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Frontal Lobe

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201. Drug-specific laterality effects on frontal lobe activation of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder boys during working memory. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Drug-specific laterality effects on frontal lobe activation of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder boys during working memory. The catecholamine reuptake inhibitors methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) are the most common treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compares the neurofunctional modulation and normalization effects of acute doses of MPH and ATX within medication-naive ADHD boys during working memory (WM (...) high WM load together with significant underactivation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Both drugs normalized the performance deficits relative to controls. ATX significantly enhanced right DLPFC activation relative to MPH within patients, and significantly normalized its underactivation relative to controls. MPH, by contrast, both relative to placebo and ATX, as well as relative to controls, upregulated the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), but only during 2-back. Both

2013 Psychological Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

202. Neuropsychiatric Features of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Autopsy-Confirmed Patients with Lewy Bodies and "Pure" Alzheimer Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuropsychiatric Features of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Autopsy-Confirmed Patients with Lewy Bodies and "Pure" Alzheimer Disease. To compare patients with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) on the frequency of behaviors related to frontal system dysfunction and the association of these behaviors with dementia severity.We performed a cross-sectional survey of a longitudinal cohort at a university research center for AD on a volunteer sample of 19 DLB (...) and 38 AD participants with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses, similar in age (DLB: 77.3, AD: 77.5), education (DLB: 15.2, AD: 14.7), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (DLB: 20.6, AD: 20.5), with impairment ranging from mild deficits to moderate dementia. The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe)-Family Rating Form assessing patient apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction by a knowledgeable informant was used.A two-way analysis of variance with the FrSBe total as the dependent

2013 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

203. Improved outcomes with earlier surgery for intractable frontal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

Improved outcomes with earlier surgery for intractable frontal lobe epilepsy. To explore the prognostic implications of epilepsy duration and age at surgery for seizure outcomes after frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) surgery.We reviewed 158 patients who underwent FLE surgery from 1995 to 2010. The primary outcome was seizure freedom at last follow-up (Engel class IA). Analyses employed Cox proportional and multiphase hazard modeling.The mean age at surgery was 20.4 years, and mean epilepsy duration

2013 Annals of Neurology

204. Building a New Paradigm for the Early Recognition of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome Study. (Abstract)

Building a New Paradigm for the Early Recognition of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome Study. To describe the aims and design of the ongoing Late Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome study (LOF study), a study on the spectrum of neurodegenerative and psychiatric etiologies causing behavioral changes in later life, and on the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (...) ) biomarkers in predicting and identifying the different underlying pathologies with a special focus on the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.The LOF study is an observational cross-sectional and prospective follow-up study. Patients aged 45-75 years with a frontal behavioral change consisting of apathy, disinhibition, or compulsive/stereotypical behavior were included (April 2011-2013). Patients underwent a multidisciplinary assessment by a neurologist and psychiatrist and MRI, CSF, and PET

2013 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

206. Distortion Of The Interhemispheric Fissure Associated With Impacted Medial Borders Of The Frontal Lobes: Significance And Implications For Prenatal Diagnosis. (Abstract)

Distortion Of The Interhemispheric Fissure Associated With Impacted Medial Borders Of The Frontal Lobes: Significance And Implications For Prenatal Diagnosis. In order to illustrate the significance of a new anatomical finding, distortion of the interhemispheric fissure (DIHF) associated with impacted medial borders of the frontal lobes, we report a retrospective observational study of 13 fetuses in which DIHF was identified on prenatal imaging. In 10 cases there were associated anatomical

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

207. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe Full Text available with Trip Pro

Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually (...) delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated

2013 Human brain mapping

208. A Postmortem Study of Frontal and Temporal Gyri Thickness and Cell Number in Human Obesity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mexican and lived in Mexico City. Randomly selected thickness measures of different cortex areas from the frontal and temporal lobes were analyzed based on high-resolution real-size photographs. A histological analysis of systematic-random fields was used to quantify the number of neurons in postmortem left and right of the first, second, and third gyri of frontal and temporal lobe brain samples.No statistical difference was found in cortical thickness between donors with overweight or obesity (...) A Postmortem Study of Frontal and Temporal Gyri Thickness and Cell Number in Human Obesity. This study aimed to compare cortex thickness and neuronal cell density in postmortem brain tissue from people with overweight or obesity and normal weight.The cortex thickness and neuron density of eight donors with overweight or obesity (mean = 31.6 kg/m2 ; SD = 4.35; n = 8; 6 male) and eight donors with normal weight (mean = 21.8 kg/m2 ; SD = 1.5; n = 8; 5 male) were compared. All participants were

2017 Obesity

209. Greater body mass index is associated with reduced frontal cortical volumes among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

processed T1-weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus. General linear models assessed the association between BMI and the ROIs, controlling for age, sex and intracranial volume. We also conducted exploratory within-BD group and whole brain vertex-wise (...) Greater body mass index is associated with reduced frontal cortical volumes among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD.We

2017 Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience

210. Cognitive reserve and cognitive performance of patients with focal frontal lesions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cognitive reserve and cognitive performance of patients with focal frontal lesions The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed (...) of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls. We fitted multiple linear regression models for each of the cognitive measures and found that only NART IQ predicted executive and naming performance. Neither education nor NART IQ predicted performance on fluid intelligence, processing speed, vSTM or perceptual abilities. Education and NART IQ did not modify the effect of lesion

2017 Neuropsychologia

211. Diagnosing the frontal variant of Alzheimer’s disease: a clinician’s yellow brick road Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diagnosing the frontal variant of Alzheimer’s disease: a clinician’s yellow brick road Disruption of the frontal lobes and its associated networks are a common consequence of neurodegenerative disorders. Given the wide range of cognitive, behavioral and motor processes in which the frontal lobes are involved, there can be a great variety of manifestations depending on the pathology distribution. The most common are the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and the frontal

2017 Journal of clinical movement disorders

212. Effects of DBS in parkinsonian patients depend on the structural integrity of frontal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the frontal lobe (paracentral area and superior frontal region) predicted the clinical improvement after STN-DBS. Moreover, in patients with cortical atrophy of these areas a higher stimulation voltage was needed for an optimal clinical response. Our data suggest that the effects of STN-DBS in PD directly depend on frontal lobe grey matter integrity. Cortical atrophy of this region might represent a distinct predictor of a poor motor outcome after STN-DBS in PD patients. (...) Effects of DBS in parkinsonian patients depend on the structural integrity of frontal cortex While deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has evolved to an evidence-based standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the targeted cerebral networks are poorly described and no objective predictors for the postoperative clinical response exist. To elucidate the systemic mechanisms of DBS, we analysed cerebral grey matter properties using cortical thickness measurements

2017 Scientific reports

213. Magnitude Codes for Cross-Modal Working Memory in the Primate Frontal Association Cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

multiple modalities are represented in working memory by single neurons has only recently been explored in primates. These studies show that neurons in the frontal lobe can encode the same magnitude type across sensory modalities. However, while multimodal sensory magnitude in relative comparison tasks is represented by monotonically increasing or decreasing response functions ("summation code"), multimodal numerical quantity in absolute matching tasks is encoded by neurons tuned to preferred (...) Magnitude Codes for Cross-Modal Working Memory in the Primate Frontal Association Cortex Quantitative features of stimuli may be ordered along a magnitude continuum, or line. Magnitude refers to parameters of different types of stimulus properties. For instance, the frequency of a sound relates to sensory and continuous stimulus properties, whereas the number of items in a set is an abstract and discrete property. In addition, within a stimulus property, magnitudes need to be processed not only

2017 Frontiers in neuroscience

214. Forensic Identification of Decomposed Human Body through Comparison between Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem CT Images of Frontal Sinuses: Case Report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Forensic Identification of Decomposed Human Body through Comparison between Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem CT Images of Frontal Sinuses: Case Report The aim of this paper is to report on a case of positive human identification of a decomposed body after the comparison of ante-mortem (AM) and port-mortem (PM) computed tomography images of frontal sinus.An unknown, highly decomposed human body, aged between 30 and 40 years, was found in a forest region in Brazil. The dental autopsy revealed several (...) teeth missing AM and the presence of removable partial prostheses. The search for AM data resulted in a sequence of 20 axial images of the paranasal sinuses obtained by Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT). PM reproduction of the MSCT images was performed in order to enable a comparative identification. After a direct confrontation between AM/PM MSCT, the data were collected for morphological findings, specifically for the lateral expansion of the left lobe, the anteroposterior dimension

2017 Acta Stomatologica Croatica

215. College Binge Drinking Associated with Decreased Frontal Activation to Negative Emotional Distractors during Inhibitory Control Full Text available with Trip Pro

suggest that in young adults with heavier recent binge drinking, processing of negative emotional images interferes more with inhibitory control neurocircuitry than in young adults who do not binge drink often. This pattern of altered frontal lobe activation associated with binge drinking may serve as an early marker of risk for future self-regulation deficits that could lead to problematic alcohol use. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the impact of emotion on cognitive (...) College Binge Drinking Associated with Decreased Frontal Activation to Negative Emotional Distractors during Inhibitory Control The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used

2017 Frontiers in psychology

216. Impairment of consciousness induced by bilateral electrical stimulation of the frontal convexity Full Text available with Trip Pro

widespread bilateral fronto-parietal areas. We identified regions in the lateral frontal lobes that reliably and produced loss of consciousness by ECS. This was accompanied by evoked EEG activity of admixed frequencies over the fronto-parietal, mesial frontal and temporal regions during stimulation and was not associated with after-discharges. Symptoms were immediately reversible upon cessation of stimulation. This finding suggests that focal cortical stimulation can disrupt widespread networks (...) Impairment of consciousness induced by bilateral electrical stimulation of the frontal convexity We report a case of impairment of consciousness (IOC) induced by electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) of homologous regions within the lateral frontal convexities in a patient with medically intractable epilepsy. The patient had mixed features of idiopathic generalized and focal epilepsy. On intracranial EEG recording, interictal and ictal discharges showed a high degree of synchrony across

2017 Epilepsy & behavior case reports

217. Limits to tDCS effects in language: Failures to modulate word production in healthy participants with frontal or temporal tDCS Full Text available with Trip Pro

Limits to tDCS effects in language: Failures to modulate word production in healthy participants with frontal or temporal tDCS Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe

2017 Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior

218. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known (...) to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When

2017 Frontiers in aging neuroscience

219. Reconstruction of the skull inverting the deformed surface of the bone after exeresis of a frontal arachnoid cyst Full Text available with Trip Pro

of an arachnoid cyst of the left frontal lobe. (...) Reconstruction of the skull inverting the deformed surface of the bone after exeresis of a frontal arachnoid cyst Intracranial arachnoid cysts need to be operated on when they are causing symptoms and aesthetic problems. The aim of this case report was to describe a new method of reconstructing the skull by eliminating a left frontal bone deformity by turning the inside out and the outside inward, which provided good aesthetics and protected the region of surgical interest after the removal

2017 Autopsy & Case Reports

220. Neuropsychological outcome following frontal lobectomy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuropsychological outcome following frontal lobectomy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults. This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative (...) neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning. Objective methods were used to assess meaningful change across a wide range of abilities and to identify factors associated with neuropsychological decline following frontal lobectomy. Detailed postoperative neuroimaging analysis was conducted to characterize region, extent, and volume

2017 Neurology

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