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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1741. Dopamine natriuresis in salt-repleted, water-loaded humans: a dose-response study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), 107 (24-190), 121 (60-181), 253 (65-441), 284 (74-494), and 212 (111-312) %, respectively. There were only small, inconsistent decreases in absolute proximal reabsorption rate (APR = GFR-CL(Li)). Fractional distal reabsorption of sodium (FDR(Na) = (CL(Li)-CL(Na))/CL(Li)) decreased with all doses, reaching its nadir with 7.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) [from 95.9 (94.6-97.2) % with placebo to 91.5 (90.0-93.0) % (P<0.01)] whereafter a flat dose-response curve was observed.In conclusion, the renal (...) an increase in proximal tubular outflow. Pressor doses further increased sodium excretion, indicating the presence of pressure natriuresis at these high doses.

1997 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1742. Effects of the calcium antagonist felodipine on renal haemodynamics, tubular sodium handling, and blood pressure in cyclosporin-treated dermatological patients. (Abstract)

(RPF) were significantly higher compared to placebo (89.4 +/- 17.5 (mean +/- SD) vs 79.0 +/- 15.9 ml/min and 412.0 +/- 107.6 vs 326.1 +/- 78.0 ml/min respectively, P < 0.001 for both), and filtration fraction (FF) was lower (0.22 +/- 0.03 vs 0.25 +/- 0.03, P < 0.001). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were lower after felodipine compared to placebo (116 +/- 11/71 +/- 7 vs 133 +/- 18/83 +/- 10 mmHg, P < 0.001 for both). Furthermore, proximal output of sodium, i.e. fractional excretion (...) of lithium, was higher after felodipine (26.9 +/- 7.3% vs 20.4 +/- 5.5%, P < 0.001) as well as total sodium excretion (0.33 +/- 0.19 vs 0.19 +/- 0.08 mmol/min, P < 0.001).It is concluded, that felodipine 5 mg once daily for 4 weeks increased GFR, RPF, and sodium excretion in cyclosporin-treated dermatological patients with no primary renal disease. Furthermore, felodipine lowers blood pressure in these patients. The effects of felodipine may be due to an antagonizing effect against CsA-induced

1997 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1743. Sodium restriction versus daily maintenance replacement in very low birth weight premature neonates: a randomized, blind therapeutic trial. (Abstract)

sodium or salt restriction with physician-prescribed parenteral fluid intake. Maintenance-group infants received 3 to 4 mEq of sodium per kilogram per day; restricted infants received no sodium supplement other than with such treatments as transfusion. Sodium balance studies conducted for 5 days demonstrated that maintenance salt intake resulted in a daily sodium balance near zero, whereas sodium-restricted infants continued to excrete urinary sodium at a high rate, which promoted a more negative (...) sodium-restricted infants (less than 130 mEq/L); however, the restricted infants were more likely to have normal serum osmolality (p less than 0.05). Both groups of infants produced urine that was neither concentrated nor dilute, with a high fractional excretion of sodium; renal failure was not observed. The mortality rate was not affected, but the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was significantly less in the sodium-restricted babies (p less than 0.02). We conclude that in tiny premature

1992 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1744. Effects of a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor on renal sodium handling and diluting capacity in humans. (Abstract)

-state inhibition of NO synthesis. Data were compared with a time control study.The effects of L-NMMA were quickly established and persisted through the entire infusion period. Mean arterial pressure increased slightly from 85+/-3 to 91+/-3 mmHg (P<0.05). Renal plasma flow decreased substantially, and glomerular filtration rate slightly. Large decreases in absolute sodium excretion, from 79+/-10 to 34+/-5 micromol/min (P<0.01), and fractional sodium excretion, from 0.5+/-0.0 to 0.3+/-0.0% (P<0.01 (...) ), were associated with significant reductions in fractional lithium excretion (P<0.05) and maximum urine flow (P<0.01). Minimal urine sodium concentration decreased from 5.8+/-0.04 to 3.9+/-0.4 mmol/l (P<0.01) whereas minimal urine osmolality increased (P<0.05). Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide levels did not change, whereas urinary excretions of guanosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate and of nitrite plus nitrate decreased slightly.Inhibition of endogenous NO synthesis

1998 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1745. Salt intake determines the renal response to L-arginine infusion in normal human subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

). Renal sodium excretion was decreased by L-arginine infusion during the low salt intake (45 +/- 5 to 21 +/- 3 mumol.min-1; P < 0.05) but was increased by L-arginine during the high salt intake (298 +/- 56 to 537 +/- 84 mumol.min-1; P < 0.05). The calculated fractional reabsorption of sodium in the proximal and distal nephrons, as assessed from lithium and sodium clearances, was increased by L-arginine during the low salt intake but was decreased by L-arginine during the high salt intake. L-arginine (...) increased plasma insulin concentration significantly (P < 0.05). This effect was independent of salt intake (LS, 67 +/- 7 to 92 +/- 13 ng.ml-1; HS, 66 +/- 7 to 76 +/- 9 ng.ml-1). L-arginine did not significantly after plasma renin activity. In conclusion, L-arginine increases the excretion of NOx and cGMP and increases plasma insulin, but the effect on sodium excretion depends upon salt intake. L-arginine enhances Na reabsorption in the proximal and distal nephrons during the low salt intake

1998 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1746. Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on renal sodium and water handling and albuminuria during infusion of atrial natriuretic factor into healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

enalapril daily.Mean arterial pressures during the clearance study were 84.6 +/- 1.7 mmHg after placebo, 84.0 +/- 2.2 mmHg after losartan treatment and 80.0 +/- 2.5 mmHg after enalapril treatment (P < 0.05). Plasma renin activity was significantly increased both by losartan and by enalapril treatments. Neither enalapril nor losartan treatment attenuated atrial natriuretic factor-induced changes in renal haemodynamics. After placebo pretreatment, fractional urinary excretion of sodium increased (...) Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on renal sodium and water handling and albuminuria during infusion of atrial natriuretic factor into healthy volunteers. Atrial natriuretic factor increases urinary sodium and water excretion. It also causes an increase in albuminuria. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition attenuates the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on renal sodium and water handling; however, it is not known whether

1998 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1747. Administration of atrial natriuretic factor inhibits sodium-coupled transport in proximal tubules. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Administration of atrial natriuretic factor inhibits sodium-coupled transport in proximal tubules. The newly discovered peptides extracted from cardiac atria, atrial natriuretic factors (ANFs), when administered parenterally cause renal hemodynamic changes and natriuresis. The nephron sites and cellular mechanism accounting for profound increase in Na+ excretion in response to ANFs are not yet clarified. In the present study we investigated whether synthetic ANF peptide alters the reabsorption (...) of Na+ and reabsorption of solutes cotransported with Na+ in the proximal tubules of rats. Synthetic ANF peptide consisting of 26 amino acids, 4 micrograms/kg body wt/h, or vehicle in controls, was infused to surgically thyroparathyroidectomized anesthetized rats. After determination of the fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Pi, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3), the kidneys were removed and luminal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared from renal cortex. Solute transport

1985 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1748. Atrial natriuretic peptide-cyclic GMP relationships in normal humans: effects of dietary sodium intake. (Abstract)

normotensive subjects on their normal sodium intake and (ii) 12 subjects on the 5th day of a low and on the 5th day of a high sodium intake. 3. Plasma cyclic GMP, urinary cyclic GMP and fractional excretion of cyclic GMP in 30 normotensive subjects on their normal sodium intake were (means +/- SEM) 5.4 +/- 0.5 pmol/ml, 434.5 +/- 31.8 pmol/min and 86.9 +/- 8.6%, respectively. There were significant correlations between urinary cyclic GMP and its corresponding filtered load (r = 0.55) and between the renal (...) clearance of cyclic GMP and that of creatinine (r = 0.44), but there were no significant associations between circulating atrial natriuretic peptide and plasma cyclic GMP or the fractional excretion of cyclic GMP or between urinary sodium and the fractional excretion of cyclic GMP. 5. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was significantly raised on the 5th day of the high sodium intake compared with the low sodium intake (10.6 +/- 1.6 versus 4.2 +/- 0.9 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Similarly, there were increases

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1749. Effect of noradrenaline on renal sodium and water handling in euhydrated and overhydrated man. (Abstract)

fall in urinary sodium excretion and an increase in urinary flow rate. During overhydration similar doses of noradrenaline caused a fall in urinary sodium excretion but a decrease in urinary flow rate. 3. Although there was no detectable change in glomerular filtration rate, a dose-dependent fall in effective renal plasma flow was observed in both hydration states during noradrenaline infusion. 4. Noradrenaline infusion was associated with a dose-dependent increase in proximal tubular sodium (...) reabsorption as assessed by the lithium clearance method. Fractional reabsorption of sodium by the distal nephron was, however, unchanged by noradrenaline in both hydration states. 5. Plasma vasopressin concentration was unchanged by noradrenaline in euhydrated subjects. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis was stimulated by noradrenaline in both euhydrated and overhydrated subjects. 6. Thus we conclude that plasma circulating noradrenaline has a dose-dependent antinatriuretic effect in man

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1750. Salt-dependent renal effects of an angiotensin II antagonist in healthy subjects. (Abstract)

washout period. On day 6, the subjects were water loaded, and blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, and urinary electrolyte excretion were measured for 6 hours after a single 100-mg oral dose of losartan (n = 16) or placebo (n = 7). Losartan induced no significant changes in blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, or renal blood flow in these water-loaded subjects, whatever the sodium diet. In subjects on a low-salt diet, losartan markedly increased urinary sodium excretion from 115 +/- 9 to 207 (...) +/- 21 mumol/min (P < .05). The fractional excretion of endogenous lithium was unchanged, suggesting no effect of losartan on the early proximal tubule in our experimental conditions. Losartan also increased urine flow rate (from 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 13.1 +/- 0.6 mL/min, P < .05); urinary potassium excretion (from 117 +/- 6.9 to 155 +/- 11 mumol/min); and the excretion of chloride, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate. In subjects on a high-salt diet, similar effects of losartan were observed

1993 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1751. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage. (Abstract)

mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed in serum and urine after zeolite withdraw, is at present unknown, but it is suggested, that the readily mobilized Ca-pool in bone was a contributing factor. An effect of zeolite on phosphate and magnesium homeostasis in the experimental group was evidenced from the values of serum concentration and fractional excretion, which during supplementation were significant lower than in the control (...) Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage. The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period

2003 Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. Supplementum Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1752. Blood pressure and renal haemodynamic response to salt during the normal menstrual cycle. (Abstract)

-sodium (40 mmol/day) or a high-sodium (250 mmol/day) diet for a 7-day period in two consecutive menstrual cycles. At the end of each dietary period, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, plasma renin activity, plasma catecholamine levels and renal haemodynamics were measured. Our results show that the blood pressure response to salt is comparable during the luteal and the follicular phases of the normal menstrual cycle and is characterized by a salt-resistant pattern (...) . In the kidney, effective renal plasma flow was significantly greater and the filtration fraction lower (P<0.05) after salt loading in women studied in the luteal phase compared with women investigated in the follicular phase. This study thus demonstrates that the female hormone status does not affect the blood pressure response to sodium in young normotensive women. However, in contrast with systemic haemodynamics, the renal response to salt varies during the normal menstrual cycle, suggesting that female

2000 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1753. Effects of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide on renal tubular sodium handling in sickle cell disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide on renal tubular sodium handling in sickle cell disease. We assessed the effect of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal sodium handling in eight patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), who are characterized by loss of vasa recta and long loops of Henle, and matched control subjects. During insulin infusion (50 mU. kg(-1). h(-1)), fractional sodium excretion decreased by 0.44 +/- 0.72% (P = 0.13) in patients with SCD and by 0 (...) . 57 +/- 0.34% (P = 0.002) in control subjects, whereas fractional distal sodium reabsorption increased by 4.1 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.001) and 3.0 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. Low-dose (0.3 pmol. kg(-1). h(-1)) ANP infusion did not affect renal sodium handling in patients with SCD but increased fractional sodium excretion by 0.34 +/- 0.22% (P = 0.003) in control subjects. High-dose (2 microg/min) ANP increased natriuresis to a similar extent in both groups. Insulin's antinatriuretic effects

2000 American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1754. Renal segmental tubular response to salt during the normal menstrual cycle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in both phases of the menstrual cycle. In the follicular phase, the increase in salt intake was associated with no change in renal hemodynamics, an increased fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) and a decreased fractional distal reabsorption of sodium (FDRNa), suggesting that sodium reabsorption is reduced both in the proximal and the distal tubules. In contrast, in the luteal phase, the renal response to salt was characterized by a significant renal vasodilation and a marked salt escape from (...) to changes in salt intake.Thirty-five normotensive women were enrolled. Seventeen women were randomized and studied in the follicular and 18 in the luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. All women were assigned at random to receive a low (40 mmol/day) or a high (250 mmol/day) sodium diet for seven days on two consecutive menstrual cycles. Renal sodium handling and hemodynamics were measured at the end of each diet period.The changes in sodium intake induced comparable variations in sodium excretion

2002 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1755. Role of insulin resistance in the genesis of sodium sensitivity in essential hypertension. (Abstract)

sensitivity index, while was negatively correlated with fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) obtained during a high sodium diet. In addition, the insulin resistance index had a positive relationship with overall creatinine clearance. Sodium sensitivity index was also negatively correlated with FE(Na) obtained during a high sodium diet. These results showed that insulin resistance might participate in the genesis of sodium sensitivity in essential hypertension by enhancing tubular sodium reabsorption (...) Role of insulin resistance in the genesis of sodium sensitivity in essential hypertension. We recently showed that cardiovascular morbidity was higher in sodium sensitive type of essential hypertension than in the non-sodium sensitive type. It was examined whether sodium sensitivity was associated with insulin resistance, an important atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factor in essential hypertension. Fifty-three patients with essential hypertension, who had normal (n = 12) and impaired (n

1999 Journal of human hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1756. Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. (Abstract)

handling was determined by lithium and sodium clearance measurements. Therapeutic serum levels of octreotide along with a reduction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (P <.01) and an increase of IGF binding protein 1 (P <.05) were demonstrated. No effect of octreotide was observed on GFR, ERPF, or filtration fraction (GFR/ERPF). Changes in clearance and extraction fraction of sodium and lithium during octreotide treatment were not significantly different from those of placebo. In addition (...) Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Octreotide seems to have a beneficial effect on variceal bleeding, and long-term administration for the prevention of rebleeding is currently being evaluated. Experimental studies have suggested a beneficial effect of chronic octreotide treatment on renal function, while clinical studies have shown variable

2001 Hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1757. Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. (Abstract)

). Hypothyroidism was induced by aminotriazole administration. Body weight, water intake, urine output, solute and urea excretion, serum and urine osmolality, serum creatinine, 24-h creatinine clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium were comparable among the three groups. However, with 36 h of water deprivation, HT rats demonstrated significantly greater urine flow rates and decreased urine and medullary osmolality as compared with CTL and HT+T rats at comparable plasma vasopressin concentrations. Western (...) Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired urinary concentrating ability in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to examine protein expression of renal sodium chloride and urea transporters and aquaporins in hypothyroid rats (HT) with diminished urinary concentration as compared with euthyroid controls (CTL) and hypothyroid rats replaced with L-thyroxine (HT+T

2003 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1758. L-arginine reverses p47phox and gp91phox expression induced by high salt in Dahl rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

superoxide, in the membrane fraction of the renal cortex derived from DS rats loaded with high salt for 4 weeks; high salt loading also remarkably increased urinary H2O2, 8-isoprostane, and thromboxane B2 excretion and decreased plasma NO end products. These changes from high salt loading were counteracted by oral l-arginine supplementation. We further examined expression patterns of NADPH oxidase subunits in renal cortex derived from these animals. High salt loading increased gp91phox and p47phox (...) but not p22phox or Rac1 or mRNA abundance, which were counteracted with L-arginine supplementation. Western blot analyses after subcellular fractionation revealed that l-arginine supplementation distinctly decreases membrane localization of p47phox protein, as it decreases total expression of Rac1 protein in DS rats with high salt loading. These results disclose that high salt loading causes a deficiency in available L-arginine amounts for NO synthases and induces NADPH oxidase activation in the renal cortex

2003 Hypertension

1759. Gender differences in ET and NOS systems in ETB receptor-deficient rats: effect of a high salt diet. Full Text available with Trip Pro

higher systolic blood pressures compared with male sl/+ and female sl/+ and sl/sl rats. On a high salt diet (10% NaCl; HS), blood pressure in male sl/+ rats was significantly higher than female sl/+ rats. However, ETB receptor deficiency caused much larger increases in blood pressure in male and female rats. On NS, urinary ET excretion was not different between male and female of either genotype. HS significantly increased ET excretion in male and female sl/+ rats, but the increase was significantly (...) Gender differences in ET and NOS systems in ETB receptor-deficient rats: effect of a high salt diet. The purpose of this study was to determine if rats lacking the ETB receptor have altered renal endothelin (ET) production and NO synthase (NOS) activity in response to high salt and if female rats are better able to control blood pressure through higher NOS activity in rats heterozygous (sl/+) and homozygous (sl/sl) for ETB receptor deficiency. On normal salt (0.4% NaCl; NS), male sl/sl rats had

2003 Hypertension

1760. Enhanced sodium retention after acute nitric oxide blockade in mildly sodium loaded patients with essential hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

parameters were renal hemodynamics (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] and renal plasma flow [RPF]), systemic blood pressure (BP), and fractional excretions of sodium (FE(Na)) and lithium (FE(Li)). Experiments were performed on two occasions for each subject studying the effects of either L-NMMA (3 mg/kg intravenously) or placebo. The patients with ESS were studied after at least 14 days off antihypertensive medication. Renal hemodynamics were assessed by the clearances of (125)I-hippuran (RPF) and (51)Cr (...) ) decreased equally in both groups (ESS: -17% +/- 2% v CON: -17% +/- 6%, P = NS). It is concluded that acute NO blockade in ESS is accompanied by a reduced systemic pressor response, an unchanged renal hemodynamic response, and an enhanced reduction in FE(Na). The results suggest that patients with essential hypertension are highly dependent on NO to maintain sodium excretion.

2007 American journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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