relative to healthy controls. Moreover, positive psychotic symptoms were positively associated with increased (...) Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development

2018 Behavioral and brain functions : BBF

140. The crossed frontal aslant tract: A possible pathway involved in the recovery of supplementary motor area syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

The crossed frontal aslant tract: A possible pathway involved in the recovery of supplementary motor area syndrome Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway (...) callosum (CC). After investigating the postoperative anatomy of these resections, we identified a pattern of nonhomologous connections through the CC connecting the premotor area to the contralateral premotor and SMAs. The transcallosal fibers have projections from the previously described frontal aslant tract (FAT) and thus, we have termed this path the "crossed FAT."We hypothesize that this newly described tract may facilitate recovery from SMA syndrome by maintaining interhemispheric connectivity

2018 Brain and behavior

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