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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1701. Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

clearance was increased by salt or fat, and fractional excretion of sodium was decreased by fat. In study 1, high NaCl markedly reduced plasma renin and aldosterone and its regulated proteins in whole kidney, i.e., the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter and the alpha- and gamma (70-kDa band)-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel. These effects were blunted by fat. Fructose increased the abundance of the sodium phosphate cotransporter, whereas it decreased the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl (...) Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure. Dietary fructose, NaCl, and/or saturated fat have been correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) rises in sensitive strains of rats. Dysregulation of sodium and/or water reabsorption by the kidney may contribute. Using radiotelemetry and parallel semiquantitative immunoblotting, we examined the effects of various diets on MAP and the regulation of abundance of the major

2004 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1702. Regulation of renal sodium transporters during severe inflammation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulation of renal sodium transporters during severe inflammation. Sepsis-associated acute renal failure is characterized by decreased GFR and tubular dysfunction. The pathogenesis of endotoxemic tubular dysfunction with failure in urine concentration and increased fractional sodium excretion is poorly understood. This study investigated the regulation of renal sodium transporters during severe inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Injection of high-dosage LPS reduced BP and GFR, increased (...) fractional sodium excretion, and strongly decreased the expression of Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger, renal outer medullary potassium channel, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter, epithelial sodium channel, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in mice. Also, injection of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or IFN-gamma decreased renal function and expression of renal sodium transporters. LPS-induced downregulation of sodium transporters was not affected in cytokine-knockout mice. However, supplementary glucocorticoid treatment, which inhibited

2007 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1703. Increased systolic blood pressure with rofecoxib in congenital furosemide-like salt loss. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(SDS) values), creatinine clearance (CRC), fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and renal excretion of systemic prostaglandins were studied in 28 patients with a genetically proven congenital hypokalaemic salt-losing tubulopathy (SLT) (11 female and 17 male, age: 2-25 years), 19 with a furosemide-like SLT, and nine with a thiazide-like SLT.In furosemide-like SLT patients, systolic SDS bp values were significantly higher with rofecoxib (1.03 +/- 0.16 SDS, n = 107) compared with indomethacin (0.56 (...) +/- 0.09 SDS, n = 282; P = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.12-0.8). Without the drugs, systolic SDS bp values were elevated by 0.63 +/- 0.11 SDS, n = 164. Both drugs reduced renin and aldosterone-plasma levels to a similar extent. SDS values were significantly correlated with the excretion of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane (T x B2) (R2: 0.038, P = 0.021, n: 159), but not with CRC or FeNa. Blood pressure was not increased in thiazide-like SLT patients treated with rofecoxib.Congenital furosemide-like renal salt loss

2006 Transplantation

1704. Acute sodium overload produces renal tubulointerstitial inflammation in normal rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

flow (RBF), and sodium fractional excretion were determined. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), RANTES, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and angiotensin II (ANG II) were evaluated in kidneys by immunohistochemistry. Animals with NaCl overload showed normal glomerular function without MAP and RBF modifications and exhibited a concentration-dependent natriuretic response. Plasmatic sodium increased in G2 (P < 0.01) and G3 (P (...) Acute sodium overload produces renal tubulointerstitial inflammation in normal rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute sodium overload could trigger an inflammatory reaction in the tubulointerstitial (TI) compartment in normal rats. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received increasing NaCl concentrations by intravenous infusion. Control (C): Na+ 0.15 M; G1: Na+ 0.5 M; G2: Na+ 1.0 M; and G3: Na+ 1.5 M. Creatinine clearance, mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood

2006 Kidney International

1705. Dysregulation of renal sodium transporters in gentamicin-treated rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

fractional excretion of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) was increased and urinary concentration was decreased in both GM-40 and GM-80 rats. In cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla (cortex) in GM-80 rats, the expression of NHE3, Na-K-ATPase, and NKCC2 was decreased; NCC expression was unchanged; and CaSR was upregulated compared to controls. In the inner stripe of outer medulla (ISOM) in GM-80 rats, NKCC2 and Na-K-ATPase expression was decreased, whereas CaSR was upregulated, and NHE3 and ROMK (...) suggest that the decrease in NKCC2 in TAL seen in response to low-dose (40 mg/kg/day) gentamicin treatment may play an essential role for the increased urinary excretion of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), and play a significant role for the development of the urinary concentrating defect, and increased urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+). At high-dose gentamicin, both proximal and TAL sodium transporter downregulation is likely to contribute to this.

2006 Kidney International

1706. The effect of a shift in sodium intake on renal hemodynamics is determined by body mass index in healthy young men. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(median age 23 years (95% confidence interval: 22-24), BMI: 23.0+/-2.5 kg/m2) on low (50 mmol Na+, LS) and high (200 mmol Na+, HS) sodium intake. Mean GFR and ERPF significantly increased by the change to HS (both P<0.001). During HS but not LS, GFR and filtration fraction (FF) positively correlated with BMI (R=0.32 and R=0.28, respectively, both P<0.01). Consequently, BMI correlated with the sodium-induced changes in GFR (R=0.30; P<0.01) and FF (R=0,23; P<0.05). The effects of HS on GFR and FF were (...) The effect of a shift in sodium intake on renal hemodynamics is determined by body mass index in healthy young men. A body mass index (BMI)>or=25 kg/m2 increases the risk for long-term renal damage, possibly by renal hemodynamic factors. As epidemiological studies suggest interaction of BMI and sodium intake, we studied the combined effects of sodium intake and BMI on renal hemodynamics. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured in 95 healthy men

2007 Kidney International

1707. Biphasic changes of epithelial sodium channel abundance and trafficking in common bile duct ligation-induced liver cirrhosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and immunohistochemistry at 6 or 8 weeks after operation. At 6 weeks, cirrhotic rats had developed ascites and displayed a positive sodium balance. The urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium were decreased, while plasma aldosterone was unchanged. The abundance of ENaC subunits was not changed in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM). In contrast, immunoperoxidase microscopy revealed an increased apical targeting of alpha-, beta- and gammaENaC in late distal convoluted tubule (...) , connecting tubule and collecting duct. Moreover, 11betaHSD2 abundance was decreased in the cortex/OSOM and inner stripe of the outer medulla. At 8 weeks, urinary sodium excretion and fractional excretion of sodium were not changed, while the plasma aldosterone level was decreased. The expression of ENaC subunits was decreased in the cortex/OSOM. Immunoperoxidase microscopy confirmed decreased expression of ENaC subunits, whereas subcellular localization was not changed. These results suggest

2006 Kidney International

1708. Abnormal circadian rhythm of diuresis or nocturnal polyuria in a subgroup of children with enuresis and hypercalciuria is related to increased sodium retention during daytime. (Abstract)

children with proved hypercalciuria and nocturnal polyuria and 10 age matched controls were included in the study. A 24-hour urine collection was performed in 8 sampling periods for measurement of urinary sodium excretion. Segmental tubular sodium transport was investigated during a daytime oral water load test and calculated according to standardized clearance methodology.The children with enuresis showed a marked increase in the fractional excretion of sodium during the night (0.93% +/- 0.36%), while (...) daytime sodium excretion was decreased (0.84% +/- 0.23%). Analysis of segmental tubular sodium transport revealed decreased delivery of sodium to distal tubule (C(H2O) + C(Na) = 10.7 ml/100 ml glomerular filtration rate), indicating increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption but also stimulation of distal sodium reabsorption as demonstrated by increased fractional distal sodium reabsorption (92.9% +/- 2.2%, controls 90.5% +/- 2.9%). Increased distal reabsorption was associated with increased

2006 Journal of Urology

1709. Salt loading induces redistribution of the plasmalemmal Na/K-ATPase in proximal tubule cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

activity (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs. 9.9 +/- 1.6 micromol/mg pr/hr, P < 0.01) relative to the normal diet. Proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase alpha1 protein density was decreased in the plasmalemma fraction but increased in both early and late endosomes following the high salt diet. In rats fed a high salt diet, anti-MBG antibody caused a 60% reduction in urinary sodium excretion, substantial increases in proximal tubule (86)Rb uptake, and Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, as well as significant decreases in the early (...) sodium excretion, as well as MBG excretion, was monitored, and proximal tubules were isolated using a Percoll gradient method. Tubular (86)Rb uptake, Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, and Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit density were determined.The high salt diet increased urinary sodium (17.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.3 mEq/day, P < 0.01) and MBG excretion (104 +/- 12 vs. 26 +/- 4 pmol/day), and decreased proximal tubular (86)Rb uptake (0.44 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.00 +/- 0.10, P < 0.01) and Na/K-ATPase enzymatic

2005 Kidney International

1710. Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England. Increased proximal renal sodium re-absorption is associated with central adiposity and insulin resistance in white men. Our study examined whether this association also exists in other ethnic groups with different prevalences of insulin resistance and associated metabolic abnormalities.We studied the association between fractional renal excretion of endogenous lithium (FELi) and metabolic syndrome (...) cholesterol and metabolic syndrome as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.In white men and women a higher rate of proximal sodium re-absorption was inversely associated with higher waist circumference, serum triglycerides and HOMA index, and with lower serum HDL cholesterol (all p< or =0.001). No associations were found in people of African or South Asian origin. The former had lower FELi than the other groups. White people with the metabolic syndrome had a lower FELi than those without (15.9

2004 Diabetologia

1711. Effects of dietary salt on renal Na+ transporters' subcellular distribution, abundance, and phosphorylation status. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of dietary salt on renal Na+ transporters' subcellular distribution, abundance, and phosphorylation status. During high-salt (HS) diet the kidney increases urinary Na+ and volume excretion to match intake. We recently reported that HS provokes a redistribution of distal convoluted tubule Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) from apical to subapical vesicles and decreases NCC abundance. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the other renal Na+ transporters' abundance and or subcellular (...) distribution is decreased by HS diet. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (NS) 0.4% NaCl diet or a HS 4% NaCl diet for 3 wk or overnight. Kidneys excised from anesthetized rats were fractionated on density gradients or analyzed by microscopy; transporters and associated regulators were detected with specific antibodies. Three-week HS doubled Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE)3 phosphorylation at serine 552 and provoked a redistribution of NHE3, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), myosin VI, Na+-Pi

2008 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1712. Salt- and acid/base metabolism in claudin-16 knockdown mice - impact for the pathophysiology of FHHNC patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

KD mice developed hyponatremia and the renal fractional excretion of Na(+) was twofold higher in CLDN16 KD compared with WT mice. The loss of claudin-16 also resulted in increased urinary flow, reduced HCO(3)(-) excretion, and lower urine pH. We conclude that perturbation in salt and acid-base metabolism in CLDN16 KD mice has its origin in the defective cation permselectivity of the thick ascending limb of the nephron. This study has contributed to the still incomplete understanding (...) Salt- and acid/base metabolism in claudin-16 knockdown mice - impact for the pathophysiology of FHHNC patients. Claudin-16 is defective in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC). Claudin-16 knockdown (CLDN16 KD) mice show reduced cation selectivity in the thick ascending limb. The defect leads to a collapse of the lumen-positive diffusion voltage, which drives Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) absorption. Because of the reduced tight junction permeability ratio for Na(+) over

2008 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1713. Collectrin Is Involved in the Development of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension by Facilitating the Membrane Trafficking of Apical Membrane Proteins via Interaction With Soluble N-Ethylmaleiamide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Complex. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Na+ channel, and H+-ATPase. Collectrin and SNARE proteins were abundantly expressed in collecting ducts of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats 7 weeks of age were subjected to normal-salt (1% NaCl) and high-salt (8% NaCl) chow for 10 weeks. High-salt chow prominently elevated blood pressure, oral intake, and urinary excretion of NaCl and water in both groups. Although urinary excretion of aldosterone was significantly suppressed in both groups, collectrin (...) complex, and collectrin may be responsible for the sodium retention in salt-sensitive hypertension.

2008 Circulation

1714. Obesity-induced glomerular hyperfiltration: its involvement in the pathogenesis of tubular sodium reabsorption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Obesity-induced glomerular hyperfiltration: its involvement in the pathogenesis of tubular sodium reabsorption. Obesity is associated with hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration. A major mechanism responsible for the obesity-associated hypertension is renal salt retention. An increased glomerular filtration fraction (FF) is expected to raise postglomerular oncotic pressure and to increase proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. The aim of the present study was to verify whether obesity (...) -associated hyperfiltration leads to increased postglomerular oncotic pressure and increased proximal sodium reabsorption.Twelve obese subjects (BMI >36) and 19 lean subjects participated in the study. They underwent measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and fractional excretion of lithium (FE Li).GFR, RPF and FF were 61%, 28% and 29% higher, respectively, in the obese than in the control group (P < 0.00001 for GFR, P < 0.005 for RPF and P < 0.00005 for FF). Half

2008 Transplantation

1715. Blood Pressure and Renal Sodium Handling in Relation to Genetic Variation in the DRD1 Promoter and GRK4. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Blood Pressure and Renal Sodium Handling in Relation to Genetic Variation in the DRD1 Promoter and GRK4. Activation of type-1 dopamine receptors (DRD1) reduces renal sodium reabsorption. In a family-based random sample of 611 untreated whites (women, 45.0%; mean age, 38.6 years), we measured blood pressure (BP). We used the endogenous lithium clearance to assess fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)) and proximal (RNa(prox)) and distal (RNa(dist)) tubular sodium reabsorption. We investigated (...) multivariate-adjusted associations with the DRD1 promoter (A-48G, G-94A, and C-800T) and GRK4 (Ala142Val). The frequent DRD1 haplotypes were AGC (48.2%), GGT (34.4%), and AAC (14.3%). While standardizing to mean sodium excretion (8.7 mmol/h) and adjusting for covariates and relatedness, RNa(dist) was lower in DRD1 -94GG homozygotes than -94A allele carriers (effect size, -0.94%; P=0.005) with opposite findings for FE(Na) (+0.084%; P=0.014). AGC carriers (-0.88%; P=0.012) and AAC carriers (+1.00%; P=0.004

2008 Hypertension

1716. Mouse Model of Type II Bartters Syndrome. II. Altered Expression of Renal Sodium- and Water-Transporting Proteins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mouse Model of Type II Bartters Syndrome. II. Altered Expression of Renal Sodium- and Water-Transporting Proteins. Bartter's syndrome represents a group of hereditary salt- and water-losing renal tubulopathies caused by loss-of-function mutations in proteins mediating or regulating salt transport in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop. Mutations in the ROMK channel cause type II antenatal Bartter's syndrome that presents with maternal polyhydramnios and postnatal life-threatening (...) volume depletion. We have developed a colony of Romk null mice showing a Bartter-like phenotype and with increased survival to adulthood, suggesting the activation of compensatory mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that upregulation of Na(+)-transporting proteins in segments distal to the TAL contributes to compensation, we studied expression of salt-transporting proteins in ROMK-deficient (Romk(-/-)) mice. Plasma aldosterone was 40% higher and urinary PGE(2) excretion was 1.5-fold higher in Romk

2008 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1717. Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. (Abstract)

during the last 6 days of the study.Tail-cuff pressure and sodium excretion were determined in conscious rats. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were determined in anesthetized rats using clearance methods. The heart weight index was calculated.Omapatrilat was as effective as enalapril in reducing arterial pressure, and Hoe140 had no influence. Natriuresis increased to a similar extent with omapatrilat and enalapril. Hoe140 prevented the sodium loss only in enalapril (...) Systemic and renal effect of chronic omapatrilat in sodium-restricted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. The systemic and renal effect of omapatrilat was evaluated and compared with that of enalapril (30 and 10 mg/kg per day) in sodium-depleted, one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats. Participation of kinins was assessed by concomitant infusion of Hoe140 (300 microg/kg per day).Four weeks after clipping and uninephrectomy, dietary sodium was withdrawn for 2 weeks and rats were treated

2004 Journal of Hypertension

1718. Combination of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms is associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

enzyme (ACE), M235T of angiotensinogen (AGT), A1166C of angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R), and C-344T of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). The segmental renal sodium handling was evaluated by the fractional excretions of exogenous lithium (FE-Li), uric acid (FE-UA), and sodium (FE-Na). Twenty-eight carriers of triple homozygosity for M (AGT), A (AT1R), and C (CYP11B2) in the presence of the D allele of ACE (DD/ID) showed lower FE-Li (20.0%+/-5.9% versus 25.0%+/-7.5%; P=0.004; mean+/-sD), FE-UA (6.3 (...) Combination of renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms is associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension. Genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are natural candidates for sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. To investigate the effect of a combination of polymorphisms of RAAS genes on renal sodium handling and blood pressure, 918 participants to the Olivetti Heart Study were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: I/D of angiotensin converting

2004 Hypertension

1719. Association between arterial properties and renal sodium handling in a general population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in 1069 untreated subjects (mean age: 41.6 years; 50.1% women; 18.8% hypertensive subjects). While accounting for covariates and standardizing for the sodium excretion rate in both sexes, CC and DC of the femoral artery increased with higher fractional distal sodium reabsorption. Differences associated with a 1-SD change in fractional distal reabsorption of sodium were 51.7 mm(2)/kPax10(-3) (95% CI: 23.9 to 79.5; P=0.0002) and 0.56x10(-3)/kPa (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.94; P=0.004) for femoral CC and DC (...) , respectively. In women as well as in men, a 1-SD increment in fractional proximal sodium reabsorption was associated with decreases in femoral and brachial diameter, amounting to 111.6 mum (95% CI: 38.2 to 185.1; P=0.003) and 52.5 mum (95% CI: 10.0 to 94.9; P=0.016), respectively. There was no consistent association between the properties of the elastic carotid artery and renal sodium handling. In conclusion, higher fractional sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron is associated with higher femoral CC

2006 Hypertension

1720. Diuretic activity of some Withania aristata Ait. fractions. (Abstract)

Diuretic activity of some Withania aristata Ait. fractions. We previously reported on the significant dose-dependent diuretic effects produced in laboratory rats by hot water infusions and methanol extracts of Withania aristata Ait., where notable increases were observed in the excretion of water and sodium, with an interesting potassium-saving effect. The present study gives the results of the diuretic effects in rats of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol-water (...) fractions of the previously studied methanol extract. Water excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in the urine of the rats when subjected to hypersaline conditions. Of the above fractions, the methanol:water extract (100mg/kg) showed the most interesting diuretic activity (25%; p<0.01), which suggested that increase in the polarity of the extracting solvent led to an increase in the concentration of the polar compounds responsible for the diuretic

2008 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

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