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Free Thyroxine Index

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581. Effect of thyroxine therapy on serum lipoproteins in patients with mild thyroid failure: a quantitative review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

of thyroxine therapy on serum lipoproteins in patients with mild thyroid failure: a quantitative review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2000; 85(9): 2993-3001 PubMedID DOI Original Paper URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Apolipoproteins /blood; Cholesterol /blood; Cholesterol, HDL /blood; Cholesterol, LDL /blood; Clinical Trials as Topic; Humans; Hypothyroidism /blood /drug therapy; Lipoproteins /blood; Reproducibility of Results; Thyroxine (...) Effect of thyroxine therapy on serum lipoproteins in patients with mild thyroid failure: a quantitative review of the literature Effect of thyroxine therapy on serum lipoproteins in patients with mild thyroid failure: a quantitative review of the literature Effect of thyroxine therapy on serum lipoproteins in patients with mild thyroid failure: a quantitative review of the literature Danese M D, Ladenson P W, Meinert C L, Powe N R Authors' objectives To estimate the expected change in serum

2000 DARE.

582. Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. (Abstract)

Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracies of 2 free thyroxine immunoassays during pregnancy.Serum was collected from healthy, thyroid peroxidase antibody-negative women during each trimester and nonpregnant controls. Thyrotropin, total T4 (TT4), free T4 index (FT4I), and 2 different FT4 immunoassays were studied.As expected, TT4 was elevated in all 3 trimesters compared to controls (P < .001). FT4I was elevated (...) in the 1st trimester as compared with controls (P < .05) and returned to the nonpregnant range in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. In contrast, 1st trimester FT4 immunoassay values were either comparable or lower than controls and by the 2nd and 3rd trimesters had decreased to approximately 65% of controls.Neither FT4 immunoassay accurately reflects established free T4 changes during pregnancy. TT4 and the FT4I retained an appropriate inverse relationship with TSH throughout pregnancy and appear to provide

2008 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

583. Serum leptin and ghrelin levels in premenopausal women with stable body mass index during treatment of thyroid dysfunction. (Abstract)

. Concentrations of free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyrotropin, leptin, and ghrelin in serum were determined before and after treatment of thyroid dysfunction and in the control group.Serum leptin concentrations were similar in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism before treatment and in normal subjects and did not change significantly after treatment of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Serum ghrelin concentrations were lower in patients with hyperthyroidism, and higher (...) Serum leptin and ghrelin levels in premenopausal women with stable body mass index during treatment of thyroid dysfunction. There are potentially complex interrelationships between thyroid function, leptin, ghrelin, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (%BF). The goal of this study was to determine if normalization of thyroid status in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism would be associated with changes in serum leptin and ghrelin in the absence of thyroid

2008 Thyroid

584. Fatty acid induced changes in circulating total and free thyroid hormones: in vivo effects and methodological artefacts. (Abstract)

Fatty acid induced changes in circulating total and free thyroid hormones: in vivo effects and methodological artefacts. Elevated levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are frequently found in acute illnesses, and they may contribute to changes in serum thyroid hormone concentrations in nonthyroidal illnesses (NTI) by displacing protein bound hormones. We therefore examined the effects of low and raised plasma NEFA levels on circulating total and free thyroxine (TT4 and FT4 (...) ) and triiodothyronine (TT3 and FT3) concentrations, the Free T4 Index (FT4I) and TSH, in a randomized crossover study in 10 normal subjects. Subjects ate either a high carbohydrate breakfast (low NEFA protocol) or a high fat breakfast followed by an iv injection of 1000 u heparin (high NEFA protocol). Possible biological effects of changes in FT4 and FT3 were evaluated by a 200 micrograms iv TRH test. Free T4 and T3 were measured by a direct analogue method (AFT4 and AFT3). In a similar high NEFA study, but without

1986 Journal of endocrinological investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

585. Variable Thyrotropin Response to Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone after Small Decreases in Plasma Free Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Patients with Nonthyroidal Diseases Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Accordingly, we studied the regulation of TSH secretion in 23 patients with nonthyroidal diseases; 15 of the patients had decreased serum T(3). TSH regulation was studied by measuring the TSH response to injected thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) before and after effecting a small decrease in serum thyroxine (T(4)) and/or T(3) concentrations by iodide treatment, 262 mg daily for 10 d. Iodide treatment significantly decreased (> 10%) the free T(4) index (FT(4)-I) and/or free T(3) index (FT(3)-I) in all (...) Variable Thyrotropin Response to Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone after Small Decreases in Plasma Free Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Patients with Nonthyroidal Diseases Although a normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration is generally considered to be the most important finding to support the clinical impression of euthyroidism in patients with nonthyroidal diseases and decreased serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), the regulation of TSH secretion in sick patients has not been studied previously

1980 Journal of Clinical Investigation

586. The effect of thyroxine treatment started in the neonatal period on development and growth of two-year-old Down syndrome children: a randomized clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

1999 to August 2001) with nationwide recruitment, comparing thyroxine administration with placebo in 196 Down syndrome neonates.Neonates were randomly assigned to treatment for 2 yr with either thyroxine (n = 99; initial dose 8 microg/kg) or placebo (n = 97). Daily thyroxine doses were adjusted at regular intervals to maintain plasma TSH in its normal and free T(4) concentrations in its high-normal range. Placebo dose adjustments mirrored those of thyroxine.The primary outcome was mental and motor (...) development at age 24 months, assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II.At age 24 months, the developmental testing results of 90 thyroxine-, and 91 placebo-treated children were available for analysis. The thyroxine-treated children had a 0.7-month smaller delay in motor developmental age (95% confidence interval, -1.4 to 0), corresponding to a difference of seven motor developmental index points. The mental developmental age delay was also 0.7 month smaller in the thyroxine group (95

2005 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: predicted high

587. Thyroid hormone replacement for central hypothyroidism: a randomized controlled trial comparing two doses of thyroxine (T4) with a combination of T4 and triiodothyronine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thyroid hormone replacement for central hypothyroidism: a randomized controlled trial comparing two doses of thyroxine (T4) with a combination of T4 and triiodothyronine. Dosage of T(4) in central hypothyroidism is primarily guided by the free serum T(4) level (fT4). However, the optimum fT4 range is ill defined, and subtle hypothyroidism might be missed using this approach.Our aim was to investigate the effects of a body weight (bw)-adapted T(4) treatment, alone or in combination with T(3 (...) of T(3) and T(4) (ratio of 1:10).BW-ADAPTED-T4 administration increased mean fT4 concentrations to the upper limit of the normal range (peak levels). Compared with EMPIRICAL-T4, BW-ADAPTED-T4 treatment resulted in a lower body mass index (BMI) (29.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 29.5 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2); P < 0.03), lower total cholesterol (198 +/- 9 vs. 226 +/- 7 mg/dl; P < 0.01), and lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (116 +/- 5 vs. 135 +/- 7 mg/dl; P < 0.01). BW-ADAPTED-T3T4 treatment was associated

2007 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

588. Effects of thyroid hormones on serum levels of adipokines as studied in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma during thyroxine withdrawal. (Abstract)

of their thyroxine-suppressive treatment, 4-7 days after withdrawal, and the day before whole-body scanning. Evaluations included serum thyroid hormone, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin concentrations, fasting glucose and insulin, lipid profiles, body temperature, body mass index, and total body fat mass.Thyroid function changed from subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism to normal free thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels, ending in overt hypothyroidism. Thyroxine withdrawal resulted in an increase in serum (...) Effects of thyroid hormones on serum levels of adipokines as studied in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma during thyroxine withdrawal. Previous studies addressing the influence of thyroid hormones on serum levels of adipokines yielded conflicting results. We aimed to study the impact of short-term overt hypothyroidism on serum leptin, resistin, and adiponectin levels in an in vivo human model.Twenty-two women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were studied the last day

2006 Thyroid

589. Effects of thyroxine supplementation on neurologic development in infants born at less than 30 weeks' gestation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

' gestation. Thyroxine (8 microg per kilogram of birth weight) or placebo was administered daily, starting 12 to 24 hours after birth, for six weeks. Plasma free thyroxine concentrations were measured weekly for the first eight weeks after birth. Scores on the Bayley Mental and Psychomotor Development Indexes and neurologic function were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity).Mortality and morbidity up to the time of discharge from the hospital were similar in the study groups (...) . At 24 months of age, 157 infants were evaluated. Overall, neither mental nor psychomotor scores differed significantly between the study groups at any time, nor was the frequency of abnormal neurologic outcome significantly different. In thyroxine-treated infants born at gestational ages of less than 27 weeks, the score on the Bayley Mental Development Index at 24 months of age was 18 points higher than the score for the infants with similar gestational ages at birth in the placebo group (P=0.01

1997 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

590. Familial abnormalities of thyroxine binding proteins: some problems of recognition and interpretation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Familial abnormalities of thyroxine binding proteins: some problems of recognition and interpretation. A three generation family study was carried out after inappropriate treatment with radioactive iodine of a 50 year old woman with a raised serum total thyroxine concentration and free thyroxine index. Subsequent investigations showed that she and five members of her family had raised thyroxine binding globulin concentrations. Free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations were normal (...) . Problems encountered in the recognition of this thyroxine binding protein disorder are discussed. Clinicians and clinical biochemists should be aware of these pitfalls and thus avoid further incorrect treatment on the basis of biochemical findings, even though free hormone estimations are now becoming readily available.

1985 Journal of Clinical Pathology

591. Effects of growth hormone on serum lipids and lipoproteins: possible significance of increased peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. (Abstract)

Effects of growth hormone on serum lipids and lipoproteins: possible significance of increased peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. The role of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid hormone in the regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is not fully established. Furthermore, the possible linkage between the well-known GH-induced increase in peripheral thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) generation and the effects of GH on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism has not been (...) elucidated. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, we compared the effects of GH and T3 administration alone and in combination on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in a group of healthy young adults. The dose of T3 was selected to mimic the T2 increase seen during exogenous GH exposure. Eight normal male subjects (aged 21 to 27 years; body mass index, 21.11 to 27.17 kg/m2) were randomly studied during four 10-day treatment periods with (1) daily subcutaneous placebo injections and placebo

1996 Metabolism: clinical and experimental

592. Therapy of endemic goitre: controlled study on the effect of iodine and thyroxine. (Abstract)

, whereas no significant difference was observed in the placebo group. The results in both therapy groups did not differ significantly from each other. No side effects or symptoms of hyperthyroidism were observed. During treatment the index of free thyroxine (FT4I) increased significantly in both the iodine and the thyroxine group and delta TSH after TRH decreased significantly. Total triiodothyronine (TT3) did not show significant alterations. Three months after cessation of therapy in the thyroxine (...) Therapy of endemic goitre: controlled study on the effect of iodine and thyroxine. Two kinds of medical treatment of endemic goitre (400 microgram of iodine, n=11, and 150 microgram of L-thyroxine, n=12) were compared in a double blind study with a placebo group (n=12) during a period of 12 months and an observation time of three months after cessation of therapy. The means of the neck circumference and of the estimated thyroid volume decreased significantly during treatment in both groups

1985 Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme

593. Sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol binding globulin, thyroxine binding globulin, ceruloplasmin: changes in treatment with two oral contraceptives low in oestrogen. (Abstract)

and Gestodene (GD) 75 micrograms, both in association with Ethinylestradiol (EE) 30 micrograms, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, Thyroxine Binding Globulin, Ceruloplasmin and Free Androgen Index (FAI), were studied in 40 young normally cycling healthy volunteers, matched for body mass index and age. The participants were randomly assigned to either EE-DG or EE-GD treatment. A marked significant increase in all the carrier proteins was found. Conversely, the values for FAI decreased significantly. The changes (...) Sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol binding globulin, thyroxine binding globulin, ceruloplasmin: changes in treatment with two oral contraceptives low in oestrogen. It is generally assumed that the oral contraceptives cause the carrier proteins to change. Notoriously this effect is used to evaluate indirectly their estrogenicity/gestagenicity ratio. In order to assess the residual intrinsic androgenic activity of two new 19-nor-derivative components, Desogestrel (DG) 150 micrograms

1991 Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

594. Prevention of bone loss induced by thyroxine suppressive therapy in postmenopausal women: the effect of calcium and calcitonin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

intranasal calcitonin was able to decrease the rate of bone loss. All patients were receiving a stable dose of L-T4 (170 +/- 60 micrograms/day or 3.0 +/- 1.4 micrograms/kg.day) for more than 1 yr. All had TSH levels of 0.03 mIU/L or less and an elevated free T4 (FT4) index, but normal T3 levels. The calcium intake was low and averaged 507 +/- 384 g/day as assessed by dietary recall. The subjects were randomized into three groups: 1) intranasal calcitonin (200 IU daily) for 5 days/week plus 1000 mg (...) Prevention of bone loss induced by thyroxine suppressive therapy in postmenopausal women: the effect of calcium and calcitonin. Although controversies exist on the possible adverse effect of T4 on bone mass, most studies reported bone loss in estrogen-deprived postmenopausal women taking suppressive doses of T4. We prospectively studied 46 postmenopausal women with carcinoma of thyroid for 2 yr to evaluate the rate of bone loss and assess whether calcium supplementation with or without

1996 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

595. A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. (Abstract)

A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. The role of thyroxine replacement in subclinical hypothyroidism remains unclear. We performed a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of thyroxine treatment for mild subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level between 5 to 10 microU/mL with a normal serum free thyroxine level (0.8-16 ng/dL).We randomly assigned 40 (...) , 20 women (50%) had elevated anxiety scores and 22 (56%) had elevated scores on the General Health Questionnaire. Thirty-five women completed the study. There were no significant differences in the changes from baseline to 6 months between women in the thyroxine group and the placebo group for any of the metabolic, lipid, or anthropometric variables measured, expressed as the mean change in the thyroxine group minus the mean change in the placebo group: body mass index, -0.3 kg/m(2) (95

2002 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

596. Overexpression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in follicular carcinoma as a cause of low circulating free thyroxine levels. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Overexpression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in follicular carcinoma as a cause of low circulating free thyroxine levels. Thyroid function is normally undisturbed in patients with thyroid carcinoma. We have identified three patients with large or widely metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma who had a persistently increased ratio of serum T(3) to T(4) in the absence of autonomous production of T(3) by the tumor. To investigate the possibility of tumor-mediated T(4) to T(3) conversion, we (...) assayed types 1 and 2 iodothyronine selenodeiodinase (D1 and D2) activity in a 965-g follicular thyroid carcinoma resected from one of these patients. The V(max) for D2 was 8-fold higher than in normal human thyroid tissue. Resection of this tumor, leaving the left thyroid lobe intact, normalized the serum T(3) to T(4) ratio. In two other patients, treatment with sufficient levothyroxine to suppress TSH was associated with a high normal T(3) and a subnormal free T(4) index. In one, concomitant

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

597. Hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction in critically ill patients with a low free thyroxine index. (Abstract)

Hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction in critically ill patients with a low free thyroxine index. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of hypothalamic-pituitary axis abnormalities with the free thyroxine index (FTI) in critically ill patients. Fourteen critically ill patients and twenty healthy volunteers were studied using combined anterior pituitary gland testing with CRF, GHRH, TRH, and GnRH. The subjects were grouped as follows: I-healthy volunteers; II-sick/normal

1997 Journal of endocrinological investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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