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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1741. Salt intake determines the renal response to L-arginine infusion in normal human subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

). Renal sodium excretion was decreased by L-arginine infusion during the low salt intake (45 +/- 5 to 21 +/- 3 mumol.min-1; P < 0.05) but was increased by L-arginine during the high salt intake (298 +/- 56 to 537 +/- 84 mumol.min-1; P < 0.05). The calculated fractional reabsorption of sodium in the proximal and distal nephrons, as assessed from lithium and sodium clearances, was increased by L-arginine during the low salt intake but was decreased by L-arginine during the high salt intake. L-arginine (...) increased plasma insulin concentration significantly (P < 0.05). This effect was independent of salt intake (LS, 67 +/- 7 to 92 +/- 13 ng.ml-1; HS, 66 +/- 7 to 76 +/- 9 ng.ml-1). L-arginine did not significantly after plasma renin activity. In conclusion, L-arginine increases the excretion of NOx and cGMP and increases plasma insulin, but the effect on sodium excretion depends upon salt intake. L-arginine enhances Na reabsorption in the proximal and distal nephrons during the low salt intake

1998 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1742. Effects of a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor on renal sodium handling and diluting capacity in humans. (Abstract)

-state inhibition of NO synthesis. Data were compared with a time control study.The effects of L-NMMA were quickly established and persisted through the entire infusion period. Mean arterial pressure increased slightly from 85+/-3 to 91+/-3 mmHg (P<0.05). Renal plasma flow decreased substantially, and glomerular filtration rate slightly. Large decreases in absolute sodium excretion, from 79+/-10 to 34+/-5 micromol/min (P<0.01), and fractional sodium excretion, from 0.5+/-0.0 to 0.3+/-0.0% (P<0.01 (...) ), were associated with significant reductions in fractional lithium excretion (P<0.05) and maximum urine flow (P<0.01). Minimal urine sodium concentration decreased from 5.8+/-0.04 to 3.9+/-0.4 mmol/l (P<0.01) whereas minimal urine osmolality increased (P<0.05). Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide levels did not change, whereas urinary excretions of guanosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate and of nitrite plus nitrate decreased slightly.Inhibition of endogenous NO synthesis

1998 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1743. Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on renal sodium and water handling and albuminuria during infusion of atrial natriuretic factor into healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

enalapril daily.Mean arterial pressures during the clearance study were 84.6 +/- 1.7 mmHg after placebo, 84.0 +/- 2.2 mmHg after losartan treatment and 80.0 +/- 2.5 mmHg after enalapril treatment (P < 0.05). Plasma renin activity was significantly increased both by losartan and by enalapril treatments. Neither enalapril nor losartan treatment attenuated atrial natriuretic factor-induced changes in renal haemodynamics. After placebo pretreatment, fractional urinary excretion of sodium increased (...) Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on renal sodium and water handling and albuminuria during infusion of atrial natriuretic factor into healthy volunteers. Atrial natriuretic factor increases urinary sodium and water excretion. It also causes an increase in albuminuria. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition attenuates the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on renal sodium and water handling; however, it is not known whether

1998 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1744. Blood pressure and renal haemodynamic response to salt during the normal menstrual cycle. (Abstract)

-sodium (40 mmol/day) or a high-sodium (250 mmol/day) diet for a 7-day period in two consecutive menstrual cycles. At the end of each dietary period, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, plasma renin activity, plasma catecholamine levels and renal haemodynamics were measured. Our results show that the blood pressure response to salt is comparable during the luteal and the follicular phases of the normal menstrual cycle and is characterized by a salt-resistant pattern (...) . In the kidney, effective renal plasma flow was significantly greater and the filtration fraction lower (P<0.05) after salt loading in women studied in the luteal phase compared with women investigated in the follicular phase. This study thus demonstrates that the female hormone status does not affect the blood pressure response to sodium in young normotensive women. However, in contrast with systemic haemodynamics, the renal response to salt varies during the normal menstrual cycle, suggesting that female

2000 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1745. Effects of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide on renal tubular sodium handling in sickle cell disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide on renal tubular sodium handling in sickle cell disease. We assessed the effect of insulin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on renal sodium handling in eight patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), who are characterized by loss of vasa recta and long loops of Henle, and matched control subjects. During insulin infusion (50 mU. kg(-1). h(-1)), fractional sodium excretion decreased by 0.44 +/- 0.72% (P = 0.13) in patients with SCD and by 0 (...) . 57 +/- 0.34% (P = 0.002) in control subjects, whereas fractional distal sodium reabsorption increased by 4.1 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.001) and 3.0 +/- 1.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. Low-dose (0.3 pmol. kg(-1). h(-1)) ANP infusion did not affect renal sodium handling in patients with SCD but increased fractional sodium excretion by 0.34 +/- 0.22% (P = 0.003) in control subjects. High-dose (2 microg/min) ANP increased natriuresis to a similar extent in both groups. Insulin's antinatriuretic effects

2000 American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1746. Sodium balance and extracellular volume regulation in very low birth weight infants. (Abstract)

. Extracellular volume (estimated by the bromide dilution method), sodium excretion, creatinine clearance, fractional sodium excretion, plasma atrial natriuretic factor level, urine aldosterone concentration, and vasopressin excretion were measured on postnatal days 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30. The corrected bromide space was large at birth and decreased in both groups during the first 5 days of observation, concomitant with a negative sodium balance. After 5 days of age, sodium excretion decreased in both groups so (...) that sodium balance became positive and the corrected bromide space increased in proportion to increasing body weight. Differences in sodium intake were associated with differences in tubular sodium reabsorption; corrected bromide space and net sodium balance were similar in the two groups. Serum sodium concentration was significantly lower in the low-sodium intake group. Creatinine clearance, plasma atrial natriuretic factor level, and excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin were not significantly

1989 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1747. How important are suppression of aldosterone and stimulation of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in the natriuretic response to an acute sodium load in man? (Abstract)

healthy young men. On the placebo day, plasma aldosterone decreased by 30 min after the start of saline infusion and remained suppressed. During aldosterone infusion, plasma aldosterone was maintained at around 400 pmol/l. 3. Urinary sodium excretion, lithium clearance and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased and plasma renin activity decreased after saline infusion, whether or not aldosterone was infused. However, from 60 to 240 min after saline infusion, natriuresis was significantly less (...) during aldosterone infusion than on the placebo day. In addition, saline loading led to a progressive increase in the ratio of sodium clearance to lithium clearance, used as an index of the fractional distal tubular rejection of sodium, and in the ratio of urinary sodium to potassium. These increases were prevented by the infusion of aldosterone. 4. This study suggests that there are differences in the mechanisms determining the early and the later responses to an acute sodium load. Suppression

1991 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1748. Metabolic tolerance to arginine: implications for the safe use of arginine salt-aztreonam combination in the neonatal period. (Abstract)

further rise and fall during the 4 hours after infusion; arginine urinary fractional excretion (normalized to creatinine clearance) decreased in the gentamicin group. The indirect bilirubin concentration rose more (p less than 0.001) in the aztreonam-treated infants (5.1 to 11.5 mg/dl (87 to 196 mumol/L] than in the gentamicin-treated infants (5.5 to 8.1 mg/dl (94 to 138 mumol/L)). Thus a modest differential bilirubin response and modestly elevated baseline serum arginine level occurred after the 3 (...) Metabolic tolerance to arginine: implications for the safe use of arginine salt-aztreonam combination in the neonatal period. Two similar cohorts of low birth weight infants whose size was appropriate for gestational age randomly received either aztreonam-arginine plus ampicillin (n = 15) or gentamicin plus ampicillin (n = 15) for empiric treatment of neonatal sepsis. The regimens were infused together with glucose at greater than 5 mg/kg per minute, and immediate (4 hours) and cumulative (3

1991 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1749. Effects of insulin on renal haemodynamics and sodium handling in normal subjects. (Abstract)

compared with basal conditions. GFR and CLi were unchanged during day B. Insulin infusion reduced renal sodium excretion. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption was unchanged on both days. Insulin infusion without volume expansion caused a decrease of 24% in the fractional distal sodium excretion. Superimposed volume expansion and the concomitant increase in GFR and CLi was accompanied by a subsequent enhanced fractional distal sodium excretion of 27%. The changes in plasma concentrations (...) Effects of insulin on renal haemodynamics and sodium handling in normal subjects. Diabetic patients treated with insulin injected subcutaneously are characterized by peripheral hyperinsulinaemia and an increased mass of total body exchangeable sodium. We hypothesized that this may cause, at least in part, the glomerular hyperfiltration seen in the diabetic state. Six normal subjects were studied on 2 days in random order. Day A: Basal state for 40 min, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp for 1

1991 Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1750. Effect of sodium valproate on carbamazepine disposition and psychomotor profile in man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of sodium valproate on carbamazepine disposition and psychomotor profile in man. 1 The effect of sodium valproate (VPA; 500 mg thrice daily for 7 days) and matched placebo on the disposition and psychomotor profile of a single dose of carbamazepine (CBZ; 10 mg kg-1) was studied in eight healthy male subjects using a randomised balanced crossover design. 2 VPA alone had no effect on antipyrine clearance, urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion and a battery of psychomotor function tests (...) (52%) and CBZ-E/CBZ ratios (45%) were both elevated by concurrent VPA (P less than 0.05) and free CBZ fraction was increased by 7% (P less than 0.02). 4 The sole effect of VPA on the psychomotor profile of CBZ was prolongation of card sorting time (P less than 0.05), although CBZ-related side effects were reported as more severe when VPA was also taken (P less than 0.01). 5 These data suggest that VPA displaces CBZ from plasma protein binding sites and inhibits the metabolism of both the parent

1988 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1751. Salt and water homeostasis during oral rehydration therapy. (Abstract)

hyponatremia in a few infants receiving ORS40. In both groups, sodium balance increased most rapidly during the first 12 hours of rehydration, and then more slowly because of increased urinary as well as stool sodium output. Sodium balance was always more positive after ORS90 than after ORS40, but the difference did not change much from 12 to 36 hours after therapy was started. Changes in fractional sodium excretion, urinary K/Na quotient, and urinary aldosterone-creatinine quotient were used as indexes (...) Salt and water homeostasis during oral rehydration therapy. Changes in sodium balance and urinary and stool output during orally administered rehydration therapy were studied in 22 well-nourished Turkish infants, aged 2 to 13 months, with acute diarrhea mainly of viral origin. The infants randomly received a rehydration solution containing either 90 mmol Na/L (ORS90) or 40 mmol Na/L (ORS40). Slight transient hypernatremia was noted in a few infants receiving ORS90, and slight transient

1983 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1752. Renal segmental tubular response to salt during the normal menstrual cycle. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in both phases of the menstrual cycle. In the follicular phase, the increase in salt intake was associated with no change in renal hemodynamics, an increased fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) and a decreased fractional distal reabsorption of sodium (FDRNa), suggesting that sodium reabsorption is reduced both in the proximal and the distal tubules. In contrast, in the luteal phase, the renal response to salt was characterized by a significant renal vasodilation and a marked salt escape from (...) to changes in salt intake.Thirty-five normotensive women were enrolled. Seventeen women were randomized and studied in the follicular and 18 in the luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. All women were assigned at random to receive a low (40 mmol/day) or a high (250 mmol/day) sodium diet for seven days on two consecutive menstrual cycles. Renal sodium handling and hemodynamics were measured at the end of each diet period.The changes in sodium intake induced comparable variations in sodium excretion

2002 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1753. Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

handling was determined by lithium and sodium clearance measurements. Therapeutic serum levels of octreotide along with a reduction of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (P <.01) and an increase of IGF binding protein 1 (P <.05) were demonstrated. No effect of octreotide was observed on GFR, ERPF, or filtration fraction (GFR/ERPF). Changes in clearance and extraction fraction of sodium and lithium during octreotide treatment were not significantly different from those of placebo. In addition (...) Effects of a long-acting formulation of octreotide on renal function and renal sodium handling in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Octreotide seems to have a beneficial effect on variceal bleeding, and long-term administration for the prevention of rebleeding is currently being evaluated. Experimental studies have suggested a beneficial effect of chronic octreotide treatment on renal function, while clinical studies have shown variable

2001 Hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1754. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage. (Abstract)

mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed in serum and urine after zeolite withdraw, is at present unknown, but it is suggested, that the readily mobilized Ca-pool in bone was a contributing factor. An effect of zeolite on phosphate and magnesium homeostasis in the experimental group was evidenced from the values of serum concentration and fractional excretion, which during supplementation were significant lower than in the control (...) Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage. The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period

2003 Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. Supplementum Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1755. Sodium homeostasis in term and preterm neonates. I. Renal aspects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The sodium balance was negative in 100% of infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation, in 70% at 30-32 weeks, in 46% at 33-35 weeks, and in 0% of greater than 36 weeks, and the incidence of hyponatraemia closely paralleled that of negative sodium balance. Despite a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) urinary sodium losses were highest in the most immature babies but fractional sodium excretion (FENa) was exponentially related to gestational age. An independent effect of postnatal age could be identified (...) Sodium homeostasis in term and preterm neonates. I. Renal aspects. Eighty five 24 hour sodium balance studies and creatinine clearance measurements were performed in 70 infants of gestational age 27-40 weeks and postnatal age 3-68 days. The kidney's capacity to regulate sodium excretion was a function of conceptional age (the sum of gestational age and postnatal age) and an independent effect of postnatal age was also observed--extrauterine existence increased the maturation of this function

1983 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1756. Renal sodium handling in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal sodium handling in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Renal sodium handling was studied in 23 children at three different stages of the minimal change nephrotic syndrome--the oedema forming state, proteinuric steady state, and remission. Clearances of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid and urinary sodium excretion were determined basally, after intravenous infusion of isotonic saline and hyperoncotic albumin, and after furosemide injection. Absolute and fractional basal sodium excretion (...) were significantly lower in oedema forming patients than in proteinuric patients in steady state, and non-proteinuric patients. In contrast to proteinuric patients in steady state and non-proteinuric patients, the oedema forming patients failed to respond to isotonic saline infusion with increased sodium excretion. After diuretic blockade with furosemide, the fractional sodium excretion of the oedema forming patients increased to values no different from those of the non-proteinuric patients

1984 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1757. Renal distal tubular handling of sodium in central fluid volume homoeostasis in preascitic cirrhosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

sodium reabsorption and sodium excretion (r -0.66, p<0.03).These data suggest that in preascitic cirrhosis the distal fractional tubular reabsorption of sodium is increased and critical in regulating both central fluid volume and sodium excretion. (...) Renal distal tubular handling of sodium in central fluid volume homoeostasis in preascitic cirrhosis Patients with preascitic liver cirrhosis have an increased central plasma volume, and, for any given plasma aldosterone concentration, they excrete less sodium than healthy controls. A detailed study of the distribution of sodium reabsorption along the segments of the renal tubule, especially the distal one, is still lacking in preascitic cirrhosis.Twelve patients with Child-Pugh class

1999 Gut

1758. Evidence for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent sodium reabsorption in kidney, using Cftrtm2cammice Full Text available with Trip Pro

NaCl i.v. maintenance infusion, there was no difference in fractional Na(+) excretion (FE(Na)) between wild-type (0. 42 +/- 0.06 %, n = 12) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (0.47 +/- 0.13 %, n = 7). Amiloride infusion significantly increased FE(Na) in both wild-type (3.14 +/- 0.83 %, n = 6) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (3. 47 +/- 0.63 %, n = 9), though with no significant difference between genotypes. A 14 day dietary salt restriction (animals maintained on a 0.03 % NaCl diet) and maintenance (...) induced by amiloride was significantly greater in Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice than in wild-type controls. In conclusion, Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice exhibit normal renal salt excretion when either salt replete or salt restricted. Enhanced amiloride-sensitive FE(Na) is consistent with increased Na(+) absorption via the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel ENaC, in cystic fibrosis kidney, but this was only observed during salt restriction.

2000 The Journal of physiology

1759. Administration of atrial natriuretic factor inhibits sodium-coupled transport in proximal tubules. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Administration of atrial natriuretic factor inhibits sodium-coupled transport in proximal tubules. The newly discovered peptides extracted from cardiac atria, atrial natriuretic factors (ANFs), when administered parenterally cause renal hemodynamic changes and natriuresis. The nephron sites and cellular mechanism accounting for profound increase in Na+ excretion in response to ANFs are not yet clarified. In the present study we investigated whether synthetic ANF peptide alters the reabsorption (...) of Na+ and reabsorption of solutes cotransported with Na+ in the proximal tubules of rats. Synthetic ANF peptide consisting of 26 amino acids, 4 micrograms/kg body wt/h, or vehicle in controls, was infused to surgically thyroparathyroidectomized anesthetized rats. After determination of the fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Pi, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3), the kidneys were removed and luminal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared from renal cortex. Solute transport

1985 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1760. Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. (Abstract)

). Hypothyroidism was induced by aminotriazole administration. Body weight, water intake, urine output, solute and urea excretion, serum and urine osmolality, serum creatinine, 24-h creatinine clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium were comparable among the three groups. However, with 36 h of water deprivation, HT rats demonstrated significantly greater urine flow rates and decreased urine and medullary osmolality as compared with CTL and HT+T rats at comparable plasma vasopressin concentrations. Western (...) Urinary concentrating defect in hypothyroid rats: role of sodium, potassium, 2-chloride co-transporter, and aquaporins. Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired urinary concentrating ability in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to examine protein expression of renal sodium chloride and urea transporters and aquaporins in hypothyroid rats (HT) with diminished urinary concentration as compared with euthyroid controls (CTL) and hypothyroid rats replaced with L-thyroxine (HT+T

2003 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

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