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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1781. Sodium balance and extracellular volume regulation in very low birth weight infants. (Abstract)

. Extracellular volume (estimated by the bromide dilution method), sodium excretion, creatinine clearance, fractional sodium excretion, plasma atrial natriuretic factor level, urine aldosterone concentration, and vasopressin excretion were measured on postnatal days 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30. The corrected bromide space was large at birth and decreased in both groups during the first 5 days of observation, concomitant with a negative sodium balance. After 5 days of age, sodium excretion decreased in both groups so (...) that sodium balance became positive and the corrected bromide space increased in proportion to increasing body weight. Differences in sodium intake were associated with differences in tubular sodium reabsorption; corrected bromide space and net sodium balance were similar in the two groups. Serum sodium concentration was significantly lower in the low-sodium intake group. Creatinine clearance, plasma atrial natriuretic factor level, and excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin were not significantly

1989 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1782. Effect of noradrenaline on renal sodium and water handling in euhydrated and overhydrated man. (Abstract)

fall in urinary sodium excretion and an increase in urinary flow rate. During overhydration similar doses of noradrenaline caused a fall in urinary sodium excretion but a decrease in urinary flow rate. 3. Although there was no detectable change in glomerular filtration rate, a dose-dependent fall in effective renal plasma flow was observed in both hydration states during noradrenaline infusion. 4. Noradrenaline infusion was associated with a dose-dependent increase in proximal tubular sodium (...) reabsorption as assessed by the lithium clearance method. Fractional reabsorption of sodium by the distal nephron was, however, unchanged by noradrenaline in both hydration states. 5. Plasma vasopressin concentration was unchanged by noradrenaline in euhydrated subjects. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis was stimulated by noradrenaline in both euhydrated and overhydrated subjects. 6. Thus we conclude that plasma circulating noradrenaline has a dose-dependent antinatriuretic effect in man

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1783. Salt-dependent renal effects of an angiotensin II antagonist in healthy subjects. (Abstract)

washout period. On day 6, the subjects were water loaded, and blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and urinary electrolyte excretion were measured for 6 hours after a single 100-mg oral dose of losartan (n = 16) or placebo (n = 7). Losartan induced no significant changes in blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, or renal blood flow in these water-loaded subjects, whatever the sodium diet. In subjects on a low-salt diet, losartan markedly increased urinary sodium excretion from 115 +/- 9 to 207 (...) +/- 21 mumol/min (P < .05). The fractional excretion of endogenous lithium was unchanged, suggesting no effect of losartan on the early proximal tubule in our experimental conditions. Losartan also increased urine flow rate (from 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 13.1 +/- 0.6 mL/min, P < .05); urinary potassium excretion (from 117 +/- 6.9 to 155 +/- 11 mumol/min); and the excretion of chloride, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate. In subjects on a high-salt diet, similar effects of losartan were observed

1993 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1784. Atrial natriuretic peptide-cyclic GMP relationships in normal humans: effects of dietary sodium intake. (Abstract)

normotensive subjects on their normal sodium intake and (ii) 12 subjects on the 5th day of a low and on the 5th day of a high sodium intake. 3. Plasma cyclic GMP, urinary cyclic GMP and fractional excretion of cyclic GMP in 30 normotensive subjects on their normal sodium intake were (means +/- SEM) 5.4 +/- 0.5 pmol/ml, 434.5 +/- 31.8 pmol/min and 86.9 +/- 8.6%, respectively. There were significant correlations between urinary cyclic GMP and its corresponding filtered load (r = 0.55) and between the renal (...) clearance of cyclic GMP and that of creatinine (r = 0.44), but there were no significant associations between circulating atrial natriuretic peptide and plasma cyclic GMP or the fractional excretion of cyclic GMP or between urinary sodium and the fractional excretion of cyclic GMP. 5. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was significantly raised on the 5th day of the high sodium intake compared with the low sodium intake (10.6 +/- 1.6 versus 4.2 +/- 0.9 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Similarly, there were increases

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1785. Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. (Abstract)

, 3.5 and 5.5 h after the end of the rehydration period. Data were analysed by parametric or non-parametric statistical tests are appropriate. The volume of fluid consumed was the same on all trials [2045(45) ml]. From the 1.5-h sample onwards, a significant treatment effect on cumulative urine output was apparent, with the volume excreted being inversely related to the sodium content of the drink consumed. By the end of the trial, subjects were in net negative fluid balance on trials A [by 689(124 (...) of the rehydration period. At 1.5 h after the end of the rehydration period, the increase in plasma volume was greater on trials C and D than on trial A. These results suggest that the fraction of the ingested fluid that was retained was directly related to the sodium concentration.

1995 European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1786. Stimulatory effect of insulin on tubular sodium reabsorption in normotensive subjects with a positive family history of hypertension. (Abstract)

estimated distal fractional sodium reabsorption increased, P < 0.01. At the end of the clamp a low-dose infusion of angiotensin II (0.1 ng/kg per min) was superimposed. GFR and RPF then decreased significantly concomitant with urinary excretion of sodium. In control subjects hyperinsulinaemia caused an unchanged GFR in both groups, increased RPF in the lean control group and 15-25% reduction in sodium excretion. No alteration was seen in estimated proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, but estimated (...) distal tubular sodium reabsorption increased (P < 0.05) in the lean control group. Angiotensin II elicited a further increase in distal fractional tubular sodium reabsorption in both groups (P < 0.05).In normotensive subjects with a positive family history of hypertension, in contrast to control subjects without such history, hyperinsulinaemia caused a marked decrease in urinary sodium excretion in presence of unchanged RPF and GFR indicating a renal tubular effect of insulin located at distal site

1996 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1787. [Reduction of the antihypertensive effects of enalapril by indomethacin. Its independence from renal sodium retention]. (Abstract)

). Enalapril dose increased up to 40 mg/d if inadequate response to 20 mg.Twenty-four patients with mild-moderated hypertension, showing an adequate response to enalapril (20-40 mg/d).Blood pressure evaluated by "casual" methods and by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, measurement of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium: at the end of placebo, enalapril and enalapril + indomethacin treatments. Determination of the correlations between the changes induced (...) by indomethacin (when added to enalapril) on the blood pressure and on sodium excretion effects of enalapril.Enalapril significantly reduced casual blood pressure (systolic/diastolic) by 33/18 mmHg and 24-hour blood pressure by 20/9 mmHg. When added to enalapril, indomethacin attenuated (by 50%) the antihypertensive effects of enalapril and significantly decreased the 24-hour (from 120 +/- 11 mmol to 106 +/- 10 mmol) and fractional excretion of sodium (from 1.11 +/- 0.09% to 0.75 +/- 0.06%). However

1996 Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1788. The effect of dietary sodium restriction on neurohumoral activity and renal dopaminergic response in patients with heart failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Serum sodium and creatinine, plasma l-DOPA, dopamine, its metabolites, BNP and aldosterone, and 24-h urinary sodium, creatinine, l-DOPA, dopamine and metabolites were measured.The two groups were matched respecting to demographic and clinical parameters. Low-sodium diet caused significant reductions in weight, 24-h urinary volume and sodium and sodium fractional excretion. Renal delivery of l-DOPA and urinary excretion of l-DOPA significantly decreased while dopamine and metabolites were (...) The effect of dietary sodium restriction on neurohumoral activity and renal dopaminergic response in patients with heart failure. This work evaluates the effect of a low-sodium diet on clinical and neurohumoral parameters and on renal dopaminergic system activity in heart failure (HF) patients.We included 24 patients with mild-to-moderate stable HF with left ventricle ejection fraction <40%. Twelve patients were studied before and after a 15-day low-sodium diet; 12 maintained their usual diet

2004 European journal of heart failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1789. Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

handling was determined by lithium and sodium clearance measurements. Therapeutic serum levels of octreotide along with a reduction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (P <.01) and an increase of IGF binding protein 1 (P <.05) were demonstrated. No effect of octreotide was observed on GFR, ERPF, or filtration fraction (GFR/ERPF). Changes in clearance and extraction fraction of sodium and lithium during octreotide treatment were not significantly different from those of placebo. In addition (...) Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Octreotide seems to have a beneficial effect on variceal bleeding, and long-term administration for the prevention of rebleeding is currently being evaluated. Experimental studies have suggested a beneficial effect of chronic octreotide treatment on renal function, while clinical studies have shown variable

2001 Hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1790. Renal segmental tubular response to salt during the normal menstrual cycle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in both phases of the menstrual cycle. In the follicular phase, the increase in salt intake was associated with no change in renal hemodynamics, an increased fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) and a decreased fractional distal reabsorption of sodium (FDRNa), suggesting that sodium reabsorption is reduced both in the proximal and the distal tubules. In contrast, in the luteal phase, the renal response to salt was characterized by a significant renal vasodilation and a marked salt escape from (...) to changes in salt intake.Thirty-five normotensive women were enrolled. Seventeen women were randomized and studied in the follicular and 18 in the luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. All women were assigned at random to receive a low (40 mmol/day) or a high (250 mmol/day) sodium diet for seven days on two consecutive menstrual cycles. Renal sodium handling and hemodynamics were measured at the end of each diet period.The changes in sodium intake induced comparable variations in sodium excretion

2002 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1791. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage. (Abstract)

mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed in serum and urine after zeolite withdraw, is at present unknown, but it is suggested, that the readily mobilized Ca-pool in bone was a contributing factor. An effect of zeolite on phosphate and magnesium homeostasis in the experimental group was evidenced from the values of serum concentration and fractional excretion, which during supplementation were significant lower than in the control (...) Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage. The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period

2003 Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. Supplementum Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1792. EPO and alpha-MSH prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced down-regulation of AQPs and sodium transporters in rat kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

urine output, and high fractional excretion of urinary sodium. Consistent with this, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed that the kidney expression of AQPs (AQP-1, -2 and -3) and sodium transporters [Na,K-ATPase, rat type 1 bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (BSC-1), Na/H exchanger type 3 (NHE3), and thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (TSC)] in ARF rats was significantly decreased compared to sham-operated control rats. In contrast, EPO treatment at the time (...) EPO and alpha-MSH prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced down-regulation of AQPs and sodium transporters in rat kidney. Ischemia-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is known to be associated with significant impairment of urinary concentrating ability and down-regulation of renal aquaporins (AQPs) and sodium transporters in rats. We tested whether treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) or alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in combination with EPO reduces the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I

2004 Kidney International

1793. Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

clearance was increased by salt or fat, and fractional excretion of sodium was decreased by fat. In study 1, high NaCl markedly reduced plasma renin and aldosterone and its regulated proteins in whole kidney, i.e., the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter and the alpha- and gamma (70-kDa band)-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel. These effects were blunted by fat. Fructose increased the abundance of the sodium phosphate cotransporter, whereas it decreased the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl (...) Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure. Dietary fructose, NaCl, and/or saturated fat have been correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) rises in sensitive strains of rats. Dysregulation of sodium and/or water reabsorption by the kidney may contribute. Using radiotelemetry and parallel semiquantitative immunoblotting, we examined the effects of various diets on MAP and the regulation of abundance of the major

2004 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1794. Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. (Abstract)

). Hypothyroidism was induced by aminotriazole administration. Body weight, water intake, urine output, solute and urea excretion, serum and urine osmolality, serum creatinine, 24-h creatinine clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium were comparable among the three groups. However, with 36 h of water deprivation, HT rats demonstrated significantly greater urine flow rates and decreased urine and medullary osmolality as compared with CTL and HT+T rats at comparable plasma vasopressin concentrations. Western (...) Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired urinary concentrating ability in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to examine protein expression of renal sodium chloride and urea transporters and aquaporins in hypothyroid rats (HT) with diminished urinary concentration as compared with euthyroid controls (CTL) and hypothyroid rats replaced with L-thyroxine (HT+T

2003 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1795. Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Increased proximal renal sodium re-absorption is associated with central adiposity and insulin resistance in white men. Our study examined whether this association also exists in other ethnic groups with different prevalences of insulin resistance and associated metabolic abnormalities.We studied the association between fractional renal excretion of endogenous lithium (FELi) and metabolic syndrome (...) cholesterol and metabolic syndrome as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.In white men and women a higher rate of proximal sodium re-absorption was inversely associated with higher waist circumference, serum triglycerides and HOMA index, and with lower serum HDL cholesterol (all p< or =0.001). No associations were found in people of African or South Asian origin. The former had lower FELi than the other groups. White people with the metabolic syndrome had a lower FELi than those without (15.9

2004 Diabetologia

1796. Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. (Abstract)

during the last 6 days of the study.Tail-cuff pressure and sodium excretion were determined in conscious rats. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were determined in anesthetized rats using clearance methods. The heart weight index was calculated.Omapatrilat was as effective as enalapril in reducing arterial pressure, and Hoe140 had no influence. Natriuresis increased to a similar extent with omapatrilat and enalapril. Hoe140 prevented the sodium loss only in enalapril (...) Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. The systemic and renal effect of omapatrilat was evaluated and compared with that of enalapril (30 and 10 mg/kg per day) in sodium-depleted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. Participation of kinins was assessed by concomitant infusion of Hoe140 (300 microg/kg per day).Four weeks after clipping and uninephrectomy, dietary sodium was withdrawn for 2 weeks and rats were treated

2004 Journal of Hypertension

1797. Combination of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms is associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

enzyme (ACE), M235T of angiotensinogen (AGT), A1166C of angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R), and C-344T of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). The segmental renal sodium handling was evaluated by the fractional excretions of exogenous lithium (FE-Li), uric acid (FE-UA), and sodium (FE-Na). Twenty-eight carriers of triple homozygosity for M (AGT), A (AT1R), and C (CYP11B2) in the presence of the D allele of ACE (DD/ID) showed lower FE-Li (20.0%+/-5.9% versus 25.0%+/-7.5%; P=0.004; mean+/-sD), FE-UA (6.3 (...) Combination of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms is associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension. Genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are natural candidates for sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. To investigate the effect of a combination of polymorphisms of RAAS genes on renal sodium handling and blood pressure, 918 participants to the Olivetti Heart Study were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: I/D of angiotensin converting

2004 Hypertension

1798. L-arginine reverses p47phox and gp91phox expression induced by high salt in Dahl rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

superoxide, in the membrane fraction of the renal cortex derived from DS rats loaded with high salt for 4 weeks; high salt loading also remarkably increased urinary H2O2, 8-isoprostane, and thromboxane B2 excretion and decreased plasma NO end products. These changes from high salt loading were counteracted by oral l-arginine supplementation. We further examined expression patterns of NADPH oxidase subunits in renal cortex derived from these animals. High salt loading increased gp91phox and p47phox (...) but not p22phox or Rac1 or mRNA abundance, which were counteracted with L-arginine supplementation. Western blot analyses after subcellular fractionation revealed that l-arginine supplementation distinctly decreases membrane localization of p47phox protein, as it decreases total expression of Rac1 protein in DS rats with high salt loading. These results disclose that high salt loading causes a deficiency in available L-arginine amounts for NO synthases and induces NADPH oxidase activation in the renal cortex

2003 Hypertension

1799. Gender differences in ET and NOS systems in ETB receptor-deficient rats: effect of a high salt diet. Full Text available with Trip Pro

higher systolic blood pressures compared with male sl/+ and female sl/+ and sl/sl rats. On a high salt diet (10% NaCl; HS), blood pressure in male sl/+ rats was significantly higher than female sl/+ rats. However, ETB receptor deficiency caused much larger increases in blood pressure in male and female rats. On NS, urinary ET excretion was not different between male and female of either genotype. HS significantly increased ET excretion in male and female sl/+ rats, but the increase was significantly (...) Gender differences in ET and NOS systems in ETB receptor-deficient rats: effect of a high salt diet. The purpose of this study was to determine if rats lacking the ETB receptor have altered renal endothelin (ET) production and NO synthase (NOS) activity in response to high salt and if female rats are better able to control blood pressure through higher NOS activity in rats heterozygous (sl/+) and homozygous (sl/sl) for ETB receptor deficiency. On normal salt (0.4% NaCl; NS), male sl/sl rats had

2003 Hypertension

1800. Enhanced sodium retention after acute nitric oxide blockade in mildly sodium loaded patients with essential hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

parameters were renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] and renal plasma flow [RPF]), systemic blood pressure (BP), and fractional excretions of sodium (FE(Na)) and lithium (FE(Li)). Experiments were performed on two occasions for each subject studying the effects of either L-NMMA (3 mg/kg intravenously) or placebo. The patients with ESS were studied after at least 14 days off antihypertensive medication. Renal hemodynamics were assessed by the clearances of (125)I-hippuran (RPF) and (51)Cr (...) ) decreased equally in both groups (ESS: -17% +/- 2% v CON: -17% +/- 6%, P = NS). It is concluded that acute NO blockade in ESS is accompanied by a reduced systemic pressor response, an unchanged renal hemodynamic response, and an enhanced reduction in FE(Na). The results suggest that patients with essential hypertension are highly dependent on NO to maintain sodium excretion.

2007 American journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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