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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1681. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) potentiates indinavir nephrotoxicity. (Abstract)

alterations. Indinavir decreased inulin clearance (indinavir: 0.48 +0.03 vs control: 0.93 +/- 0.08, P < 0.001) and renal blood flow (indinavir: 6.2 +/- 0.2 vs control: 8.0 +/- 0.3, P < 0.05). These effects were potentiated by TMP/SMX, which produced high vasoconstriction associated with alterations in tubular functions, characterised by increased fractional excretion of sodium (indinavir+TMP/SMX: 1.14 +/- 0.16 vs control: 0.39 +/- 0.07, P < 0.01). Nelfinavir either alone or in combination with TMP/SMX did

2002 Antiviral Therapy

1682. Interactions between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators in regulating hemodynamics of distinct vascular beds. Full Text available with Trip Pro

flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa). In contrast, blocking ET did not alter RBF, and it decreased GFR and FENa. Combined Ang II and ET blockade markedly increased RBF without altering GFR, and FENa was maintained at the levels as when only ET was blocked. Sequentially inhibiting NO and PGs decreased RBF when Ang II or ET were blocked but had little effect when both were blocked. Finally, Ang II or ET blockade did not alter iliac blood flow

2003 Hypertension

1683. Natriuretic peptide receptors and neutral endopeptidase in mediating the renal actions of a new therapeutic synthetic natriuretic peptide dendroaspis natriuretic peptide. (Abstract)

).Intra-renal DNP resulted in marked natriuresis associated with increased urinary cyclic guanosine monophosphate excretion (UcGMPV), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal blood flow (RBF) and decreased distal fractional sodium reabsorption (FNaR) compared with baseline. HS-142-1 attenuated the natriuretic response to DNP, resulting in decreased UcGMPV, GFR, and RBF and increased distal FNaR. In contrast, low and high doses of NEP inhibitor did not potentiate the renal actions of DNP.We report

2002 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

1684. Kidney-specific proteins in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (Abstract)

with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included. Creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium, as well as urine concentrations of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha-1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase-pi (GST-pi), and glutathione transferase-alpha (GST-alpha) were measured after induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and at the first and second postoperative days (PODs) on the intensive care unit. Patients' ages were 54 +/- 4 and 77 +/- 3 yr, respectively. Preoperative creatinine (...) concentrations were without significant differences between the two groups. Fractional excretion of sodium was significantly higher after bypass in the elderly than in the younger patients. Urine concentrations of all kidney-specific proteins increased after CPB in the elderly (e.g., GST-pi from 16.2 +/- 3.4 to 27.7 +/- 3.9 microg/L), whereas they remained almost unchanged in the younger patients. Concentrations of all kidney-specific proteins were significantly larger in the elderly than in the younger

2003 Anesthesia and Analgesia

1685. Arixtra (fondaparinux sodium)

Arixtra (fondaparinux sodium) 1/45 ?EMEA 2004 SCIENTIFIC DISCUSSION This module reflects the initial scientific discussion and scientific discussion on procedures which have been finalised before 1 November 2004. For scientific information on procedures after this date please refer to module 8B. Introduction Arixtra is indicated for the prevention of Venous Thromboembolic Events (VTE) in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery of the lower limbs (MOSLL) such as hip fracture surgery (HFS (...) metabolism was detected in blood, urine, bile and hepatocytes by means of the detection of [ 35 S]-SO 4 2- ions. Urine secretion data in rat indicated some activity-reducing metabolism. The elimination of fondaparinux from the circulation was significantly faster in rat, rabbit and monkey compared with man. The terminal half-life did not change with dose in the animals. Drug-related radioactivity was mainly excreted via urine, whereas the faecal excretion was low (rat) or negligible (monkey). Toxicology

2005 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

1686. The Effect of Atorvastatin on Renal Function in Healthy Subjects During Normal and High Sodium Intake

by the National Library of Medicine available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Intervention Details: Drug: Atorvastatin 80 mg atorvastatin on two following days each Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Glomerular filtration rate, clearance of sodium and lithium, fractional excretion of sodium and lithium, U-AQP-2, total sodium excretion, free water clearance [ Time Frame: 6 months ] Secondary Outcome Measures : AVP, Ang-II, Aldosterone, ANP, BNP, PRC, BP and HR. [ Time Frame: 6 months (...) Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: The Effect of Acute HMG-CoA-Reductase Inhibition (Atorvastatin) on Renal Sodium Excretion, Renal Hemodynamics, Tubular Function and Vasoactive Hormones in Healthy Subjects During Normal and High Sodium Intake Study Start Date : January 2007 Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2007 Actual Study Completion Date : October 2007 Resource links provided

2008 Clinical Trials

1687. Concentrated Saline Infusions and Increased Dietary Sodium With Diuretics for Heart Failure With Kidney Dysfunction

in renal function, a fractional excretion of urea <35%, or a fractional excretion of sodium <1%. For GFR 30-60: must have serum sodium /= 120 mg/d in furosemide equivalents OR concomitant thiazide use). For GFR <30: no additional criteria needed. Exclusion Criteria: Admit estimated GFR < 15mL/min or predicted need for chronic hemodialysis within the next 60 days. Cause of acute kidney injury other than prerenal physiology (...) Concentrated Saline Infusions and Increased Dietary Sodium With Diuretics for Heart Failure With Kidney Dysfunction Concentrated Saline Infusions and Increased Dietary Sodium With Diuretics for Heart Failure With Kidney Dysfunction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2007 Clinical Trials

1688. The Effect of High and Low Sodium Intake on Urinary Aquaporin-2 in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] Urinary ENaC (beta) corrected for creatinine FENa [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] fractional sodium excretion CH2O [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] Free water excretion u-cAMP [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low (...) Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: med.res.hos.2006.cc.03 First Posted: December 12, 2006 Last Update Posted: March 20, 2018 Last Verified: March 2018 Keywords provided by Carolina Cannillo, Regional Hospital Holstebro: ADPKD Urinary Aquaporin-2 ENaC Fractional sodium excretion High/low sodium diet Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Kidney Diseases Polycystic Kidney Diseases Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant Urologic Diseases Kidney Diseases, Cystic Abnormalities, Multiple

2006 Clinical Trials

1689. The Effect of High and Low Sodium Intake on Urinary Aquaporin-2 in Healthy Humans.

: Behavioral: High Sodium Diet 250-350 mmol Behavioral: Low Sodium Diet 25-35 mmol Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : u-AQP-2 [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] fractional sodium excretion [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] p-aldosterone [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium (...) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: med.res.hos.2006.cc.01 First Posted: June 27, 2006 Last Update Posted: June 28, 2011 Last Verified: June 2011 Keywords provided by Regional Hospital Holstebro: Urinary Aquaporin 2 High/low Sodium Diet Fractional Sodium Excretion

2006 Clinical Trials

1690. The Effect of High and Low Sodium Intake on Urinary Aquaporin-2 in Essential Hypertension

days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] fractional sodium excretion [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] p-vasopressin [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] p-aldosterone [ Time Frame: Before and after hypertonic saline infusion after 4 days on high and low sodium diet, respectively. ] Secondary Outcome Measures : u-p-AQP-2 [ Time (...) Identifier (NCT Number): Layout table for additonal information Responsible Party: Carolina Cannillo Graffe, Department of Medical Research, Holstebro Hospital ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: med.res.hos.2006.cc.02 First Posted: June 27, 2006 Last Update Posted: June 28, 2011 Last Verified: June 2011 Keywords provided by Regional Hospital Holstebro: urinary aquaporin-2 ENaC fractional sodium excretion High/low sodium diet Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms

2006 Clinical Trials

1691. Safety and Efficacy of Enteric-coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS) Plus Valsartan in Patients With Kidney Transplants (MYTHOS

clearance of unlabeled iohexol, after 6 and 12 months; Albumin excretion rate and fractional clearance of albumin after 6 and 12 months; Fasting blood glucose levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure after 6 and 12 months; Incidence of acute rejection after 6 and 12 months; Patient and graft survival at 12 months; Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal (...) Safety and Efficacy of Enteric-coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS) Plus Valsartan in Patients With Kidney Transplants (MYTHOS Safety and Efficacy of Enteric-coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS) Plus Valsartan in Patients With Kidney Transplants (MYTHOS - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached

2006 Clinical Trials

1692. Hemodynamic effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade in postmenopausal women on a high-sodium diet: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

excretion compared with placebo (135 [13] vs 106 [13] μmol/min; P < 0.05) and a significant decrease at night (109 [13] vs 136 [19] μmol/min; P < 0.05). Fractional excretion of lithium (FELi), an inverse marker of proximal sodium reabsorption, increased significantly during the daytime with irbesartan compared with placebo (47% [6.5%] vs 35% [4.7%]; P < 0.05). At nighttime, FELi was significantly higher in the hypertensive subjects receiving irbesartan compared with placebo (43% [7.2%] vs 29% [6.5%]; P (...) < 0.05). The fractional distal reabsorption of sodium did not change significantly with irbesartan compared with placebo.The results from this study suggest that angiotensin II receptor blockade had a favorable impact on BP, renal hemodynamics, and renal sodium handling in these salt-replete postmenopausal women. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system restored the normal pattern of renal response to high sodium intake in these women.

2008 Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1693. Promising ternary dry powder inhaler formulations of cromolyn sodium: formulation and in vitro-in vivo evaluation. (Abstract)

that were inhaled via a Handihaler showed significantly higher drug fine particle fractions (P<0.001) than that of the same formulae aerosolized via other devices. Upon storage of the prepared formulae under uncontrolled humidity, that may be encountered during storage and use, marked reductions in these fractions were observed. Incorporation of an optimum Aerosil 200 concentration, as a ternary component, minimized this effect. A urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method was used to evaluate (...) Promising ternary dry powder inhaler formulations of cromolyn sodium: formulation and in vitro-in vivo evaluation. Glucose monohydrate and sorbitol were evaluated as alternative carriers to á-lactose monohydrate in dry powder inhalations. Cromolyn sodium (CS) - carrier binary formulae were prepared and tested in vitro by aerosolization via a twin stage impinger using three types of inhaler devices; Spinhaler, Aerolizer and Handihaler. Glucose monohydrate and sorbitol-containing formulae

2007 Archives of pharmacal research

1694. Effects of statins on renal sodium and water handling: acute and short-term effects of atorvastatin on renal haemodynamics, tubular function, vasoactive hormones, blood pressure and pulse rate in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aldosterone (Aldo), vasopressin (AVP) and blood pressure (BP) were determined.In Study 1 AS decreased fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) significantly (P = 0.035), but very modestly, and reduced diastolic BP (P = 0.024). Apart from this, we found no significant differences in GFR, RPF, tubular function and vasoactive hormones in either Study 1 or 2.An acute dose of AS decreased FE(Na) and DBP in healthy humans. The reduction in fractional (...) urinary sodium excretion was very modest and transitory, and most likely secondary to the fall in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However, renal haemodynamics, tubular function, vasoactive hormones and blood pressure were unchanged during short-term statin treatment in healthy man.

2008 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1695. Eprosartan modulates the reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system in sodium restricted healthy humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the CPT on renal tubular function. During a SNP induced reduction in MAP of 10 mmHg eprosartan decreased fractional excretions of sodium (0.46 (0.14, 0.76)%) and lithium (5.1 (2.5, 7.6)%) and tended to increase HR (4.1 (-0.26, 8.4) min(-1)) and plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (33.8 (-5.8, 72.1) pg ml(-1)). CONCLUSIONS; These findings suggest that during mild sodium restriction eprosartan has a small inhibitory effect on nonbaroreflex mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system (...) baroreflex. AIMS To test the hypothesis that eprosartan inhibits both nonbaroreflex and arterial baroreflex mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system, assessed by renal tubular function, systemic haemodynamics and vasoactive hormones, in sodium restricted healthy humans.The effect of eprosartan on urinary sodium, lithium and water excretion, heart rate (HR), blood pressure and vasoactive hormones was measured before, during and after a cold pressor test (CPT) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP

2008 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1696. The effect of dietary sodium restriction on neurohumoral activity and renal dopaminergic response in patients with heart failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Serum sodium and creatinine, plasma l-DOPA, dopamine, its metabolites, BNP and aldosterone, and 24-h urinary sodium, creatinine, l-DOPA, dopamine and metabolites were measured.The two groups were matched respecting to demographic and clinical parameters. Low-sodium diet caused significant reductions in weight, 24-h urinary volume and sodium and sodium fractional excretion. Renal delivery of l-DOPA and urinary excretion of l-DOPA significantly decreased while dopamine and metabolites were (...) The effect of dietary sodium restriction on neurohumoral activity and renal dopaminergic response in patients with heart failure. This work evaluates the effect of a low-sodium diet on clinical and neurohumoral parameters and on renal dopaminergic system activity in heart failure (HF) patients.We included 24 patients with mild-to-moderate stable HF with left ventricle ejection fraction <40%. Twelve patients were studied before and after a 15-day low-sodium diet; 12 maintained their usual diet

2004 European journal of heart failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1697. Pleurectomy/Decortication With Intraoperative Intrathoracic/Intraperitoneal Heated Cisplatin With Sodium Thiosulfate

Pleurectomy/Decortication With Intraoperative Intrathoracic/Intraperitoneal Heated Cisplatin With Sodium Thiosulfate Pleurectomy/Decortication With Intraoperative Intrathoracic/Intraperitoneal Heated Cisplatin With Sodium Thiosulfate - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Pleurectomy/Decortication With Intraoperative Intrathoracic/Intraperitoneal Heated Cisplatin With Sodium Thiosulfate The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00165503 Recruitment Status : Terminated (lack of acurral

2005 Clinical Trials

1698. A comparative study of renal function in the desert-adapted spiny mouse and the laboratory-adapted C57BL/6 mouse: response to dietary salt load. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. On the high-salt diet, both species had similar 24-h NaCl excretions; but C57BL/6 mice required a significantly increased amount of water (lower urine NaCl concentration) than the spiny mice. Filtration fraction was greater in both species on the high-salt diet. Spiny mice had greater GFR and ERPF after the high-salt diet, whereas the C57BL/6 mouse showed little change in GFR. The ability of the spiny mouse to tolerate a significantly higher plasma osmolality after salt, measured by a decreased drinking (...) A comparative study of renal function in the desert-adapted spiny mouse and the laboratory-adapted C57BL/6 mouse: response to dietary salt load. The desert-adapted spiny mouse has a significantly lower glomerular number, increased glomerular size, and a more densely packed renal papillae compared with the similar-sized laboratory-adapted C57BL/6 mouse. In the present study we examined the functional consequences of these structural differences in young adult male spiny and C57BL/6 mice

2007 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1699. EPO and alpha-MSH prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced down-regulation of AQPs and sodium transporters in rat kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

urine output, and high fractional excretion of urinary sodium. Consistent with this, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed that the kidney expression of AQPs (AQP-1, -2 and -3) and sodium transporters [Na,K-ATPase, rat type 1 bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (BSC-1), Na/H exchanger type 3 (NHE3), and thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (TSC)] in ARF rats was significantly decreased compared to sham-operated control rats. In contrast, EPO treatment at the time (...) EPO and alpha-MSH prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced down-regulation of AQPs and sodium transporters in rat kidney. Ischemia-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is known to be associated with significant impairment of urinary concentrating ability and down-regulation of renal aquaporins (AQPs) and sodium transporters in rats. We tested whether treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) or alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in combination with EPO reduces the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I

2004 Kidney International

1700. A hypothesis linking sodium and lithium reabsorption in the distal nephron. Full Text available with Trip Pro

have shown that under normal circumstances hardly any Li(+) is reabsorbed in the distal nephron, so that the urinary excretion of Li(+), expressed as a fraction of the delivery to the early distal tubule (FE(Li dist)), amounts to approximately 0.97. In contrast, during severe dietary Na(+) restriction, FE(Li dist) decreases to 0.50-0.60. Our hypothesis is that the absence of distal Li(+) reabsorption during intake of a normal diet can be explained by a negative driving force for Li(+) entrance (...) A hypothesis linking sodium and lithium reabsorption in the distal nephron. A hypothesis is proposed linking Na(+) and Li(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron. The handling of these two ions in the distal nephron is related because they share the same apical membrane entry mechanism: the amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel (ENaC). However, the two ions exit the cell through different transport mechanisms: Na(+) via the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Li(+) via the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. Studies in rats

2006 Transplantation

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