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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1701. Abnormal circadian rhythm of diuresis or nocturnal polyuria in a subgroup of children with enuresis and hypercalciuria is related to increased sodium retention during daytime. (Abstract)

children with proved hypercalciuria and nocturnal polyuria and 10 age matched controls were included in the study. A 24-hour urine collection was performed in 8 sampling periods for measurement of urinary sodium excretion. Segmental tubular sodium transport was investigated during a daytime oral water load test and calculated according to standardized clearance methodology.The children with enuresis showed a marked increase in the fractional excretion of sodium during the night (0.93% +/- 0.36%), while (...) daytime sodium excretion was decreased (0.84% +/- 0.23%). Analysis of segmental tubular sodium transport revealed decreased delivery of sodium to distal tubule (C(H2O) + C(Na) = 10.7 ml/100 ml glomerular filtration rate), indicating increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption but also stimulation of distal sodium reabsorption as demonstrated by increased fractional distal sodium reabsorption (92.9% +/- 2.2%, controls 90.5% +/- 2.9%). Increased distal reabsorption was associated with increased

2006 Journal of Urology

1702. Dysregulation of renal sodium transporters in gentamicin-treated rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

fractional excretion of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) was increased and urinary concentration was decreased in both GM-40 and GM-80 rats. In cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla (cortex) in GM-80 rats, the expression of NHE3, Na-K-ATPase, and NKCC2 was decreased; NCC expression was unchanged; and CaSR was upregulated compared to controls. In the inner stripe of outer medulla (ISOM) in GM-80 rats, NKCC2 and Na-K-ATPase expression was decreased, whereas CaSR was upregulated, and NHE3 and ROMK (...) suggest that the decrease in NKCC2 in TAL seen in response to low-dose (40 mg/kg/day) gentamicin treatment may play an essential role for the increased urinary excretion of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), and play a significant role for the development of the urinary concentrating defect, and increased urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+). At high-dose gentamicin, both proximal and TAL sodium transporter downregulation is likely to contribute to this.

2006 Kidney International

1703. Acute sodium overload produces renal tubulointerstitial inflammation in normal rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

flow (RBF), and sodium fractional excretion were determined. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), RANTES, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and angiotensin II (ANG II) were evaluated in kidneys by immunohistochemistry. Animals with NaCl overload showed normal glomerular function without MAP and RBF modifications and exhibited a concentration-dependent natriuretic response. Plasmatic sodium increased in G2 (P < 0.01) and G3 (P (...) Acute sodium overload produces renal tubulointerstitial inflammation in normal rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute sodium overload could trigger an inflammatory reaction in the tubulointerstitial (TI) compartment in normal rats. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received increasing NaCl concentrations by intravenous infusion. Control (C): Na+ 0.15 M; G1: Na+ 0.5 M; G2: Na+ 1.0 M; and G3: Na+ 1.5 M. Creatinine clearance, mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood

2006 Kidney International

1704. Regulation of renal sodium transporters during severe inflammation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulation of renal sodium transporters during severe inflammation. Sepsis-associated acute renal failure is characterized by decreased GFR and tubular dysfunction. The pathogenesis of endotoxemic tubular dysfunction with failure in urine concentration and increased fractional sodium excretion is poorly understood. This study investigated the regulation of renal sodium transporters during severe inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Injection of high-dosage LPS reduced BP and GFR, increased (...) fractional sodium excretion, and strongly decreased the expression of Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger, renal outer medullary potassium channel, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter, epithelial sodium channel, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in mice. Also, injection of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or IFN-gamma decreased renal function and expression of renal sodium transporters. LPS-induced downregulation of sodium transporters was not affected in cytokine-knockout mice. However, supplementary glucocorticoid treatment, which inhibited

2007 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1705. The effect of a shift in sodium intake on renal hemodynamics is determined by body mass index in healthy young men. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(median age 23 years (95% confidence interval: 22-24), BMI: 23.0+/-2.5 kg/m2) on low (50 mmol Na+, LS) and high (200 mmol Na+, HS) sodium intake. Mean GFR and ERPF significantly increased by the change to HS (both P<0.001). During HS but not LS, GFR and filtration fraction (FF) positively correlated with BMI (R=0.32 and R=0.28, respectively, both P<0.01). Consequently, BMI correlated with the sodium-induced changes in GFR (R=0.30; P<0.01) and FF (R=0,23; P<0.05). The effects of HS on GFR and FF were (...) The effect of a shift in sodium intake on renal hemodynamics is determined by body mass index in healthy young men. A body mass index (BMI)>or=25 kg/m2 increases the risk for long-term renal damage, possibly by renal hemodynamic factors. As epidemiological studies suggest interaction of BMI and sodium intake, we studied the combined effects of sodium intake and BMI on renal hemodynamics. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured in 95 healthy men

2007 Kidney International

1706. A comparative study of renal function in the desert-adapted spiny mouse and the laboratory-adapted C57BL/6 mouse: response to dietary salt load. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. On the high-salt diet, both species had similar 24-h NaCl excretions; but C57BL/6 mice required a significantly increased amount of water (lower urine NaCl concentration) than the spiny mice. Filtration fraction was greater in both species on the high-salt diet. Spiny mice had greater GFR and ERPF after the high-salt diet, whereas the C57BL/6 mouse showed little change in GFR. The ability of the spiny mouse to tolerate a significantly higher plasma osmolality after salt, measured by a decreased drinking (...) A comparative study of renal function in the desert-adapted spiny mouse and the laboratory-adapted C57BL/6 mouse: response to dietary salt load. The desert-adapted spiny mouse has a significantly lower glomerular number, increased glomerular size, and a more densely packed renal papillae compared with the similar-sized laboratory-adapted C57BL/6 mouse. In the present study we examined the functional consequences of these structural differences in young adult male spiny and C57BL/6 mice

2007 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1707. Biphasic changes of epithelial sodium channel abundance and trafficking in common bile duct ligation-induced liver cirrhosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and immunohistochemistry at 6 or 8 weeks after operation. At 6 weeks, cirrhotic rats had developed ascites and displayed a positive sodium balance. The urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium were decreased, while plasma aldosterone was unchanged. The abundance of ENaC subunits was not changed in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM). In contrast, immunoperoxidase microscopy revealed an increased apical targeting of alpha-, beta- and gammaENaC in late distal convoluted tubule (...) , connecting tubule and collecting duct. Moreover, 11betaHSD2 abundance was decreased in the cortex/OSOM and inner stripe of the outer medulla. At 8 weeks, urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium were not changed, while the plasma aldosterone level was decreased. The expression of ENaC subunits was decreased in the cortex/OSOM. Immunoperoxidase microscopy confirmed decreased expression of ENaC subunits, whereas subcellular localization was not changed. These results suggest

2006 Kidney International

1708. Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

clearance was increased by salt or fat, and fractional excretion of sodium was decreased by fat. In study 1, high NaCl markedly reduced plasma renin and aldosterone and its regulated proteins in whole kidney, i.e., the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter and the alpha- and gamma (70-kDa band)-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel. These effects were blunted by fat. Fructose increased the abundance of the sodium phosphate cotransporter, whereas it decreased the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl (...) Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure. Dietary fructose, NaCl, and/or saturated fat have been correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) rises in sensitive strains of rats. Dysregulation of sodium and/or water reabsorption by the kidney may contribute. Using radiotelemetry and parallel semiquantitative immunoblotting, we examined the effects of various diets on MAP and the regulation of abundance of the major

2004 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1709. Collectrin Is Involved in the Development of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension by Facilitating the Membrane Trafficking of Apical Membrane Proteins via Interaction With Soluble N-Ethylmaleiamide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Na+ channel, and H+-ATPase. Collectrin and SNARE proteins were abundantly expressed in collecting ducts of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats 7 weeks of age were subjected to normal-salt (1% NaCl) and high-salt (8% NaCl) chow for 10 weeks. High-salt chow prominently elevated blood pressure, oral intake, and urinary excretion of NaCl and water in both groups. Although urinary excretion of aldosterone was significantly suppressed in both groups, collectrin (...) complex, and collectrin may be responsible for the sodium retention in salt-sensitive hypertension.

2008 Circulation

1710. Salt- and acid/base metabolism in claudin-16 knockdown mice - impact for the pathophysiology of FHHNC patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

KD mice developed hyponatremia and the renal fractional excretion of Na(+) was twofold higher in CLDN16 KD compared with WT mice. The loss of claudin-16 also resulted in increased urinary flow, reduced HCO(3)(-) excretion, and lower urine pH. We conclude that perturbation in salt and acid-base metabolism in CLDN16 KD mice has its origin in the defective cation permselectivity of the thick ascending limb of the nephron. This study has contributed to the still incomplete understanding (...) Salt- and acid/base metabolism in claudin-16 knockdown mice - impact for the pathophysiology of FHHNC patients. Claudin-16 is defective in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC). Claudin-16 knockdown (CLDN16 KD) mice show reduced cation selectivity in the thick ascending limb. The defect leads to a collapse of the lumen-positive diffusion voltage, which drives Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) absorption. Because of the reduced tight junction permeability ratio for Na(+) over

2008 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1711. Effects of dietary salt on renal Na+ transporters' subcellular distribution, abundance, and phosphorylation status. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of dietary salt on renal Na+ transporters' subcellular distribution, abundance, and phosphorylation status. During high-salt (HS) diet the kidney increases urinary Na+ and volume excretion to match intake. We recently reported that HS provokes a redistribution of distal convoluted tubule Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) from apical to subapical vesicles and decreases NCC abundance. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the other renal Na+ transporters' abundance and or subcellular (...) distribution is decreased by HS diet. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (NS) 0.4% NaCl diet or a HS 4% NaCl diet for 3 wk or overnight. Kidneys excised from anesthetized rats were fractionated on density gradients or analyzed by microscopy; transporters and associated regulators were detected with specific antibodies. Three-week HS doubled Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE)3 phosphorylation at serine 552 and provoked a redistribution of NHE3, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), myosin VI, Na+-Pi

2008 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1712. Obesity-induced glomerular hyperfiltration: its involvement in the pathogenesis of tubular sodium reabsorption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Obesity-induced glomerular hyperfiltration: its involvement in the pathogenesis of tubular sodium reabsorption. Obesity is associated with hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration. A major mechanism responsible for the obesity-associated hypertension is renal salt retention. An increased glomerular filtration fraction (FF) is expected to raise postglomerular oncotic pressure and to increase proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. The aim of the present study was to verify whether obesity (...) -associated hyperfiltration leads to increased postglomerular oncotic pressure and increased proximal sodium reabsorption.Twelve obese subjects (BMI >36) and 19 lean subjects participated in the study. They underwent measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and fractional excretion of lithium (FE Li).GFR, RPF and FF were 61%, 28% and 29% higher, respectively, in the obese than in the control group (P < 0.00001 for GFR, P < 0.005 for RPF and P < 0.00005 for FF). Half

2008 Transplantation

1713. Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Increased proximal renal sodium re-absorption is associated with central adiposity and insulin resistance in white men. Our study examined whether this association also exists in other ethnic groups with different prevalences of insulin resistance and associated metabolic abnormalities.We studied the association between fractional renal excretion of endogenous lithium (FELi) and metabolic syndrome (...) cholesterol and metabolic syndrome as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.In white men and women a higher rate of proximal sodium re-absorption was inversely associated with higher waist circumference, serum triglycerides and HOMA index, and with lower serum HDL cholesterol (all p< or =0.001). No associations were found in people of African or South Asian origin. The former had lower FELi than the other groups. White people with the metabolic syndrome had a lower FELi than those without (15.9

2004 Diabetologia

1714. Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. (Abstract)

during the last 6 days of the study.Tail-cuff pressure and sodium excretion were determined in conscious rats. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were determined in anesthetized rats using clearance methods. The heart weight index was calculated.Omapatrilat was as effective as enalapril in reducing arterial pressure, and Hoe140 had no influence. Natriuresis increased to a similar extent with omapatrilat and enalapril. Hoe140 prevented the sodium loss only in enalapril (...) Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. The systemic and renal effect of omapatrilat was evaluated and compared with that of enalapril (30 and 10 mg/kg per day) in sodium-depleted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. Participation of kinins was assessed by concomitant infusion of Hoe140 (300 microg/kg per day).Four weeks after clipping and uninephrectomy, dietary sodium was withdrawn for 2 weeks and rats were treated

2004 Journal of Hypertension

1715. Combination of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms is associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

enzyme (ACE), M235T of angiotensinogen (AGT), A1166C of angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R), and C-344T of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). The segmental renal sodium handling was evaluated by the fractional excretions of exogenous lithium (FE-Li), uric acid (FE-UA), and sodium (FE-Na). Twenty-eight carriers of triple homozygosity for M (AGT), A (AT1R), and C (CYP11B2) in the presence of the D allele of ACE (DD/ID) showed lower FE-Li (20.0%+/-5.9% versus 25.0%+/-7.5%; P=0.004; mean+/-sD), FE-UA (6.3 (...) Combination of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms is associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension. Genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are natural candidates for sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. To investigate the effect of a combination of polymorphisms of RAAS genes on renal sodium handling and blood pressure, 918 participants to the Olivetti Heart Study were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: I/D of angiotensin converting

2004 Hypertension

1716. Association between arterial properties and renal sodium handling in a general population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in 1069 untreated subjects (mean age: 41.6 years; 50.1% women; 18.8% hypertensive subjects). While accounting for covariates and standardizing for the sodium excretion rate in both sexes, CC and DC of the femoral artery increased with higher fractional distal sodium reabsorption. Differences associated with a 1-SD change in fractional distal reabsorption of sodium were 51.7 mm(2)/kPax10(-3) (95% CI: 23.9 to 79.5; P=0.0002) and 0.56x10(-3)/kPa (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.94; P=0.004) for femoral CC and DC (...) , respectively. In women as well as in men, a 1-SD increment in fractional proximal sodium reabsorption was associated with decreases in femoral and brachial diameter, amounting to 111.6 mum (95% CI: 38.2 to 185.1; P=0.003) and 52.5 mum (95% CI: 10.0 to 94.9; P=0.016), respectively. There was no consistent association between the properties of the elastic carotid artery and renal sodium handling. In conclusion, higher fractional sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron is associated with higher femoral CC

2006 Hypertension

1717. Diuretic activity of some Withania aristata Ait. fractions. (Abstract)

Diuretic activity of some Withania aristata Ait. fractions. We previously reported on the significant dose-dependent diuretic effects produced in laboratory rats by hot water infusions and methanol extracts of Withania aristata Ait., where notable increases were observed in the excretion of water and sodium, with an interesting potassium-saving effect. The present study gives the results of the diuretic effects in rats of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol-water (...) fractions of the previously studied methanol extract. Water excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in the urine of the rats when subjected to hypersaline conditions. Of the above fractions, the methanol:water extract (100mg/kg) showed the most interesting diuretic activity (25%; p<0.01), which suggested that increase in the polarity of the extracting solvent led to an increase in the concentration of the polar compounds responsible for the diuretic

2008 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

1718. A Study to Evaluate the Effects of SB-751689 or rhPTH(1-34) on Excretion of Calcium and Phosphate in Women

100 mg Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : renal fractional clearance of calcium and phosphate [ Time Frame: over 1 month ] Secondary Outcome Measures : renal fraction clearance of electrolytes, cAMP, safety measures, and serum biomarkers [ Time Frame: over 1 month ] urinary excretion of sodium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride Albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels Vitamin D and P1NP levels Plasma levels of SB-751689 and rhPTH(1-34) Plasma PTH Adverse event reports, 12 (...) of SB-751689 (400 mg or 100 mg) or rhPTH(1-34) on the Fractional Renal Excretion of Calcium and Phosphate in Healthy Postmenopausal Females. Study Start Date : August 2007 Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2008 Actual Study Completion Date : January 2008 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Intervention Details: Drug: rhPTH(1-34) Drug: SB-751689 100 mg Drug: SB-751689 400 mg Other Names: rhPTH(1-34) SB-751689

2007 Clinical Trials

1719. Study Evaluating The Effect Of Ramipril On Urinary Protein Excretion In Renal Transplant Patients Converted To Sirolimus

Study Evaluating The Effect Of Ramipril On Urinary Protein Excretion In Renal Transplant Patients Converted To Sirolimus Study Evaluating The Effect Of Ramipril On Urinary Protein Excretion In Renal Transplant Patients Converted To Sirolimus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Study Evaluating The Effect Of Ramipril On Urinary Protein Excretion In Renal Transplant Patients Converted To Sirolimus The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00502242 Recruitment Status : Completed First

2007 Clinical Trials

1720. Increased urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to furosemide in patients with chronic heart failure. (Abstract)

tested the hypothesis that U-AQP2 increases after a single intravenous dose of furosemide in CHF patients.In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we measured the effect of furosemide (80 mg) on U-AQP2, urine volume, free water clearance (C(H2O)) and fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) in 12 CHF patients. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (Aldo), atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) were measured (...) Increased urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to furosemide in patients with chronic heart failure. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have decreased ability to excrete water and increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2). The natriuretic and diuretic effects of furosemide are antagonized by an increased reabsorption of sodium and water in the collecting ducts. It is unknown whether aquaporin-2 (AQP2) renal water channels are involved in this compensatory reabsorption. We

2006 Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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