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Assessment of thyroid status in pregnant women and in patients taking oral contraceptives by a freethyroxineindex The results of using a product of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine binding coefficient, estimated by simple methods, to give a ;freethyroxineindex' in normal women, in pregnant women, and in patients taking oral contraceptives is described. The method is believed to provide a reliable means of assessing thyroid status, and very close agreement, with no significant difference (...) between the mean values obtained for the freethyroxineindex, was found in the groups studied. Certain changes, which may be significant, in the values obtained in patients on oral contraceptive treatment of varying duration were noted.
The T4-freethyroxineindex as a test of thyroid function of first choice The T(4)-freethyroxineindex was used as the thyroid function test of first choice in a district general hospital for one year. Ninety-two patients were assessed both initially and at follow up by a single physician. The index agreed with clinical assessment in 69 out of 74 patients in whom diagnosis was unequivocal. There was initial doubt about thyroid status in 14 patients; after re-assessment the index agreed (...) with status in seven cases, in three cases there is still some uncertainty, whilst the index was at variance with clinical status in four patients. Some possible causes of discrepancy between clinical thyroid status and the index are a low index in euthyroid patients due to a fall in serum thyroxine-binding prealbumin (;sick euthyroid'), a raised index in euthyroid patients due to latent thyroid heart disease, and a normal index in thyrotoxicosis due to preferential secretion of triiodothyronine.
Triiodothyronine and freethyroxine levels are differentially associated with metabolic profile and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in euthyroid middle-aged subjects. We have previously shown that in healthy young men, a less favorable body composition is associated with higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels within the euthyroid range. Besides, a higher free-triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (fT3-to-fT4) ratio has been related to a less favorable metabolic phenotype and more (...) ), not using thyroid medication, not having anti-TPO levels above clinical cutoff values or TSH levels outside the reference range (0.27-4.2 mU/L). Twenty-seven percent of the women and 47.5% of the men were overweight, while 13% of women and 17% of men were obese. Twenty percent of the subjects were active smokers. Serum thyroid function parameters were determined by electrochemiluminescence.fT3 and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio were positively related to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and components
, aged 18-80 years, who attended the Health Management Center of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and laboratory data were collected and analyzed.Serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and fT3/freethyroxine (fT4) ratio (fT3/fT4) were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001), while there was a negative relationship between fT4 and BMI (P < 0.001) according to multivariable regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Associations between (...) Thyroid function, body mass index, and metabolic risk markers in euthyroid adults: a cohort study. In recent years, the relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and obesity has been widely discussed. However, it is unclear how thyroid hormone concentrations relate to body weight and its impact on metabolic risk markers. This study aimed to assess how thyroid function is linked to underweight, overweight, or obesity, and metabolic risk markers in adults.A total of 16,975 subjects
followed up after 2.2 years were selected for the longitudinal analysis. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. The cut-off point of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was 40 U/L. The FIB-4 index was used to assess the risk of advanced liver fibrosis.Age-adjusted mean levels of FT3 and FT3/freethyroxine (FT4) ratio were higher in subjects with NAFLD than those without NAFLD and linearly increased with a higher risk of NAFLD progression (assessed by levels of ALT and FIB-4 index) in euthyroid (...) Free triiodothyronine is associated with the occurrence and remission of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid women. The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) in euthyroid subjects was in dispute. We aimed to investigate this issue in a population-based cohort study.A total of 3144 euthyroid subjects at baseline from the Shanghai Nicheng Atherosclerosis Study were selected for the cross-sectional analysis, and 2089 subjects being
The role of free triiodothyronine in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between free triiodothyronine (FT3), freethyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and to explore the significance of FT3 in HDL-C metabolism in people with normal thyroid function.A total of 461 Chinese, aged ≥28 years, from a college community in Nanning, Guangxi, were enrolled for a cross (...) -sectional epidemiological investigation of metabolic syndrome from October 2016 to November 2016. Height, weight, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride (TG), fasting glucose (FPG), FT3, FT4, and TSH were measured for each individual. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between FT3, FT4, TSH, and HDL-C.After controlling for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, and other confounding factors, FT3 was negatively correlated with HDL-C
with mild iodine deficiency at the time of this initial study. After the implementation of aggressive strategies to address iodine deficiency over the last decade, the UAE was recently declared as iodine sufficient. The current study re-evaluates the reference intervals for thyroid hormones for pregnant women in the UAE after the declaration of iodine sufficiency status.TSH and freethyroxin (FT4) from 414 UAE national pregnant females were analyzed to determine trimester specific reference ranges.The (...) Trimester specific reference ranges for serum TSH and Free T4 among United Arab Emirates pregnant women The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommended the establishment of population specific reference ranges for thyroid hormones during pregnancy. Initial studies conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2003 and 2004 on pregnant women published a considerably higher upper limit for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) than that proposed by ATA. The UAE was classified as a country
Lower FreeThyroxin Associates with a Less Favorable Metabolic Phenotype in Healthy Pregnant Women. A lower free T(4) (fT4), within the euthyroid range, has been shown in adults to associate with an adverse metabolic phenotype. Thyroid physiology changes significantly during gestation and affects maternal and fetal well-being.The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a lower serum fT4 in healthy euthyroid pregnant women is related to a less favorable metabolic phenotype and to fetal (...) or placental weight. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined associations of thyroid function tests (TSH and fT4) and the free T(3) (fT3)-to-fT4 ratio (as a proxy of deiodinase activity) with a metabolic profile [preload and postload glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum lipids] in 321 healthy pregnant women. All women were euthyroid and had negative anti-thyroid
Correlation of Body Mass Index (BMI) with Thyroid Function in Euthyroid Pregnant Women in Manipur, India Body Mass Index (BMI) is significantly increased during pregnancy due to gain of weight with normal progression of pregnancy. The exact influence of thyroid function on BMI are ill defined in euthyroid pregnant women.To correlate serum levels of Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), FreeThyroxine (FT4) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level with BMI of participant normal pregnant women in all
Increases in Thyrotropin Within the Near-Normal Range Are Associated With Increased Triiodothyronine But Not Increased Thyroxine in the Pediatric Age Group. TSH has been shown in vitro to increase conversion of T4 to T3 and to preferentially increase thyroidal T3 secretion. Whether or not these effects are significant in vivo, other than in obesity, is unclear.To test whether the incremental relationships between free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH are compatible with TSH enhancement (...) in the database were removed. After exclusions, 3276 samples remained. FT4, FT3, and the FT3/FT4 ratios were correlated with TSH for the entire group, and the same parameters were segregated by TSH quartile. RESULTS were stratified for body mass index and studied separately in a normal-weight subgroup.Stepwise correlations of FT4, FT3, and FT3/FT4 ratios with TSH.There was a significant positive linear correlation of TSH with FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratios (R = 0.12; P < .0001 in both), but not with FT4.Within
) bone density measurements, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), freethyroxine (FT4), RANK, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphor, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were analyzed to investigate this effect.Bone mineral density levels of L1-L4 vertebrae and femur were observed significantly lower in the electrical workers. ALP, phosphor, RANK, RANKL, TOS, OSI, and anteroposterior diameter of the left thyroid (...) Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers In the literature, some articles report that the incidence of numerous diseases increases among the individuals who live around high-voltage electric transmission lines (HVETL) or are exposed vocationally. However, it was not investigated whether HVETL affect bone metabolism, oxidative stress, and the prevalence of thyroid nodule.Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA
Concentration of thyroxine-binding globulin: value of direct assay. The concentration of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in the serum can now be measured by direct assays that are simple and inexpensive. Comparison of a direct measurement of TBG concentration with a widely used indirect method (Thyopac-3) showed that the indirect method was inaccurate when TBG concentrations were high. This will result in an increase in the derived freethyroxineindex (FTI), so that euthyroid patients (...) with a raised TBG concentration may be at risk of being labelled thyrotoxic. Correction of serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration according to the actual TBG concentration (T4:TBG ratio) provided a better correlation with thyroid state than FTI.
, the free T(4) index was equally depressed, suggesting that factors other than decreased binding capacity might be responsible for the low TT(4). In addition, there was a 37% incidence of goiter. Mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was not elevated and the TSH response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was distinctly blunted, suggesting the possibility of pituitary dysfunction as well. In vivo (125)I-l-T(4) and (131)I-l-T(3) kinetics during 0.2 mg/day of l-T(4) replacement showed marked (...) Thyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: A STUDY OF THE PITUITARY-THYROID AXIS AND PERIPHERAL TURNOVER KINETICS OF THYROXINE AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE Thyroid function was evaluated in 46 patients with end-stage kidney disease and 42 normal subjects. Patients were studied before and after the institution of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and after renal transplantation (RT). Serum total triiodothyronine concentrations (TT(3), ng/100 ml, mean+/-SD) were 63+/-17 and 83+/-22 in the non-HD and HD
Inhibition by iodine of the release of thyroxine from the thyroid glands of patients with thyrotoxicosis A method has been devised which is free of many of the shortcomings of serial epithyroid counting techniques as an index of the rate of thyroid hormone secretion. By means of this method, the effect of treatment with Lugol's iodine on the rate of thyroidal secretion of thyroxine (T(4)) has been assessed in eight patients with thyrotoxicosis due to diffuse or multinodular goiter
unchanged. Beginning on day 2 of epinephrine and persisting at least 1 day after epinephrine was discontinued, serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) maximal binding capacity increased, thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) maximal binding capacity decreased, and free T4 iodine decreased. Stable serum T4 iodine decreased during the experiment. Three indexes, namely the free T4 iodine, the reciprocal of TBG capacity, and the urinary radio-T4 "clearance" changed in parallel, suggesting that the increase (...) Effect of epinephrine on the peripheral metabolism of thyroxine 10 normal young men received repository epinephrine repeatedly for 4 days during the course of a radiothyroxine (radio-T4) disappearance curve. During epinephrine administration, serum radio-T4 disappearance rate (k) slowed abruptly, fecal clearance decreased, urinary clearance was initially unchanged but later decreased slightly, volume of thyroxine distribution decreased, and external radioactivity over the liver remained
(oestrogen) medication, the E.T.R. estimation has been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy (99%) in defining thyroid status comparable to that shown by the freethyroxineindex (98%). Because of the ease and rapidity with which the procedure can be completed, estimation of E.T.R. shows promise as a single, accurate measure of thyroid status. (...) Evaluation of a New In-vitro Blood Test for Determining Thyroid Status: The Effective Thyroxine Ratio Estimation of serum thyroxine concentration in test serum was performed in the presence of test serum itself and expressed as a fraction (Effective Thyroxine Ratio, E.T.R.) of serum thyroxine concentration similarly determined in normal serum. From studies of serum obtained from euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients and from euthyroid pregnant women and women taking contraceptive
) was correlated significantly (gamma = + 0.961) with the free Thyopac index (y), representing a regression equation of y = 71.7x(2) - 88.4x + 24.2. Thyopac ETR was shown to be useful in differentiating normal thyroid states from abnormal, irrespective of changes in T(4)-binding globulin (TBG). Further, the T(4) value obtained simultaneously made it possible to detect changes in the TBG level by noting an inconsistent value for the effective thyroxine ratio. (...) Conventional and dual competitive binding analyses of thyroxine using the Thyopac-4 kit A simple method is described for the simultaneous determinations of thyroxine and the effective thyroxine ratio (ETR) using a single kit of Thyopac-4. Thyopac ETR values obtained were 1.00 +/- 0.03 for normal subjects; 1.22 +/- 0.11 for hyperthyroid; 0.87 +/- 0.04 for hypothyroid; and 1.02 +/- 0.05 for pregnant women. Cases with TBG deficiency and the nephrotic syndrome indicated normal values. The value (x