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Frontal Lobe

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21. Early bilateral and massive compromise of the frontal lobes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early bilateral and massive compromise of the frontal lobes The frontal lobes are one of the most complex brain structures involved in both domain-general and specific functions. The goal of this work was to assess the anatomical and cognitive affectations from a unique case with massive bilateral frontal affectation. We report the case of GC, an eight-year old child with nearly complete affectation of bilateral frontal structures and spared temporal, parietal, occipital, and cerebellar regions (...) connectivity analysis revealed almost complete loss of frontal connections, with atypical temporo-posterior pathways. Similarly, functional connectivity showed an aberrant frontoparietal network and relative preservation of the posterior part of the default mode network and the visual network. We discuss this multilevel pattern of behavioral, structural, and functional connectivity results. With its unique pattern of compromised and preserved structures and functions, this exceptional case offers new

2018 NeuroImage : Clinical

22. Frontal lobe epileptic seizures are accompanied by elevated pitch during verbal communication. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal lobe epileptic seizures are accompanied by elevated pitch during verbal communication. The objective of our study was to assess alterations in speech as a possible localizing sign in frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal speech was analyzed in 18 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) during seizures and in the interictal period. Matched identical words were analyzed regarding alterations in fundamental frequency (ƒo) as an approximation of pitch. In patients with FLE, ƒo of ictal utterances (...) in frontal lobe seizures with origin in either hemisphere, suggesting a bilateral involvement to the planning of speech production, in contrast to a more right-sided lateralization of pitch perception in prosodic processing.Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

2018 Epilepsia

23. Unusual presentation of epilepsy of germinoma located in the frontal-lobe: case report and literature review. (Abstract)

Unusual presentation of epilepsy of germinoma located in the frontal-lobe: case report and literature review. Germinoma is rare in peripheral lobar locations in the brain, with only 10 cases of primary frontal lobe germinoma having been reported in the previous literature. Epilepsy is a rare manifestation of germinomas. We describe an unusual case of a primary frontal germinoma in a 21-year-old man who presented with epilepsy. A presumptive diagnosis of abscess or cystic glioma was made

2018 British Journal of Neurosurgery

24. Periventricular nodular heterotopia in 22q11.2 deletion and frontal lobe migration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Periventricular nodular heterotopia in 22q11.2 deletion and frontal lobe migration We aimed to delineate the distribution of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in patients with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and place this in the context of other genetic forms of PNH.We retrospectively analyzed brain imaging and postmortem data available for adult patients with 22q11.2DS. We included only those with good quality MRI data (n = 29) in addition to two patients with PNH (...) identified through postmortem studies. We also reviewed the pattern of PNH in all genetic conditions reported with this phenotype.Of the total seven patients (M = 4, F = 3; age: 19-61 years) identified to have PNH, six had a history of seizures, six had schizophrenia, six had variable levels of intellectual disability, and two had obsessive compulsive disorder. In all seven patients, the nodules were located over the dorsal pole of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. The nodules were small

2018 Annals of clinical and translational neurology

25. Causal Evidence for Learning-Dependent Frontal Lobe Contributions to Cognitive Control Full Text available with Trip Pro

Causal Evidence for Learning-Dependent Frontal Lobe Contributions to Cognitive Control The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced

2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

26. The anatomy of the human medial forebrain bundle: Ventral tegmental area connections to reward-associated subcortical and frontal lobe regions Full Text available with Trip Pro

The anatomy of the human medial forebrain bundle: Ventral tegmental area connections to reward-associated subcortical and frontal lobe regions Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral (...) could be robustly described both in the present sample as well as in additional control analyses in data from the human connectome project. Most VTA- connections reached the superior frontal gyrus, the middel frontal gyrus and the lateral orbitofrontal region corresponding to Brodmann areas 10, 9, 8, 11, and 11m. The projections to these regions comprised 97% (right) and 98% (left) of the total relative fiber counts of the slMFB.The anatomical description of the human MFB shows far reaching

2018 NeuroImage : Clinical

27. On the impact of interhemispheric white matter: Age, executive functioning, and dedifferentiation in the frontal lobes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

On the impact of interhemispheric white matter: Age, executive functioning, and dedifferentiation in the frontal lobes. In middle age, declines in executive functioning (EF) are associated with decrements in the quality and/or quantity of white and grey matter. Recruitment of homologous regions has been identified as a compensatory mechanism for cognitive decline in later middle age; however, research into neural substrates of EF has yet to be guided by dedifferentiation models. We hypothesized (...) that frontal-parietal grey matter volume, interhemispheric white matter, and intrahemispheric white matter fractional anisotropy will be predictive of EF. Further, we hypothesized that the comparative association between interhemispheric white matter and EF will increase with age, because of compensatory recruitment.Neurocognitive test data, DTI, and T1 MPRAGE scans (n = 444) were obtained from the NKI-Rockland Sample. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between age, EF

2018 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

28. Transcranial stimulation of the frontal lobes increases propensity of mind-wandering without changing meta-awareness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transcranial stimulation of the frontal lobes increases propensity of mind-wandering without changing meta-awareness Mind-wandering is omnipresent in our lives. The benefits of mind-wandering are not yet clear, but given how much time we spend mind-wandering, this mental function is likely to be important. Accordingly, it is essential to understand the neural and cognitive mechanisms of mind-wandering. In a recent study by the leading author of the present paper it was demonstrated (...) that by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the frontal lobes, but not sham or occipital cortex stimulation, it was possible to increase propensity of mind-wandering. The goal of the present study has been to replicate these previous findings and to extend them by examining whether changes in mind-wandering as a result of stimulation are associated with a change of meta-awareness of the attentional focus. By using a larger sample size and by conducting the experiment in a different

2018 Scientific reports

29. Cerebral blood flow, frontal lobe oxygenation and intra-arterial blood pressure during sprint exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia in humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebral blood flow, frontal lobe oxygenation and intra-arterial blood pressure during sprint exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia in humans. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated to secure brain O2 delivery while simultaneously avoiding hyperperfusion; however, both requisites may conflict during sprint exercise. To determine whether brain O2 delivery or CBF is prioritized, young men performed sprint exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (PIO2 = 73 mmHg). During the sprints, cardiac (...) output increased to ∼22 L min-1, mean arterial pressure to ∼131 mmHg and peak systolic blood pressure ranged between 200 and 304 mmHg. Middle-cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) increased to peak values (∼16%) after 7.5 s and decreased to pre-exercise values towards the end of the sprint. When the sprints in normoxia were preceded by a reduced PETCO2, CBF and frontal lobe oxygenation decreased in parallel ( r = 0.93, P < 0.01). In hypoxia, MCAv was increased by 25%, due to a 26% greater vascular

2017 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

30. A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography. (Abstract)

A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography. To assess the feasibility of a standardized approach to biometric measurement of the fetal frontal lobe and to construct frontal lobe growth trajectories throughout gestation.A sonographic 3-dimensional (3D) volume set was obtained and measured in 101 patients between 16.1 and 33.7 gestational weeks. Measurements were obtained by 2 independent raters. To model the relationship between (...) gestational age and each frontal lobe measurement, flexible linear regression models were fit using penalized regression splines.The sample contained an ethnically diverse population (7.9% Native Americans, 45.5% Hispanics/Latinas). There was high interrater reliability (correlation coefficients 0.95, 1.0, and 0.87 for frontal lobe length, width, and height; p values <0.001). Graphs of the growth trajectories and corresponding percentiles were estimated as a function of gestational age. The estimated

2017 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

31. Hashimoto's encephalopathy – presenting with epilepsia partialis continua and a frontal lobe lesion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hashimoto's encephalopathy – presenting with epilepsia partialis continua and a frontal lobe lesion We report a case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE), who presented with epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) and a frontal lobe lesion. The diagnosis of HE remained elusive until the serum thyroid antibodies became positive 7 months after the onset of EPC. The histopathology of this frontal lesion showed nonvasculitic inflammation.

2017 Clinical Case Reports

32. Molecular expression of multiple Nav1.5 splice variants in the frontal lobe of the human brain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular expression of multiple Nav1.5 splice variants in the frontal lobe of the human brain Voltage-gated sodium channels serve an essential role in the initiation and propagation of action potentials for central neurons. Previous studies have demonstrated that two novel variants of Nav1.5, designated Nav1.5e and Nav1.5f, were expressed in the human brain cortex. To date, nine distinct sodium channel isoforms of Nav1.5 have been identified. In the present study, the expression of Nav1.5 (...) splice variants in the frontal lobe of the human brain cortex was systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that wild Nav1.5 and its splice variants, Nav1.5c and Nav1.5e, were expressed in the frontal lobe of the human brain cortex. Nav1.5a, Nav1.5b and Nav1.5d splice variants were not detected. However, the expression level of different Nav1.5 variants was revealed to vary. The expression ratio of wild Nav1.5 vs. Nav1.5c and Nav1.5e was approximately 5:1 and 1:5, respectively

2017 International journal of molecular medicine

33. Dysfunctional frontal lobe activity during inhibitory tasks in individuals with childhood trauma: An event-related potential study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dysfunctional frontal lobe activity during inhibitory tasks in individuals with childhood trauma: An event-related potential study Individuals who experience childhood trauma are vulnerable to various psychological and behavioral problems throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with childhood trauma show altered frontal lobe activity during response inhibition tasks.In total, 157 healthy individuals were recruited and instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task (...) inhibitory failure and frontal lobe dysfunction in regions related to Nogo-P3.

2017 NeuroImage : Clinical

34. Rationale for an adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate in pharmacoresistant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rationale for an adjunctive therapy with fenofibrate in pharmacoresistant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an idiopathic partial epilepsy with a family history in about 25% of cases, with autosomal dominant inheritance (autosomal dominant NFLE [ADNFLE]). Traditional antiepileptic drugs are effective in about 55% of patients, whereas the rest remains refractory. One of the key pathogenetic mechanisms is a gain of function of neuronal nicotinic

2017 Epilepsia

35. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy is associated with frontal lobe function in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to caregiver burden. (Abstract)

Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy is associated with frontal lobe function in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to caregiver burden. Caregivers of patients with dementia experience physical and mental deterioration. We have previously reported a correlation between caregiver burden and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) total scores of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially regarding the dependency factor from the Zarit Burden Interview. The present study aimed (...) -based morphometric revealed a significant positive correlation between the FAB total scores and the volume of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This positive correlation persisted after controlling for the effect of general cognitive dysfunction, which was assessed by using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Path analysis revealed that decreases in FAB scores, caused by reduced frontal lobe volumes, negatively affected caregiver burden.The present study revealed that frontal lobe function

2017 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

36. A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography. While prenatal 3D ultrasonography results in improved diagnostic accuracy, no data are available on biometric assessment of the fetal frontal lobe. This study was designed to assess feasibility of a standardized approach to biometric measurement of the fetal frontal lobe and to construct frontal lobe growth trajectories throughout gestation.A sonographic 3D volume set was obtained and measured (...) in 101 patients between 16.1 and 33.7 gestational weeks. Measurements were obtained by two independent raters. To model the relationship between gestational age and each frontal lobe measurement, flexible linear regression models were fit using penalized regression splines.The sample contained an ethnically diverse population (7.9% Native Americans, 45.5% Hispanic/Latina). There was high inter-rater reliability (correlation coefficients: 0.95, 1.0, and 0.87 for frontal lobe length, width, and height

2017 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

37. The Diagnostic Challenge of the Late-Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome: Clinical Predictors for Primary Psychiatric Disorders Versus Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia. (Abstract)

The Diagnostic Challenge of the Late-Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome: Clinical Predictors for Primary Psychiatric Disorders Versus Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia. Primary psychiatric disorders (PsD) can present with symptomatology identical to that of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). To date, clinical guidelines do not provide a solution for this diagnostic challenge. The aim of our study was to prospectively determine which demographic, clinical, neuropsychological (...) , neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are important in distinguishing PsD from bvFTD.Patients with late-onset behavioral disturbances (aged 45-75 years, 73% male) were included based on their scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory and followed for 2 years from April 2011 to June 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with backward stepwise logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between baseline clinical and demographic variables

2017 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

38. Cortical light scattering during interictal epileptic spikes in frontal lobe epilepsy in children: A fast optical signal and electroencephalographic study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cortical light scattering during interictal epileptic spikes in frontal lobe epilepsy in children: A fast optical signal and electroencephalographic study. Interictal epileptic spikes (IES) represent a signature of the transient synchronous and excessive discharge of a large ensemble of cortical heterogeneous neurons. Epilepsy cannot be reduced to a hypersynchronous activation of neurons whose functioning is impaired, resulting on electroencephalogram (EEG) in epileptic seizures or IES (...) -increase in optical signals occurred 200 ms before to 180 ms after the IES peak. These changes started before any changes in EEG signal. In addition, time-frequency domain EEG analysis revealed alternating decrease-increase-decrease in the EEG spectral power concomitantly with changes in the optical signal during IES. These results suggest a relationship between (de)synchronization and neuronal volume changes in frontal lobe epilepsy during IES.These changes in the neuronal environment around IES

2017 Epilepsia

39. Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory Full Text available with Trip Pro

Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active (...) neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content. Medial frontal cortex persistent activity, on the other hand, was modulated by memory load and task set but was not stimulus-specific. Trial-by-trial variability in persistent activity in both areas was related to memory strength, because it predicted the speed and accuracy by which stimuli were remembered. This work reveals, in humans

2017 Nature neuroscience

40. Parsing the roles of the frontal lobes and basal ganglia in task control using multivoxel pattern analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Parsing the roles of the frontal lobes and basal ganglia in task control using multivoxel pattern analysis Cognitive control has traditionally been associated with pFC based on observations of deficits in patients with frontal lesions. However, evidence from patients with Parkinson disease indicates that subcortical regions also contribute to control under certain conditions. We scanned 17 healthy volunteers while they performed a task-switching paradigm that previously dissociated performance (...) deficits arising from frontal lesions in comparison with Parkinson disease, as a function of the abstraction of the rules that are switched. From a multivoxel pattern analysis by Gaussian Process Classification, we then estimated the forward (generative) model to infer regional patterns of activity that predict Switch/Repeat behavior between rule conditions. At 1000 permutations, Switch/Repeat classification accuracy for concrete rules was significant in the BG, but at chance in the frontal lobe

2017 Journal of cognitive neuroscience

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