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Assessment of thyroid status in pregnant women and in patients taking oral contraceptives by a freethyroxineindex The results of using a product of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine binding coefficient, estimated by simple methods, to give a ;freethyroxineindex' in normal women, in pregnant women, and in patients taking oral contraceptives is described. The method is believed to provide a reliable means of assessing thyroid status, and very close agreement, with no significant difference (...) between the mean values obtained for the freethyroxineindex, was found in the groups studied. Certain changes, which may be significant, in the values obtained in patients on oral contraceptive treatment of varying duration were noted.
: The proband was 12.6 years old when she presented for delayed puberty and was placed on L-T4. Although her serum TSH normalized, her serum T4 remained low. Affected family members had low total T4 and T3, but a normal free T4 index, even when serum TSH concentrations were normal. Family 2: A 71-year-old male presented with a history of a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma and normal pituitary axes except for low total T4 and T3. His brother had a similar thyroid phenotype.Following direct DNA sequencing (...) A Novel Mutation in the TBG Gene Producing Partial Thyroxine-Binding Globulin Deficiency (Glencoe) Identified in 2 Families Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is the major thyroid hormone transport protein in serum. Located on the long arm of the X chromosome, TBG (SERPINA7) gene mutations most commonly produce inherited partial TBG deficiency (TBG-PD).We report a novel TBG variant associated with TBG-PD identified in 2 different families of Ashkenazi origin residing in greater Chicago.Family 1
Serum FreeThyroxine Concentration is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Euthyroid Subjects. The association between thyroid hormones within the euthyroid range and metabolic syndrome is not clear.This study evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormones and metabolic syndrome and its components in euthyroid subjects.This is a cross-sectional population based study conducted within the framework of the cohort of the Tehran Thyroid Study.Out of 5786 subjects aged ≥ 20 years, 3755 (...) euthyroid subjects without a history of thyroid disorders, diabetes, or use of steroids or lipid-lowering agents were investigated.Body weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, free T4 (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) were assayed. Metabolic syndrome was determined by definition of the Joint Interim Statement adjusted for the Iranian population.After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking
TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and freethyroxine (FT4) levels and other associated physiological indices.A comprehensive search using the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central databases was undertaken for controlled trials on the effect of metformin on serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels and associated physiological indices. The primary outcome measures were serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels, thyroid size, thyroid nodule size, blood pressure, heart rate, body weight, and body mass index (...) The Effect of Metformin on Thyroid-Associated Serum Hormone Levels and Physiological Indexes: A Meta-Analysis. Many diseases can be treated with metformin. People with serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels higher than 10 mIU/L are at a risk of cardiovascular events. Some studies have suggested that metformin can lower serum TSH levels to a subnormal level in patients with hyperthyrotropinaemia or hypothyroidism.The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on serum
Triiodothyronine and freethyroxine levels are differentially associated with metabolic profile and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in euthyroid middle-aged subjects. We have previously shown that in healthy young men, a less favorable body composition is associated with higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels within the euthyroid range. Besides, a higher free-triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (fT3-to-fT4) ratio has been related to a less favorable metabolic phenotype and more (...) ), not using thyroid medication, not having anti-TPO levels above clinical cutoff values or TSH levels outside the reference range (0.27-4.2 mU/L). Twenty-seven percent of the women and 47.5% of the men were overweight, while 13% of women and 17% of men were obese. Twenty percent of the subjects were active smokers. Serum thyroid function parameters were determined by electrochemiluminescence.fT3 and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio were positively related to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and components
, aged 18-80 years, who attended the Health Management Center of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and laboratory data were collected and analyzed.Serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and fT3/freethyroxine (fT4) ratio (fT3/fT4) were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001), while there was a negative relationship between fT4 and BMI (P < 0.001) according to multivariable regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Associations between (...) Thyroid function, body mass index, and metabolic risk markers in euthyroid adults: a cohort study. In recent years, the relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and obesity has been widely discussed. However, it is unclear how thyroid hormone concentrations relate to body weight and its impact on metabolic risk markers. This study aimed to assess how thyroid function is linked to underweight, overweight, or obesity, and metabolic risk markers in adults.A total of 16,975 subjects
The role of free triiodothyronine in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between free triiodothyronine (FT3), freethyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and to explore the significance of FT3 in HDL-C metabolism in people with normal thyroid function.A total of 461 Chinese, aged ≥28 years, from a college community in Nanning, Guangxi, were enrolled for a cross (...) -sectional epidemiological investigation of metabolic syndrome from October 2016 to November 2016. Height, weight, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride (TG), fasting glucose (FPG), FT3, FT4, and TSH were measured for each individual. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between FT3, FT4, TSH, and HDL-C.After controlling for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, and other confounding factors, FT3 was negatively correlated with HDL-C
followed up after 2.2 years were selected for the longitudinal analysis. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. The cut-off point of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was 40 U/L. The FIB-4 index was used to assess the risk of advanced liver fibrosis.Age-adjusted mean levels of FT3 and FT3/freethyroxine (FT4) ratio were higher in subjects with NAFLD than those without NAFLD and linearly increased with a higher risk of NAFLD progression (assessed by levels of ALT and FIB-4 index) in euthyroid (...) Free triiodothyronine is associated with the occurrence and remission of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid women. The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) in euthyroid subjects was in dispute. We aimed to investigate this issue in a population-based cohort study.A total of 3144 euthyroid subjects at baseline from the Shanghai Nicheng Atherosclerosis Study were selected for the cross-sectional analysis, and 2089 subjects being
with mild iodine deficiency at the time of this initial study. After the implementation of aggressive strategies to address iodine deficiency over the last decade, the UAE was recently declared as iodine sufficient. The current study re-evaluates the reference intervals for thyroid hormones for pregnant women in the UAE after the declaration of iodine sufficiency status.TSH and freethyroxin (FT4) from 414 UAE national pregnant females were analyzed to determine trimester specific reference ranges.The (...) Trimester specific reference ranges for serum TSH and Free T4 among United Arab Emirates pregnant women The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommended the establishment of population specific reference ranges for thyroid hormones during pregnancy. Initial studies conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2003 and 2004 on pregnant women published a considerably higher upper limit for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) than that proposed by ATA. The UAE was classified as a country
Correlation of Body Mass Index (BMI) with Thyroid Function in Euthyroid Pregnant Women in Manipur, India Body Mass Index (BMI) is significantly increased during pregnancy due to gain of weight with normal progression of pregnancy. The exact influence of thyroid function on BMI are ill defined in euthyroid pregnant women.To correlate serum levels of Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), FreeThyroxine (FT4) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level with BMI of participant normal pregnant women in all
Increases in Thyrotropin Within the Near-Normal Range Are Associated With Increased Triiodothyronine But Not Increased Thyroxine in the Pediatric Age Group. TSH has been shown in vitro to increase conversion of T4 to T3 and to preferentially increase thyroidal T3 secretion. Whether or not these effects are significant in vivo, other than in obesity, is unclear.To test whether the incremental relationships between free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH are compatible with TSH enhancement (...) in the database were removed. After exclusions, 3276 samples remained. FT4, FT3, and the FT3/FT4 ratios were correlated with TSH for the entire group, and the same parameters were segregated by TSH quartile. RESULTS were stratified for body mass index and studied separately in a normal-weight subgroup.Stepwise correlations of FT4, FT3, and FT3/FT4 ratios with TSH.There was a significant positive linear correlation of TSH with FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratios (R = 0.12; P < .0001 in both), but not with FT4.Within
) bone density measurements, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), freethyroxine (FT4), RANK, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphor, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were analyzed to investigate this effect.Bone mineral density levels of L1-L4 vertebrae and femur were observed significantly lower in the electrical workers. ALP, phosphor, RANK, RANKL, TOS, OSI, and anteroposterior diameter of the left thyroid (...) Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers In the literature, some articles report that the incidence of numerous diseases increases among the individuals who live around high-voltage electric transmission lines (HVETL) or are exposed vocationally. However, it was not investigated whether HVETL affect bone metabolism, oxidative stress, and the prevalence of thyroid nodule.Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA
(oestrogen) medication, the E.T.R. estimation has been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy (99%) in defining thyroid status comparable to that shown by the freethyroxineindex (98%). Because of the ease and rapidity with which the procedure can be completed, estimation of E.T.R. shows promise as a single, accurate measure of thyroid status. (...) Evaluation of a New In-vitro Blood Test for Determining Thyroid Status: The Effective Thyroxine Ratio Estimation of serum thyroxine concentration in test serum was performed in the presence of test serum itself and expressed as a fraction (Effective Thyroxine Ratio, E.T.R.) of serum thyroxine concentration similarly determined in normal serum. From studies of serum obtained from euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients and from euthyroid pregnant women and women taking contraceptive
) was correlated significantly (gamma = + 0.961) with the free Thyopac index (y), representing a regression equation of y = 71.7x(2) - 88.4x + 24.2. Thyopac ETR was shown to be useful in differentiating normal thyroid states from abnormal, irrespective of changes in T(4)-binding globulin (TBG). Further, the T(4) value obtained simultaneously made it possible to detect changes in the TBG level by noting an inconsistent value for the effective thyroxine ratio. (...) Conventional and dual competitive binding analyses of thyroxine using the Thyopac-4 kit A simple method is described for the simultaneous determinations of thyroxine and the effective thyroxine ratio (ETR) using a single kit of Thyopac-4. Thyopac ETR values obtained were 1.00 +/- 0.03 for normal subjects; 1.22 +/- 0.11 for hyperthyroid; 0.87 +/- 0.04 for hypothyroid; and 1.02 +/- 0.05 for pregnant women. Cases with TBG deficiency and the nephrotic syndrome indicated normal values. The value (x
Inhibition by iodine of the release of thyroxine from the thyroid glands of patients with thyrotoxicosis A method has been devised which is free of many of the shortcomings of serial epithyroid counting techniques as an index of the rate of thyroid hormone secretion. By means of this method, the effect of treatment with Lugol's iodine on the rate of thyroidal secretion of thyroxine (T(4)) has been assessed in eight patients with thyrotoxicosis due to diffuse or multinodular goiter
, the free T(4) index was equally depressed, suggesting that factors other than decreased binding capacity might be responsible for the low TT(4). In addition, there was a 37% incidence of goiter. Mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was not elevated and the TSH response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was distinctly blunted, suggesting the possibility of pituitary dysfunction as well. In vivo (125)I-l-T(4) and (131)I-l-T(3) kinetics during 0.2 mg/day of l-T(4) replacement showed marked (...) Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: A STUDY OF THE PITUITARY-THYROID AXIS AND PERIPHERAL TURNOVER KINETICS OF THYROXINE AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE Thyroid function was evaluated in 46 patients with end-stage kidney disease and 42 normal subjects. Patients were studied before and after the institution of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and after renal transplantation (RT). Serum total triiodothyronine concentrations (TT(3), ng/100 ml, mean+/-SD) were 63+/-17 and 83+/-22 in the non-HD and HD
Concentration of thyroxine-binding globulin: value of direct assay. The concentration of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in the serum can now be measured by direct assays that are simple and inexpensive. Comparison of a direct measurement of TBG concentration with a widely used indirect method (Thyopac-3) showed that the indirect method was inaccurate when TBG concentrations were high. This will result in an increase in the derived freethyroxineindex (FTI), so that euthyroid patients (...) with a raised TBG concentration may be at risk of being labelled thyrotoxic. Correction of serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration according to the actual TBG concentration (T4:TBG ratio) provided a better correlation with thyroid state than FTI.
unchanged. Beginning on day 2 of epinephrine and persisting at least 1 day after epinephrine was discontinued, serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) maximal binding capacity increased, thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) maximal binding capacity decreased, and free T4 iodine decreased. Stable serum T4 iodine decreased during the experiment. Three indexes, namely the free T4 iodine, the reciprocal of TBG capacity, and the urinary radio-T4 "clearance" changed in parallel, suggesting that the increase (...) Effect of epinephrine on the peripheral metabolism of thyroxine 10 normal young men received repository epinephrine repeatedly for 4 days during the course of a radiothyroxine (radio-T4) disappearance curve. During epinephrine administration, serum radio-T4 disappearance rate (k) slowed abruptly, fecal clearance decreased, urinary clearance was initially unchanged but later decreased slightly, volume of thyroxine distribution decreased, and external radioactivity over the liver remained