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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1721. Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 after furosemide and felodipine in healthy humans. (Abstract)

has not been studied in humans. We sought to test the hypotheses that urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) increases after a single intravenous dose of furosemide, and that U-AQP2 decreases after a single oral dose of felodipine.In two randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies, we measured the effect of furosemide and felodipine on U-AQP2, urine volume, free water clearance (CH2O), and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) in 13 healthy subjects in each study. Plasma (...) Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 after furosemide and felodipine in healthy humans. Furosemide inhibits renal sodium and chloride reabsorption in the loop of Henle. A compensatory increased reabsorption of sodium and water takes place in the collecting duct. It is not known whether aquaporin-2 (AQP2) renal water channels are involved in this compensatory reabsorption. In animals, dihydropyridine derivatives of calcium channel blockers down-regulate AQP2 in the collecting duct, but the effect

2005 Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1722. Effects of ibuprofen and indomethacin on urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion in preterm infants treated for patent ductus arteriosus. (Abstract)

of 5 mg/kg each after 24 and 48 h or three doses at 12-hour intervals of indomethacin (n = 24), 0.2 mg/kg, both infused continuously over a period of 15 min. Urinary ADH excretion, diuresis, serum creatinine, urinary sodium, fractional excretion of sodium, and urinary osmolality were measured before and after treatment.Indomethacin treatment caused a significant decrease in urinary ADH excretion (21.8 +/- 20.8 vs. 13.8 +/- 12.9 pg/ml; p < 0.05), along with a significant reduction in urinary sodium (...) (92.1 +/- 36.1 vs. 64.8 +/- 35.6; p < 0.05), fractional excretion of sodium (68.5 +/- 37.1 vs. 45.6 +/- 37.1; p < 0.05), and urinary osmolality (276.2 +/- 103.9 vs. 226.4 +/- 60.3; p < 0.05). Ibuprofen treatment did not modify urinary ADH excretion and caused a statistically insignificant decrease in urinary sodium and in fractional excretion of sodium.Compared with ibuprofen, indomethacin caused a significant reduction in urinary ADH excretion and a significant decrease in urinary sodium

2005 Fetal diagnosis and therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1723. Reduced urinary excretion of thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter in Gitelman syndrome: preliminary data. (Abstract)

Reduced urinary excretion of thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter in Gitelman syndrome: preliminary data. The relationship between SLC12A3 mutations and actual sodium-chloride (Na-Cl) cotransporter (NCC) expression in patients with Gitelman syndrome (GS) was rarely evaluated. Detection of urinary thiazide-sensitive NCC was not tried in patients with GS.Case series.6 patients with GS and 1 patient with surreptitious vomiting.Renal clearance study, mutation analysis using reverse-transcription (...) polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing for the SLC12A3 gene, and immunohistochemical staining for NCC, Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter, alpha1-subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and calbindin-D(28K) of the renal biopsy specimens were performed. Membrane fractions of urine were obtained by using differential centrifugation and probed with antibodies against human NCC and aquaporin 2.Results of clearance studies were consistent with GS, showing decreased distal fractional chloride reabsorption with only

2007 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

1724. Maxi-K channels contribute to urinary potassium excretion in the ROMK-deficient mouse model of Type II Bartter's syndrome and in adaptation to a high-K diet. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maxi-K channels contribute to urinary potassium excretion in the ROMK-deficient mouse model of Type II Bartter's syndrome and in adaptation to a high-K diet. Type II Bartter's syndrome is a hereditary hypokalemic renal salt-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the ROMK channel (Kir1.1; Kcnj1), mediating potassium recycling in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) and potassium secretion in the distal tubule and cortical collecting duct (CCT). Newborns with Type II Bartter (...) are transiently hyperkalemic, consistent with loss of ROMK channel function in potassium secretion in distal convoluted tubule and CCT. Yet, these infants rapidly develop persistent hypokalemia owing to increased renal potassium excretion mediated by unknown mechanisms. Here, we used free-flow micropuncture and stationary microperfusion of the late distal tubule to explore the mechanism of renal potassium wasting in the Romk-deficient, Type II Bartter's mouse. We show that potassium absorption in the loop

2006 Kidney International

1725. Sodium homeostasis in term and preterm neonates. I. Renal aspects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The sodium balance was negative in 100% of infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation, in 70% at 30-32 weeks, in 46% at 33-35 weeks, and in 0% of greater than 36 weeks, and the incidence of hyponatraemia closely paralleled that of negative sodium balance. Despite a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) urinary sodium losses were highest in the most immature babies but fractional sodium excretion (FENa) was exponentially related to gestational age. An independent effect of postnatal age could be identified (...) Sodium homeostasis in term and preterm neonates. I. Renal aspects. Eighty five 24 hour sodium balance studies and creatinine clearance measurements were performed in 70 infants of gestational age 27-40 weeks and postnatal age 3-68 days. The kidney's capacity to regulate sodium excretion was a function of conceptional age (the sum of gestational age and postnatal age) and an independent effect of postnatal age was also observed--extrauterine existence increased the maturation of this function

1983 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1726. Renal sodium handling in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal sodium handling in minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Renal sodium handling was studied in 23 children at three different stages of the minimal change nephrotic syndrome--the oedema forming state, proteinuric steady state, and remission. Clearances of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid and urinary sodium excretion were determined basally, after intravenous infusion of isotonic saline and hyperoncotic albumin, and after furosemide injection. Absolute and fractional basal sodium excretion (...) were significantly lower in oedema forming patients than in proteinuric patients in steady state, and non-proteinuric patients. In contrast to proteinuric patients in steady state and non-proteinuric patients, the oedema forming patients failed to respond to isotonic saline infusion with increased sodium excretion. After diuretic blockade with furosemide, the fractional sodium excretion of the oedema forming patients increased to values no different from those of the non-proteinuric patients

1984 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1727. Renal distal tubular handling of sodium in central fluid volume homoeostasis in preascitic cirrhosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

sodium reabsorption and sodium excretion (r -0.66, p<0.03).These data suggest that in preascitic cirrhosis the distal fractional tubular reabsorption of sodium is increased and critical in regulating both central fluid volume and sodium excretion. (...) Renal distal tubular handling of sodium in central fluid volume homoeostasis in preascitic cirrhosis Patients with preascitic liver cirrhosis have an increased central plasma volume, and, for any given plasma aldosterone concentration, they excrete less sodium than healthy controls. A detailed study of the distribution of sodium reabsorption along the segments of the renal tubule, especially the distal one, is still lacking in preascitic cirrhosis.Twelve patients with Child-Pugh class

1999 Gut

1728. Evidence for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent sodium reabsorption in kidney, using Cftrtm2cammice Full Text available with Trip Pro

NaCl i.v. maintenance infusion, there was no difference in fractional Na(+) excretion (FE(Na)) between wild-type (0. 42 +/- 0.06 %, n = 12) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (0.47 +/- 0.13 %, n = 7). Amiloride infusion significantly increased FE(Na) in both wild-type (3.14 +/- 0.83 %, n = 6) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (3. 47 +/- 0.63 %, n = 9), though with no significant difference between genotypes. A 14 day dietary salt restriction (animals maintained on a 0.03 % NaCl diet) and maintenance (...) induced by amiloride was significantly greater in Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice than in wild-type controls. In conclusion, Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice exhibit normal renal salt excretion when either salt replete or salt restricted. Enhanced amiloride-sensitive FE(Na) is consistent with increased Na(+) absorption via the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel ENaC, in cystic fibrosis kidney, but this was only observed during salt restriction.

2000 The Journal of physiology

1729. Circulating angiotensin II and renal sodium handling in man: a dose-response study. (Abstract)

Circulating angiotensin II and renal sodium handling in man: a dose-response study. 1. Animal studies have shown that angiotensin II has a biphasic effect on urinary sodium excretion. To examine whether this is also true in man, we studied seven salt-replete male subjects in a single-blind placebo-controlled manner. 2. While undergoing maximum diuresis, subjects were infused with 0, 1, 2, 5 or 10 ng of angiotensin II min-1 kg-1 over 80 min. Subjects were studied while seated, and stood every 20 (...) min for urine collection. 3. Angiotensin II produced a dose-dependent antidiuretic effect. The urine flow rate, in ml/min expressed as the change from baseline with increasing dose of angiotensin, was: +3.4 +/- 1.77, -1.26 +/- 0.49 (P < 0.05), -2.75 +/- 1.23 (P < 0.05), -4.21 +/- 0.82 (P < 0.05) and -6.51 +/- 1.07 (P < 0.01). 4. In contrast, the effect of angiotensin II on sodium excretion showed a flat dose-response curve beyond 5 ng min-1 kg-1. The urinary sodium excretion, in mumol/min

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979)

1730. Angiotensin II blockade does not prevent renal effects of L-NAME in sodium-repleted humans. (Abstract)

placebo or 50 mg losartan to block Ang II receptors. With placebo, L-NAME produced no change in MAP from 0 to 45 minutes (period 1) and only a 5% increase at 45 to 90 minutes (period 2) of infusion. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF, PAH clearance) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance) declined by 11.7% and 8.0%, respectively in period 1 and by 14.6% and 11.6%, respectively, in period 2. Calculated renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased by 13.0% to 20.6%. Fractional excretion of Na (...) Angiotensin II blockade does not prevent renal effects of L-NAME in sodium-repleted humans. In seven healthy, young subjects on a 240 mmol sodium diet, mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal hemodynamics, and renal handling of Na and exogenous Li were measured at baseline and during short-term nitric oxide (NO) blockade with a 90-minute infusion of 3.0 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) of N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The infusion was performed twice: after a 3-day pretreatment with either

1997 Hypertension

1731. Salt and water homeostasis during oral rehydration therapy. (Abstract)

hyponatremia in a few infants receiving ORS40. In both groups, sodium balance increased most rapidly during the first 12 hours of rehydration, and then more slowly because of increased urinary as well as stool sodium output. Sodium balance was always more positive after ORS90 than after ORS40, but the difference did not change much from 12 to 36 hours after therapy was started. Changes in fractional sodium excretion, urinary K/Na quotient, and urinary aldosterone-creatinine quotient were used as indexes (...) Salt and water homeostasis during oral rehydration therapy. Changes in sodium balance and urinary and stool output during orally administered rehydration therapy were studied in 22 well-nourished Turkish infants, aged 2 to 13 months, with acute diarrhea mainly of viral origin. The infants randomly received a rehydration solution containing either 90 mmol Na/L (ORS90) or 40 mmol Na/L (ORS40). Slight transient hypernatremia was noted in a few infants receiving ORS90, and slight transient

1983 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1732. Effect of sodium valproate on carbamazepine disposition and psychomotor profile in man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of sodium valproate on carbamazepine disposition and psychomotor profile in man. 1 The effect of sodium valproate (VPA; 500 mg thrice daily for 7 days) and matched placebo on the disposition and psychomotor profile of a single dose of carbamazepine (CBZ; 10 mg kg-1) was studied in eight healthy male subjects using a randomised balanced crossover design. 2 VPA alone had no effect on antipyrine clearance, urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion and a battery of psychomotor function tests (...) (52%) and CBZ-E/CBZ ratios (45%) were both elevated by concurrent VPA (P less than 0.05) and free CBZ fraction was increased by 7% (P less than 0.02). 4 The sole effect of VPA on the psychomotor profile of CBZ was prolongation of card sorting time (P less than 0.05), although CBZ-related side effects were reported as more severe when VPA was also taken (P less than 0.01). 5 These data suggest that VPA displaces CBZ from plasma protein binding sites and inhibits the metabolism of both the parent

1988 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1733. How important are suppression of aldosterone and stimulation of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in the natriuretic response to an acute sodium load in man? (Abstract)

healthy young men. On the placebo day, plasma aldosterone decreased by 30 min after the start of saline infusion and remained suppressed. During aldosterone infusion, plasma aldosterone was maintained at around 400 pmol/l. 3. Urinary sodium excretion, lithium clearance and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased and plasma renin activity decreased after saline infusion, whether or not aldosterone was infused. However, from 60 to 240 min after saline infusion, natriuresis was significantly less (...) during aldosterone infusion than on the placebo day. In addition, saline loading led to a progressive increase in the ratio of sodium clearance to lithium clearance, used as an index of the fractional distal tubular rejection of sodium, and in the ratio of urinary sodium to potassium. These increases were prevented by the infusion of aldosterone. 4. This study suggests that there are differences in the mechanisms determining the early and the later responses to an acute sodium load. Suppression

1991 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1734. Sodium balance and extracellular volume regulation in very low birth weight infants. (Abstract)

. Extracellular volume (estimated by the bromide dilution method), sodium excretion, creatinine clearance, fractional sodium excretion, plasma atrial natriuretic factor level, urine aldosterone concentration, and vasopressin excretion were measured on postnatal days 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30. The corrected bromide space was large at birth and decreased in both groups during the first 5 days of observation, concomitant with a negative sodium balance. After 5 days of age, sodium excretion decreased in both groups so (...) that sodium balance became positive and the corrected bromide space increased in proportion to increasing body weight. Differences in sodium intake were associated with differences in tubular sodium reabsorption; corrected bromide space and net sodium balance were similar in the two groups. Serum sodium concentration was significantly lower in the low-sodium intake group. Creatinine clearance, plasma atrial natriuretic factor level, and excretion of aldosterone and vasopressin were not significantly

1989 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1735. Metabolic tolerance to arginine: implications for the safe use of arginine salt-aztreonam combination in the neonatal period. (Abstract)

further rise and fall during the 4 hours after infusion; arginine urinary fractional excretion (normalized to creatinine clearance) decreased in the gentamicin group. The indirect bilirubin concentration rose more (p less than 0.001) in the aztreonam-treated infants (5.1 to 11.5 mg/dl (87 to 196 mumol/L] than in the gentamicin-treated infants (5.5 to 8.1 mg/dl (94 to 138 mumol/L)). Thus a modest differential bilirubin response and modestly elevated baseline serum arginine level occurred after the 3 (...) Metabolic tolerance to arginine: implications for the safe use of arginine salt-aztreonam combination in the neonatal period. Two similar cohorts of low birth weight infants whose size was appropriate for gestational age randomly received either aztreonam-arginine plus ampicillin (n = 15) or gentamicin plus ampicillin (n = 15) for empiric treatment of neonatal sepsis. The regimens were infused together with glucose at greater than 5 mg/kg per minute, and immediate (4 hours) and cumulative (3

1991 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1736. Effects of insulin on renal haemodynamics and sodium handling in normal subjects. (Abstract)

compared with basal conditions. GFR and CLi were unchanged during day B. Insulin infusion reduced renal sodium excretion. Absolute proximal tubular reabsorption was unchanged on both days. Insulin infusion without volume expansion caused a decrease of 24% in the fractional distal sodium excretion. Superimposed volume expansion and the concomitant increase in GFR and CLi was accompanied by a subsequent enhanced fractional distal sodium excretion of 27%. The changes in plasma concentrations (...) Effects of insulin on renal haemodynamics and sodium handling in normal subjects. Diabetic patients treated with insulin injected subcutaneously are characterized by peripheral hyperinsulinaemia and an increased mass of total body exchangeable sodium. We hypothesized that this may cause, at least in part, the glomerular hyperfiltration seen in the diabetic state. Six normal subjects were studied on 2 days in random order. Day A: Basal state for 40 min, hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp for 1

1991 Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1737. Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. (Abstract)

, 3.5 and 5.5 h after the end of the rehydration period. Data were analysed by parametric or non-parametric statistical tests are appropriate. The volume of fluid consumed was the same on all trials [2045(45) ml]. From the 1.5-h sample onwards, a significant treatment effect on cumulative urine output was apparent, with the volume excreted being inversely related to the sodium content of the drink consumed. By the end of the trial, subjects were in net negative fluid balance on trials A [by 689(124 (...) of the rehydration period. At 1.5 h after the end of the rehydration period, the increase in plasma volume was greater on trials C and D than on trial A. These results suggest that the fraction of the ingested fluid that was retained was directly related to the sodium concentration.

1995 European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1738. Stimulatory effect of insulin on tubular sodium reabsorption in normotensive subjects with a positive family history of hypertension. (Abstract)

estimated distal fractional sodium reabsorption increased, P < 0.01. At the end of the clamp a low-dose infusion of angiotensin II (0.1 ng/kg per min) was superimposed. GFR and RPF then decreased significantly concomitant with urinary excretion of sodium. In control subjects hyperinsulinaemia caused an unchanged GFR in both groups, increased RPF in the lean control group and 15-25% reduction in sodium excretion. No alteration was seen in estimated proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, but estimated (...) distal tubular sodium reabsorption increased (P < 0.05) in the lean control group. Angiotensin II elicited a further increase in distal fractional tubular sodium reabsorption in both groups (P < 0.05).In normotensive subjects with a positive family history of hypertension, in contrast to control subjects without such history, hyperinsulinaemia caused a marked decrease in urinary sodium excretion in presence of unchanged RPF and GFR indicating a renal tubular effect of insulin located at distal site

1996 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1739. Oedema formation with the vasodilators nifedipine and diazoxide: direct local effect or sodium retention? (Abstract)

+/- 2% with placebo). Foot volume increased acutely after administration of nifedipine (by 2.6 +/- 0.4%), whereas it remained stable with placebo and the other drugs. Administration of captopril and nifedipine induced increases of fractional sodium excretion (by 20 +/- 9% and 40 +/- 20%, respectively) in contrast to the decreases with placebo and diazoxide (by 13 +/- 11% and 24 +/- 10%, respectively). Only administration of nifedipine induced significant, albeit small, increases in haemoglobin (...) Oedema formation with the vasodilators nifedipine and diazoxide: direct local effect or sodium retention? To determine whether the common side effect of ankle oedema with arteriolar vasodilators such as the calcium entry blocker (CEB) nifedipine and the potassium channel opener (PCO) diazoxide is the direct result of peripheral vasodilation or merely a consequence of renal sodium retention.In 12 healthy sitting volunteers we studied for 3 h the effects of 20 mg nifedipine, 150 mg diazoxide

1996 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1740. [Reduction of the antihypertensive effects of enalapril by indomethacin. Its independence from renal sodium retention]. (Abstract)

). Enalapril dose increased up to 40 mg/d if inadequate response to 20 mg.Twenty-four patients with mild-moderated hypertension, showing an adequate response to enalapril (20-40 mg/d).Blood pressure evaluated by "casual" methods and by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, measurement of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium: at the end of placebo, enalapril and enalapril + indomethacin treatments. Determination of the correlations between the changes induced (...) by indomethacin (when added to enalapril) on the blood pressure and on sodium excretion effects of enalapril.Enalapril significantly reduced casual blood pressure (systolic/diastolic) by 33/18 mmHg and 24-hour blood pressure by 20/9 mmHg. When added to enalapril, indomethacin attenuated (by 50%) the antihypertensive effects of enalapril and significantly decreased the 24-hour (from 120 +/- 11 mmol to 106 +/- 10 mmol) and fractional excretion of sodium (from 1.11 +/- 0.09% to 0.75 +/- 0.06%). However

1996 Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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