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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1761. Blockade of Renal Medullary Bradykinin B2 Receptors Increases Tubular Sodium Reabsorption in Rats Fed a Normal Salt Diet. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Blockade of Renal Medullary Bradykinin B2 Receptors Increases Tubular Sodium Reabsorption in Rats Fed a Normal Salt Diet. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that under normal physiological conditions and/or during augmentation of kinin levels, intrarenal kinins act on medullary bradykinin B(2) (BKB(2)) receptors to acutely increase papillary blood flow (PBF) and therefore Na(+) excretion. We determined the effect of acute inner medullary interstitial (IMI) BKB(2) receptor (...) , HOE-140 infusion decreased left kidney Na(+) excretion (urinary Na(+) extraction rate) and fractional Na(+) excretion by 40 +/- 5% and 40 +/- 4%, respectively (P < 0.01), but did not alter glomerular filtration rate, inner medullary blood flow (PBF), or cortical blood flow. In rats fed a low-salt diet, HOE-140 infusion did not alter renal regional hemodynamics or excretory function. We conclude that in rats fed a normal-salt diet, kinins act tonically via medullary BKB(2) receptors to increase Na

2008 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1762. Effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on whole-body leucine kinetics and fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on whole-body leucine kinetics and fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. Because intravenous infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) has been reported to decrease urinary nitrogen excretion, we investigated in vivo metabolism of leucine, an essential amino acid, using L-[1-13C]leucine as a tracer during beta-OHB infusion. Leucine flux during beta-OHB infusion did not differ from leucine flux during normal saline infusion in nine normal (...) subjects, whereas leucine oxidation decreased 18-41% (mean = 30%) from 18.1 +/- 1.1 mumol.kg-1.h-1 (P less than 0.01), and incorporation of leucine into skeletal muscle protein increased 5-17% (mean = 10%) from 0.048 + 0.003%/h (P less than 0.02). Since blood pH during beta-OHB infusion was higher than the pH during saline infusion, we performed separate experiments to study the effect of increased blood pH on leucine kinetics by infusing sodium bicarbonate intravenously. Blood pH during sodium

1988 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1763. Effects of sulindac and naproxen on prostaglandin excretion in patients with impaired renal function and rheumatoid arthritis. (Abstract)

were compared with naproxen 500 mg in the morning and 250 mg in the evening in 10 patients with polyarthritis and stable impaired renal function. Inulin and para-amino-hippurate sodium were used to calculate glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. The excretion rate of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was measured in urine collected overnight. After patients ingested drugs in the morning, urine was collected in fractions by spontaneous voiding. Venous blood samples were drawn repeatedly for assay (...) the albumin/creatinine clearance ratio decreased by 59% (p less than 0.05) only during treatment with sulindac. N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in urine was not changed by either drug. Sulindac and naproxen had no discernible effects on base excess, excretion of water, sodium, or potassium, or on osmolal clearance. However, serum potassium increased slightly but significantly (p less than 0.01) during treatment with naproxen. Sulindac sulfide, the active metabolite of sulindac, could not be traced

1990 The American journal of medicine

1764. Indomethacin and its effect on renal function and urinary kallikrein excretion in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus. (Abstract)

output, fraction excretion of sodium, fraction excretion of chloride, and urinary kallikrein were noted by 45%, 59%, 63%, and 51%, respectively, in the indomethacin group as compared to the control group. There was a concomitant decrease in serum sodium concentration (P less than .05) at 24 hours following indomethacin therapy. No significant difference in glomerular filtration rate was seen between the control group and the indomethacin-treated infants. (...) Indomethacin and its effect on renal function and urinary kallikrein excretion in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus. In the course of a double-blind trial of intravenous indomethacin therapy in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus, renal function and urinary kallikrein were studied in 21 infants following one dose of either saline placebo or indomethacin. Ten infants were assigned to the control group and 11 were in the indomethacin group. Significantly lower urine

1981 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1765. Methylxanthines increase renal calcium excretion in preterm infants. (Abstract)

dose 5 mg/kg i.v., maintenance dose 2.5 mg/kg/12 h) or caffeine (loading dose 10 mg/kg i.v., maintenance dose 2.5 mg/kg/12 h) administration. Pre- and postxanthine treatment serum sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus remained stable, while serum creatinine decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, from period I to period II, sodium urine excretion, fractional Na excretion and creatinine clearance remained statistically comparable in both study groups, along with a significant increase (...) Methylxanthines increase renal calcium excretion in preterm infants. To determine the effect of a short course of methylxanthines on renal function and on urinary calcium excretion, 20 premature neonates affected by apnea or moderate respiratory distress syndrome were randomly assigned to either a theophylline treatment or to a caffeine treatment group. The protocol included a 24-hour pretreatment study period (I) and a subsequent 24-hour period (II) following 5 days of theophylline (loading

1995 Biology of the neonate Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1766. Effect of moxonidine on urinary electrolyte excretion and renal haemodynamics in man. (Abstract)

mmol per day). On the 7th and 10th study day they were randomly allocated to receive either i.v. placebo or i.v. 0.2 mg moxonidine. Urinary electrolyte excretion, lithium clearance (as an index of proximal tubular sodium handling), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), renal vascular resistance (RVR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels were assessed. Injection of moxonidine did not increase fractional (...) documented in the renal proximal tubule. In experimental studies, interaction of imidazolines with these receptors decreased the activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter and induced natriuresis. To quantitate the effect of the imidazoline receptor agonist moxonidine on renal sodium handling and renal haemodynamics in man, we examined ten healthy normotensive males (age 25 +/- 4 years) in a double blind placebo-controlled study using a crossover design. Subjects were studied on a standardized salt intake (50

1995 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1767. Effects of low-dose nifedipine on urinary protein excretion rate in patients with renal disease. (Abstract)

samples collected in the ambulatory patient in consecutive fractions of 4-8 h during normal daily activities.After the first dose nifedipine lowered mean arterial blood pressure in the supine position by 7+/-1 mmHg (<0.01), attenuated proximal tubular sodium reabsorption (fractional excretion of sodium 3.48+/-0.49 vs 2.62+/-0.35% during control, P<0.02), but did not affect proximal tubular protein reabsorption (fractional urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin 0.97+/-0.30 vs 0.98+/-0.32% during (...) Effects of low-dose nifedipine on urinary protein excretion rate in patients with renal disease. The observation that proteinuria is an important determinant of the progression of renal disease has prompted numerous studies on the effects of antihypertensive agents on protein excretion. Reports on the proteinuric effects of calcium-channel blockers are quite controversial. It has been suggested that the short-acting dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker nifedipine increases protein excretion

1998 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1768. Renal function in sick very low birthweight infants: 4. Glucose excretion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal function in sick very low birthweight infants: 4. Glucose excretion. Renal glucose excretion was measured on 239 occasions in a sample of 36 infants of 25.5-33 weeks' gestation, birth weight 720-2000 g, between the ages of 0.5 and 32 days. Glucose was invariably present in urine from the first day. Fractional glucose excretion varied widely from 0.1% to 90% of filtered glucose and glucose excretion rate was up to 15.5 mmol/kg/day and was higher in the most immature infants, especially (...) below 28 weeks' gestation. The highest values were in association with hyperglycaemia between 5 and 15 days but there was no consistent plasma glucose threshold with frequent glucose spillage at normal blood glucose concentrations. There was some correlation with sodium excretion in the first week suggesting that in the absence of hyperglycaemia with a normal filtered glucose load, glucose excretion is caused by proximal tubular immaturity.

1992 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1769. Attenuation by phenylbutazone of the renal effects and excretion of frusemide in horses. (Abstract)

by 40 and 32%, respectively, when compared to frusemide administrationwithout phenylbutazone. The fractional clearance of sodium and chloride was also significantly reduced. Potassium excretion, potassium fractional clearance and the ratio of sodium to chloride excretion were not affected by administration of phenylbutazone. During peak diuresis, phenylbutazone did not affect the efficiency of frusemide with respect to electrolyte excretion. The plasma disposition of frusemide was not affected (...) premedication (8.8 mg/kg bwt per os 24 h before, followed by 4.4 mg/kg bwt i.v. 30 min before frusemide administration). A control (saline) treatment was also studied. Administration of frusemide without phenylbutazone led to diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis and chloruresis, and altered the ratio of sodium:chloride excretion from 0.4 to 1.0 in the first hour of diuresis. When frusemide and phenylbutazone were administered, sodium and chloride excretion in the first hour were significantly (P<0.05) reduced

1999 Equine veterinary journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1770. A comparison of the effects of etodolac and ibuprofen on renal haemodynamics, tubular function, renin, vasopressin and urinary excretion of albumin and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase in healthy subjects: a placebo-controlled cross-over study. (Abstract)

the three treatments, placebo, ibuprofen and etodolac, in the effects on GFR, RPF, FF, free water clearance, urinary output or fractional excretion of potassium and sodium. However, ibuprofen, in contrast to etodolac, caused a significant decrease in both lithium clearance (-16% versus placebo) and the fractional excretion of lithium (-17% versus placebo), suggesting an increase in the reabsorption in the proximal tubuli. PRC was reduced significantly by ibuprofen (-32% versus placebo) but not etodolac (...) , three-way crossover study with placebo, we compared the effects of 2 weeks of treatment with ibuprofen and etodolac on renal haemodynamics [glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and filtration fraction (FF)], tubular function and plasma concentrations of the hormones renin (PRC) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in 18 healthy subjects. In addition, we examined the effects on the urinary excretion of albumin and alpha-GST as markers of renal injury.No differences were found between

2000 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1771. [Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on renal function and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 in elderly postoperative patients]. (Abstract)

[Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on renal function and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 in elderly postoperative patients]. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on renal function and urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (UPGE) were studied in 21 elderly patients who underwent abdominal surgery. Fractional sodium excretion (FeNa), creatinine clearance (Ccr), urinary volume (UV, ml.kg-1.min-1) and UPGE were measured on the first and second postoperative day. These patients were divided

2001 Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1772. Lithium clearance during variations in sodium intake in man: effects of sodium restriction and amiloride. (Abstract)

Lithium clearance during variations in sodium intake in man: effects of sodium restriction and amiloride. Assuming that lithium is exclusively reabsorbed in the proximal tubules in proportion to sodium and water, the lithium clearance (CLi) has been advanced as an index of filtrate delivery from the proximal tubules. However, studies in the rat and dog showed that CLi drops sharply at fractional sodium excretion rates (FENa) below 0.4% due to lithium reabsorption in the amiloride-sensitive (...) segment of the distal nephron, which disqualified CLi as an index of distal filtrate delivery during sodium restriction in these animals. In order to investigate whether this phenomenon also occurs in man, we studied CLi in 103 normal subjects at varying sodium intakes, including marked sodium restriction. In contrast to findings in the rat and dog, no sharp drop but a gradual fall in CLi was observed at decreasing FENa values down to 0.02%. Maximum urine flow, another index of filtrate delivery from

1988 European journal of clinical investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1773. Regulation of Bile Salt Transport in Rat Liver: EVIDENCE THAT INCREASED MAXIMUM BILE SALT SECRETORY CAPACITY IS DUE TO INCREASED CHOLIC ACID RECEPTORS Full Text available with Trip Pro

fractions compared with control values. In contrast, sodium cholate administration selectively increased specific [(14)C]cholic acid binding sites twofold in liver surface membrane fractions. Increased numbers of [(14)C]cholic acid receptors (a) was associated with the time-dependent increase in bile salt transport, and (b) was selective for the taurine conjugate of cholate and (c) was reduced by chenodeoxycholate. Changes in bile acid binding sites 16 h following taurocholate and chenodeoxycholate (...) Regulation of Bile Salt Transport in Rat Liver: EVIDENCE THAT INCREASED MAXIMUM BILE SALT SECRETORY CAPACITY IS DUE TO INCREASED CHOLIC ACID RECEPTORS Expansion of the bile salt pool size in rats increases maximum excretory capacity for taurocholate. We examined whether increased bile salt transport is due to recruitment of centrolobular transport units or rather to adaptive changes in the hepatocyte. Daily sodium cholate (100 mg/100 g body wt) was administered orally to rats. This treatment

1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1774. Acute hypotensive, natriuretic, and hormonal effects of nifedipine in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant black normotensive and hypertensive subjects. (Abstract)

and HT-SS, nifedipine induced greater (p<0.05) BP decrease with HS (-10+/-2 and -18+/-2 mm Hg) than with LS (-4+/-1 and -9+/-1 mm Hg, respectively), whereas in NT-SR and HT-SR, the hypotensive effect did not differ between HS and LS. Nifedipine versus placebo significantly increased natriuresis and fractional excretion of sodium in all groups only with HS (p<0.05) but not with LS diets. Only in HT-SS were the hypotensive and natriuretic effects of nifedipine significantly correlated (r = -0.77; p (...) Acute hypotensive, natriuretic, and hormonal effects of nifedipine in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant black normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In a randomized double-blind study, we compared the short-term effects of nifedipine (10 mg 3x daily for 1 day) versus placebo on 24-h blood pressure, diuresis, natriuresis, urinary excretion of dopamine and metabolites, and on plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone levels in 18 black hypertensive (HT) patients [eight salt-resistant

1999 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1775. Acute Angiotensin II Infusions Elicit Pressure Natriuresis in Mice and Reduce Distal Fractional Sodium Reabsorption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Angiotensin II Infusions Elicit Pressure Natriuresis in Mice and Reduce Distal Fractional Sodium Reabsorption. Acute angiotensin II (Ang II) infusions into mice increase arterial pressure (AP) and elicit pressure natriuresis. We used this model of pressure natriuresis to delineate the distal nephron responses to AP-mediated increases in distal sodium delivery. In the first group, we measured changes in urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in male C57/BL6 anesthetized mice (n=9) before (...) and during acute Ang II infusions (5 ng/g of body weight per minute). Acute Ang II infusions increased AP (98+/-3 to 126+/-5 mm Hg; P<0.001), urine flow (2.7+/-0.5 to 6.0+/-0.8 microL/min; P<0.01), and U(Na)V (0.6+/-0.2 to 1.3+/-0.2 microEq/min; P<0.05). There were significant relationships between U(Na)V and urine flow (y=0.207x+0.030; P<0.0001) and between U(Na)V and AP (y=0.027x-2.100). In a separate series, distal sodium delivery and fractional reabsorption of distal sodium delivery were determined

2008 Hypertension

1776. Effects of Inhibition of NO-Synthesis on Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension and Healthy Controls

in patients with essential hypertension. The results are compared with a group of healthy subjects. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hypertension Drug: Ng-monomethyl-L-arginine (drug) Phase 1 Detailed Description: The study investigates the effects of Ng-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on: renal hemodynamics (renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate) renal sodium excretion lithium clearance and fractional lithium excretion plasma levels of vasoactive hormones blood pressure (...) Effects of Inhibition of NO-Synthesis on Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension and Healthy Controls Effects of Inhibition of NO-Synthesis on Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension and Healthy Controls - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save

2006 Clinical Trials

1777. Effects of somatostatin, terlipressin and somatostatin plus terlipressin on portal and systemic hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion in patients with cirrhosis. (Abstract)

). Fractional sodium excretion significantly increased in patients without ascites (0.43 vs 0.16%) while it did not change in patients with ascites. Somatostatin did not alter portal hemodynamics whereas it significantly reduced MAP, heart rate (HR) and CO (86.9 vs 98.6 mmHg, 65 vs 73 bpm and 8.4 vs 9.1 L/min, respectively) and, in patients with ascites, sodium excretion (0.13 vs 0.23%). The addition of terlipressin to somatostatin induced similar changes to those observed after terlipressin alone (...) Effects of somatostatin, terlipressin and somatostatin plus terlipressin on portal and systemic hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion in patients with cirrhosis. Terlipressin and somatostatin are the most preferable agents for the control of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. The present study evaluated the hemodynamic effects of somatostatin, terlipressin and somatostatin plus terlipressin in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension, as well as the effect of each regimen on renal

2005 Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1778. Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on sodium handling and excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, bradykinin, and cGMP in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

, whereas fractional excretion of sodium was decreased in DM1 (1.84 +/- 0.75 vs. 2.36 +/- 0.67%; P < 0.05) due to an increase in fractional distal tubular reabsorption of sodium (94.01 +/- 1.94 vs. 92.24 +/- 2.47%; P < 0.05). A comparison of changes during Study 1 and Study 2 revealed acute hyperglycaemia did not change renal haemodynamics significantly, while fractional distal tubular reabsorption of sodium increased (DM1: P < 0.05; C: P < 0.01) and fractional excretion of sodium decreased (P < 0.01 (...) Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on sodium handling and excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, bradykinin, and cGMP in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acutely induced hyperglycaemia on renal sodium handling and to explore the role of the bradykinin-nitric oxide-cGMP signalling pathway.We compared 20 Type 1 diabetic (DM1) patients without microalbuminuria with 15 weight-, age-, and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Clearances of para-aminohippuric acid

2004 Diabetic Medicine

1779. Fluoride intake and fractional urinary fluoride excretion of Colombian preschool children. (Abstract)

Fluoride intake and fractional urinary fluoride excretion of Colombian preschool children. The purpose of this study was to assess the total fluoride intake and the fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) relative to the customary daily fluoride (F) ingestion in preschool children between 48-59 months of age.Total fluoride ingestion, from dietary and toothpaste samples was determined in 120 young children, dwellers of four Colombian cities. A "duplicate plate" technique was used (...) . In Colombia, table salt is fluoridated to a concentration of between 180-220 mg F/kg. Individual (n=96) FUFE values were calculated as the ratio between the total amount of F excreted in the urine and the total amount of F ingested, over a 24-hour period.The average daily F-intake was 0.098 mg F/kg/day; 95% C.I. = 0.085-0.111 mg F/kg/day. The proportion of fluoride ingestion from toothpaste to the total fluoride intake was higher than 66% in all cities. The average FUFE values of subjects from each

2005 Community dental health

1780. Value of fractional uric acid excretion in differential diagnosis of hyponatremic patients on diuretics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Value of fractional uric acid excretion in differential diagnosis of hyponatremic patients on diuretics. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is the most frequent cause of hyponatremia. Its diagnosis requires decreased serum osmolality, inappropriately diluted urine (e.g. >100 mOsm/kg), clinical euvolemia, and a urinary sodium (Na) excretion (U-Na) more than 30 mmol/liter. However, in hyponatremic patients taking diuretics, this definition is unreliable due to the natriuretic (...) effect of diuretics. Here, we examined the diagnostic potential of alternative laboratory measurements to diagnose SIAD, regardless of the use of diuretics.A total of 86 consecutive hyponatremic patients (serum Na <130 mmol/liter) was classified based on their history, clinical evaluation, osmolality, and saline response to isotonic saline into a SIAD and a non-SIAD group. U-Na, serum urate concentration, and fractional excretion (FE) of Na, urea, and uric acid (UA) were measured in all subjects

2008 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

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