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Frontal Lobe

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221. Paroxysmal freezing of gait in a patient with mesial frontal transient ischemic attacks. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Paroxysmal freezing of gait in a patient with mesial frontal transient ischemic attacks. Rare patients have been reported who developed a mixture of gait disturbances following a focal lesion in the frontal lobe. Thus, the exact location of frontal lesion responsible for a specific gait disturbance is not well defined.We describe a 47-year-old man who experienced two episodes of paroxysmal freezing of gait of the right leg. During the attacks, he had no motor weakness, sensory change (...) , or disequilibrium. He had past history of panic attacks. Recently, he had been under severe emotional stress. T2 and diffusion brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were normal. So far, the most likely clinical diagnosis might be functional freezing of gait. However, magnetic resonance angiography showed atherosclerosis in the proximal left anterior cerebral artery. Perfusion scans showed a delayed mean transit time in the left mesial frontal lobe. He developed two more attacks during the four months of follow

2017 BMC Neurology

222. Frontal Lobe

Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe Aka: Frontal Lobe , Cerebral (...) Frontal Lobe , Frontal Lobe Function II. History: Findings of pathology (e.g. Tumor) Personality change Expressive III. Signs: Brain Lesions Personality change disturbance s or s Expressive IV. Exam: Normal findings Points finger each time examiner makes fist Makes fist when examiner points Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Frontal Lobe." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser

2015 FP Notebook

223. <sup>18</sup>F-FDG-PET patterns of surgical success and failure in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

18F-FDG-PET patterns of surgical success and failure in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To search for [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET patterns predictive of long-term prognosis in surgery for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS).We analyzed metabolic data with [18F]-FDG-PET in 97 patients with MTLE (53 female participants; age range 15-56 years) with unilateral HS (50 left) and compared the metabolic patterns, electroclinical (...) hypometabolism, whereas non-IA outcome correlated with extratemporal metabolic changes that differed according to the lateralization: ipsilateral mesial frontal and perisylvian hypometabolism in right HS and contralateral fronto-insular hypometabolism and posterior white matter hypermetabolism in left HS. Suboptimal outcome presented a metabolic pattern similar to the best outcome but with a larger involvement of extratemporal areas, including the contralateral side in left HS. Failure was characterized

2017 Neurology

224. Ipsiversive ictal eye deviation in inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy-Two SEEG cases report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ipsiversive ictal eye deviation in inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy-Two SEEG cases report. Versive seizure characterized by conjugate eye movement during epileptic seizure has been considered commonly as one of the most valuable semiological signs for epilepsy localization, especially for frontal lobe epilepsy. However, the lateralizing and localizing significance of ictaleye deviation has been questioned by clinical observation of a series of focal epilepsy studies, including frontal (...) electrodes identified the overlap between the location of the epileptogenic zone and human MT/MST complex, which play a crucial role in the control of smooth pursuit eye movement.Ipsiversive eye deviation could be the initial clinical sign of inferioposterior temporal lobe epilepsy and attribute to the involvement of human MT/MST complex, especially human MST whichwas located on the anterior/dorsal bank of the anterior occipital sulcus (AOS).

2017 BMC Neurology

225. Executive Functions in Healthy Older Adults Are Differentially Related to Macro- and Microstructural White Matter Characteristics of the Cerebral Lobes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Test were used to measure inhibition, task-switching (both components of executive function), and processing speed. We observed that age was associated with deterioration of white matter microstructure of the NAWM, most notably in the frontal lobe. Older participants had larger WMH volumes and lowest fractional anisotropy values within WMH were found in the frontal lobe. Task-switching was associated with cerebral NAWM volume and NAWM volume of all lobes. Processing speed was associated with total (...) NAWM volume, and microstructural properties of parietal NAWM, the parietal WMH, and the temporal NAWM. Task-switching was related to microstructural properties of WMH of the frontal lobe and WMH volume of the parietal lobe. Our results confirm that executive functioning and processing speed are uniquely associated with macro- and microstructural properties of NAWM and WMH. We further demonstrate for the first time that these relationships differ by lobar region. This warrants the consideration

2017 Frontiers in aging neuroscience

226. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection Methods for the Discriminative Analysis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the temporal and the frontal lobe, including the entorhinal cortex, rostral middle frontal, parahippocampal cortex, superior frontal, insula, and cuneus. This study concluded that the cortical features provided effective information for the recognition of abnormal anatomical patterns and the proposed methods had the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis of TLE. (...) A Comparative Study of Feature Selection Methods for the Discriminative Analysis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy It is crucial to differentiate patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) from the healthy population and determine abnormal brain regions in TLE. The cortical features and changes can reveal the unique anatomical patterns of brain regions from structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. In this study, structural MR images from 41 patients with left TLE, 34 patients with right TLE, and 58

2017 Frontiers in neurology

227. Correlations between clinical characteristics and neuroimaging in Chinese patients with subtypes of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correlations between clinical characteristics and neuroimaging in Chinese patients with subtypes of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. The aim of the study was to obtain an overview of the clinical and neuroimaging features of Chinese patients with subtypes of frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD).We evaluated the demographic features, clinical presentation, and lobe atrophy depicted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 133 patients with FTLD. Two positron emission tomography (PET) scans (...) were performed at baseline: [C]Pittsburgh compound B PET to assess amyloid-β plaque load and [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to assess glucose metabolism.The behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD) was the most common subtype (67.7%) of FTLD. The percentages of progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) and semantic dementia (SD) were similar. Cerebral lobe atrophy was seen in 87.7% of the cases. The Activities of Daily Living scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores were

2017 Medicine

228. A Functional MRI-Based Model for Individual Memory Assessment in Patients Eligible for Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection Full Text available with Trip Pro

-operative verbal memory) or as unexpected (RAS 2-3 and intact post-operative verbal memory post-surgery; RAS 0-1 and post-operative decline).RAS for verbal memory decline exhibited a specificity of 67% and a sensitivity of 75%. Significant correlations were found between frontal language LIs and post-operative verbal memory (r = -0.802; p = 0.017) for left (L) TLE and between medial temporal lobe LIs and visuospatial memory (r = 0.829; p = 0.021), as well as verbal memory (r = 0.714; p = 0.055 (...) A Functional MRI-Based Model for Individual Memory Assessment in Patients Eligible for Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection A functional (f) MRI-based model for individual memory assessment in patients eligible for temporal lobe resection.To investigate if pre-operative fMRI memory paradigms, add predictive information with regard to post-surgical memory deficits.Fourteen pharmacoresistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) patients accepted for Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection (ATLR) were included

2017 The open neuroimaging journal

229. Multimodal imaging of language reorganization in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multimodal imaging of language reorganization in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy This study explored the relationships among multimodal imaging, clinical features, and language impairment in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). Fourteen patients with LTLE and 26 controls underwent structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and neuropsychological language tasks. Laterality indices were calculated for each imaging modality and a principal component (PC (...) ) was derived from language measures. Correlations were performed among imaging measures, as well as to the language PC. In controls, better language performance was associated with stronger left-lateralized temporo-parietal and temporo-occipital activations. In LTLE, better language performance was associated with stronger right-lateralized inferior frontal, temporo-parietal, and temporo-occipital activations. These right-lateralized activations in LTLE were associated with right-lateralized arcuate

2017 Brain and language

230. Dysfunctional Brain Networking among Autonomic Regulatory Structures in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients at High Risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dysfunctional Brain Networking among Autonomic Regulatory Structures in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients at High Risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is common among young people with epilepsy. Individuals who are at high risk of SUDEP exhibit regional brain structural and functional connectivity (FC) alterations compared with low-risk patients. However, less is known about network-based FC differences among critical cortical and subcortical (...) autonomic regulatory brain structures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients at high risk of SUDEP.32 TLE patients were risk-stratified according to the following clinical criteria: age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and presence of nocturnal seizures, resulting in 14 high-risk and 18 low-risk cases. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signal time courses were extracted from 11 bilateral cortical and subcortical brain

2017 Frontiers in neurology

231. Lexical selection with competing distractors: Evidence from left temporal lobe lesions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lexical selection with competing distractors: Evidence from left temporal lobe lesions According to the competition account of lexical selection in word production, conceptually driven word retrieval involves the activation of a set of candidate words in left temporal cortex and competitive selection of the intended word from this set, regulated by frontal cortical mechanisms. However, the relative contribution of these brain regions to competitive lexical selection is uncertain. In the present (...) . An overall semantic interference effect was observed for the control and left-temporal groups separately. The left-frontal patients did not show a reliable semantic interference effect as a group. The left-temporal patients had increased semantic interference in the error rates relative to controls. Error distribution analyses indicated that these patients had more hesitant responses for the related than for the unrelated condition. We propose that left middle temporal lesions affect the lexical

2017 Psychonomic bulletin & review

232. Theta and Alpha Oscillations during the Retention Period of Working Memory by rTMS Stimulating the Parietal Lobe Full Text available with Trip Pro

Theta and Alpha Oscillations during the Retention Period of Working Memory by rTMS Stimulating the Parietal Lobe Studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have shown that stimulating the parietal lobe, which plays a role in memory storage, can enhance performance during the "retention" process of working memory (WM). However, the mechanism of rTMS effect during this phase is still unclear. In this study, we stimulated the superior parietal lobe (SPL) using 5-Hz rTMS in 26 (...) , and these activities were related to the behavioral responses. Moreover, the connectivity between these two regions was intensified following rTMS. Thus, rTMS may affect the frontal area indirectly via the frontal parietal pathway.

2017 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

233. Autobiographical memory loss following a right prefrontal lobe tumour resection: a case report and review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Autobiographical memory loss following a right prefrontal lobe tumour resection: a case report and review of the literature The right prefrontal lobe has not traditionally been considered eloquent brain. Resection of tumours within this region does not typically lead to permanent functional impairment. In this report, we highlight the case of a patient who developed autobiographical memory loss following an uncomplicated resection of a right prefrontal tumour.A previously fit and well 15-year (...) old presented with a persistent right-sided headache. An MRI demonstrated an expanded right mid-frontal gyrus with changes consistent with a low-grade tumour. The patient underwent a right-sided craniotomy and resection of the lesion which was confirmed as a WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma. Postoperatively, the patient reported profound retrograde amnesia for a range of memory components, in particular autobiographical memory and semantic memory. Postoperative imaging showed a good resection

2017 Child's Nervous System

234. Functional assessment of prefrontal lobes in patients with major depression disorder using a dual-mode technique of 3D-arterial spin labeling and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography Full Text available with Trip Pro

and aggregate Hamilton scores in the left middle and right middle frontal gyri of the patients. Positive correlations were also observed between SUVs and aggregate Hamilton scores in the left middle and right middle frontal gyri. 18F-FDG PET/CT was indicated to be more sensitive than 3D-ASL in identifying the functional abnormalities in the prefrontal lobe. Decreased CBF and SUV in the prefrontal lobe were closely correlated with Hamilton score. The left middle frontal gyrus may be a key functional region (...) Functional assessment of prefrontal lobes in patients with major depression disorder using a dual-mode technique of 3D-arterial spin labeling and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography The aim of this study was to explore the functions of cerebral blood perfusion and glucose metabolism in the prefrontal lobe of patients with major depression disorder (MDD), and to analyze the correlations between these functional changes and depressive symptoms. 3D-arterial spin

2017 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

235. Episodic memory after trauma exposure: Medial temporal lobe function is positively related to re-experiencing and inversely related to negative affect symptoms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Episodic memory after trauma exposure: Medial temporal lobe function is positively related to re-experiencing and inversely related to negative affect symptoms Hippocampal structure is particularly sensitive to trauma and other stressors. However, previous findings linking hippocampal function with trauma-related psychopathology have been mixed. Heterogeneity in psychological responses to trauma has not been considered with respect to hippocampal function and may contribute to mixed findings (...) lower amygdala activation for subsequently recalled scenes, and lower functional coupling with other important memory-related regions including the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and occipital cortex. Symptom dimensions were not related to hippocampal volume. The fMRI findings for re-experiencing versus negative affect parallel differences in behavioral memory phenomena in PTSD versus MDD, and highlight a need for more complex models of trauma-related pathology.

2017 NeuroImage : Clinical

236. Functional connectivity disturbances of the ascending reticular activating system in temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional connectivity disturbances of the ascending reticular activating system in temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) disturb brain networks and lead to connectivity disturbances. We previously hypothesised that recurrent seizures in TLE may lead to abnormal connections involving subcortical activating structures including the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), contributing to neocortical dysfunction and neurocognitive impairments. However, no studies (...) . Connectivity patterns were related to disease and neuropsychological parameters.In control subjects, regions showing highest connectivity to ARAS structures included limbic structures, thalamus and certain neocortical areas, which is consistent with prior studies of ARAS projections. Overall, ARAS connectivity was significantly lower in patients with TLE than controls (p<0.05, paired t-test), particularly to neocortical regions including insular, lateral frontal, posterior temporal and opercular cortex

2017 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

237. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma. The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused (...) by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery.The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion

2015 Journal of Neurosurgery

238. Task Difficulty Manipulation Reveals Multiple Demand Activity but no Frontal Lobe Hierarchy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Task Difficulty Manipulation Reveals Multiple Demand Activity but no Frontal Lobe Hierarchy It has been proposed that task control is functionally implemented by a distributed frontoparietal system. It has been argued that one component of this system, the lateral frontal cortex, is functionally organized through a caudal to rostral gradient. Here, we tested 2 competing models, the Information Cascade and Rule Abstraction hypotheses, which suggest different principles underlying

2012 Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)

239. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose.In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented.In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length (...) of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender.The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher

2012 Iranian Journal of Radiology

240. A comparison of age-related deficits in memory and frontal lobe function following oral lorazepam administration. (Abstract)

A comparison of age-related deficits in memory and frontal lobe function following oral lorazepam administration. Differential responses on cognitive function of young (18-45 years, n = 17) and elderly (60-75 years, n = 9) subjects were compared before and after a challenge with lorazepam (2 mg oral) or placebo. Tests of memory and frontal lobe function were administered to determine the specificity of the amnesic deficit produced and the interaction of drug and the aging brain. Anterograde (...) , as evidenced by digit span and the copy trial of the Rey figure, was not impaired by lorazepam. It is concluded that whilst lorazepam produces a relatively `pure' amnesia in young to middle aged adults, in the elderly there is an admixture of deficits in some frontal lobe functions. This is presumed to reflect age-related changes in the brain and may be analogous to the spectrum of results noted in Korsakoff's psychosis as opposed to 'pure' diencephalic amnesia.

2012 Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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