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5,228 results for

Frontal Lobe

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5221. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of the right frontal lobe in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of the right frontal lobe in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To investigate neurometabolite concentrations in right prefrontal white matter in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relations of neurometabolites with attention skill and frontal anatomy.Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( H-MRS), quantitative morphometric analysis of left and right dorsolateral frontal

2003 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

5222. Frontal lobe N-acetylaspartate correlates with psychopathology in schizophrenia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (Abstract)

Frontal lobe N-acetylaspartate correlates with psychopathology in schizophrenia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Clinical, neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia suggest impaired frontal lobe function, especially of the dorsolateral prefrontal region (DLPFR). This dysfunction has in particular been associated with negative or "deficit" symptoms. Despite these findings, morphological studies have failed to show consistent structural abnormalities (...) in the frontal lobe. This may be because existing techniques are not sensitive enough to detect structural abnormalities or that dysfunction in the frontal lobe is caused by lesions elsewhere. We used volume-localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, to evaluate the neuronal integrity of the dorsolateral prefrontal region in schizophrenic patients with persistent negative symptoms and in healthy comparison subjects.Twenty-five patients who

2003 Schizophrenia Research

5223. Frontal lobe atrophy due to a mutation in the cholesterol binding protein HE1/NPC2. (Abstract)

Frontal lobe atrophy due to a mutation in the cholesterol binding protein HE1/NPC2. This is the first description of slowly progressive Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) without the typical lysosomal storage in bone marrow and viscera in two descendants of a group of 17th century French-Canadians. The index patient was a married 43-year-old woman with onset of dementia in her thirties, later followed by the development of ataxia and athetoid movements. Her autopsy disclosed frontal lobe atrophy (...) or promoter regions of the NPC1 gene using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Sequencing showed a homozygous gene mutation that is predicted to result in an amino acid substitution, V39M, in the cholesterol binding protein HE1 (NPC2). Adult-onset NPC2 with lysosomal storage virtually restricted to neurons represents a novel phenotypic and genotypic variant with diffuse cognitive impairment and focal frontal involvement described for the first time.

2002 Annals of Neurology

5224. 31P-spectroscopy of frontal lobe in schizophrenia: alterations in phospholipid and high-energy phosphate metabolism. (Abstract)

31P-spectroscopy of frontal lobe in schizophrenia: alterations in phospholipid and high-energy phosphate metabolism. Studies using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) reported on abnormalities in frontal lobe metabolism in schizophrenia. The most consistent findings were a reduction in the resonances of phosphomonoesters (PME) and/or increased phosphodiesters (PDE), which are, respectively, the precursors and the metabolites of membrane phospholipids, thus suggesting an accelerated (...) phospholipid metabolism in the disease. Other studies reported increased high-energy phosphates (ATP-adenosine triphosphate and PCr-phosphocreatine) in schizophrenia, reflecting decreased use of energy in the frontal lobe. We investigated 53 schizophrenic patients (DSM-IV) and 35 healthy controls. Eighteen from these patients were drug nai;ve and the remaining 35 were drug-free for an average of 6 months. Phospholipid metabolism and high-energy phosphates were assessed in the left frontal lobe using 31P

2002 Schizophrenia Research

5225. Staying on the job: the frontal lobes control individual performance variability. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Staying on the job: the frontal lobes control individual performance variability. The causes of variability of performance by individual subjects have rarely been investigated, although excessive variability or inconsistency may be a functionally significant factor for many real-life activities. Our objective was to determine whether patients with focal frontal brain lesions have excessive individual performance variability. Thirty-six patients with focal frontal (n=25) or non-frontal (n=11 (...) dispersion of performance on these tests were observed in frontal patients only (except those with exclusively inferior medial damage). Disturbances in consistency of performance were observed primarily in patients with frontal lesions. Damage to the frontal lobes impairs the stability of cognitive performance. Damage to different frontal regions causes different profiles of abnormal variability. Fluctuations in performance of a task may underlie some of the reported difficulties in daily tasks reported

2003 Brain

5226. Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex in patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer type associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex in patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer type associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The morphology and distribution of local-circuit neurons (interneurons) were examined, by calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunocytochemistry, in the frontal cortex (area 8) in two patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer type associated with classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and in seven (...) circuits in patients with frontal lobe dementia.

1993 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

5227. Dementia of frontal lobe type and motor neuron disease. A Golgi study of the frontal cortex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dementia of frontal lobe type and motor neuron disease. A Golgi study of the frontal cortex. Neuropathological findings in a 38 year old patient with dementia of frontal lobe type and motor neuron disease included pyramidal tracts, myelin pallor and neuron loss, gliosis and chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus, together with frontal atrophy, neuron loss, gliosis and spongiosis in the upper cortical layers of the frontal (and temporal) lobes. Most remaining pyramidal and non-pyramidal (...) neurons (multipolar, bitufted and bipolar cells) in the upper layers (layers II and III) of the frontal cortex (area B) had reduced dendritic arbors, proximal dendritic varicosities and amputation of dendrites as revealed in optimally stained rapid Golgi sections. Pyramidal cells in these layers also showed depletion of dendritic spines. Neurons in the inner layers were preserved. Loss of receptive surfaces in neurons of the upper cortical layers in the frontal cortex are indicative of neuronal

1991 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

5228. The prevalence of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and the frontal lobe syndrome in a population based sample of 85 year olds. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The prevalence of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and the frontal lobe syndrome in a population based sample of 85 year olds. To investigate the prevalence of the frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) and the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) in a population based sample of 85 year olds.A representative sample of 85 year olds (n = 451) in Gothenburg, Sweden was examined with a neuropsychiatric examination and a key informant interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist (...) of dementia, mainly Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Among the 14 fvFTD cases, only five were demented according to DSM-III-R. Moderate to severe frontal atrophy was found in 93% of those with FLS (and in all cases with fvFTD), but also in 49% of those without FLS. FLS was found in 35% of those with moderate to severe frontal atrophy, and in 3% of those without these changes.The prevalence of fvFTD was 3% in 85 year olds, which is higher than previously expected in this age group. Only

2003 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

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