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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1661. Modulation of renal calcium handling by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. (Abstract)

/6 mmHg; P < 0.001 for systolic; P < 0.05 for diastolic). During GA administration, serum ionized calcium decreased from 1.26 +/- 0.05 to 1.18 +/- 0.04 mmol/L (P < 0.0001), and absolute urinary calcium excretion was enhanced from 29.2 +/- 3.6 to 31.9 +/- 3.1 micromol/L GFR (P < 0.01). Fractional calcium excretion increased from 2.4 +/- 0.3 to 2.7 +/- 0.3% (P < 0.01) and was negatively correlated to the fractional sodium excretion during GA (R = -0.35; P < 0.001). Moreover, serum potassium (...) correlated positively with serum ionized calcium (R = 0.66; P < 0.0001). Inhibition of 11 beta HSD2 activity is sufficient to significantly increase the fractional excretion of calcium and decrease serum ionized calcium, suggesting decreased tubular reabsorption of this divalent cation under conditions of renal glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid excess. The likely site of steroid-regulated renal calcium handling appears to be the distal tubule.

2002 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1662. Pressure natriuresis in AT(2) receptor-deficient mice with L-NAME hypertension. (Abstract)

) +/+ mice (118 +/- 2 versus 108 +/- 4 mmHg). This difference occurred even though L-NAME-treated AT(2) +/+ mice had a greater sodium excretion than AT(2) -/- mice (10.9 +/- 0.5 versus 8.0 +/- 1.0 micro mol/h). The pressure-natriuresis relationship in conscious AT(2) -/- mice was shifted rightward compared with controls. RBF was decreased in AT(2) -/- compared with AT(2) +/+ mice. L-NAME decreased RBF in these mice further from 4.08 +/- 0.43 to 2.79 +/- 0.15 ml/min per g of kidney wt. GFR (...) was not significantly different between AT(2) +/+ and AT(2) -/- mice (1.09 +/- 0.08 versus 1.21 +/- 0.09 ml/min per g of kidney wt). L-NAME reduced GFR in AT(2) -/- to 0.87 +/- 0.07 ml/min per g of kidney wt. Fractional sodium (FE(Na)) and water (FE(H2O)) curves were shifted more strongly to the right by L-NAME in AT(2) -/- mice than in AT(2) +/+ mice. AT(1) receptor blocker treatment lowered BP in both L-NAME-treated strains to basal values. It is concluded that the AT(1) receptor plays a key role in the impaired

2003 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1663. Renal tubular dysfunction in beta-thalassemia minor. (Abstract)

patients with anemia (n = 19), and group B, patients without anemia (n = 22). Blood and 24-hour urine samples were obtained for hematologic and biochemical analysis.Anemic patients had increased urinary zinc excretion (U(zinc)) and fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) and uric acid (FE(UA)) compared with both controls and patients without anemia. Hemoglobin levels correlated significantly in a negative manner with U(zinc), FE(Na), and FE(UA) in patients with beta-thalassemia minor. However, serum

2003 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

1664. Urinary measurement of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) protein as new marker of tubule injury in critically ill patients with ARF. (Abstract)

patients. The amount of urinary NHE3 was compared with the fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) and urinary retinol-binding protein (RBP).NHE3 was not detected in urine from controls. Levels of urinary NHE3 normalized to urinary creatinine level were increased in patients with prerenal azotemia and 6 times as much in patients with ATN, without overlap (ATN, 0.78 +/- 0.36; prerenal azotemia, 0.12 +/- 0.08; P < 0.001). Conversely, urinary NHE3 protein was not detected in patients with intrinsic ARF (...) Urinary measurement of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) protein as new marker of tubule injury in critically ill patients with ARF. It has been shown that apical sodium transporters of the renal tubule can be detected by immunoblotting of urine membrane fraction from rats. We raised the hypothesis that protein levels of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3), the most abundant apical sodium transporter in renal tubule, should be increased in urine of patients presenting with acute renal failure

2003 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

1665. Measurement of tubular enzymuria facilitates early detection of acute renal impairment in the intensive care unit. (Abstract)

significantly lower (P=0.008) after 12 h. Plasma urea and fractional sodium excretion were unhelpful.Tubular enzymuria on admission to the ICU is useful in predicting ARF. The cheapness and wide availability of automated assays for gamma GT and AP suggests that estimation of these enzymes in random urine samples may be particularly useful for identifying patients at high risk of ARF.

2003 Transplantation

1666. Effects of different perfusates on functional parameters of isolated perfused dog kidneys. (Abstract)

perfusion, we monitored renal perfusate flow (RPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), electrolyte and glucose reabsorption, oxygen consumption and urine concentration.Changes in perfusion medium did not affect the RPF. In contrast, GFR, urine concentration and oxygen consumption were significantly higher, whereas fractional excretion of sodium and glucose were significantly lower in blood- than in Tyrode-perfused kidneys.This system offers a simple model for studying whole-organ functional alterations

2003 Transplantation

1667. The effect of endothelin antagonists on renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury and the development of acute renal failure in the rat. (Abstract)

rats.The animals were anaesthetized, drug infusion commenced, and the renal artery occluded for 30 min. The endothelin antagonists were given for 30 min before, during, and 60 min after the ischaemic period, at 10, 30 and 100 micro g/kg/min or for 60 min after the start of reperfusion.On day 1, following 30 min renal artery occlusion, there was a 95% reduction in glomerular filtration rate, an 8-10-fold increase in plasma creatinine, and 10-15-fold increases in fractional excretions of sodium

2002 Transplantation

1668. Hypoxanthine plus xanthine oxidase causes profound natriuresis without affecting renal blood flow autoregulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 46.3 +/- 4.4 microL/min, urinary excretion of sodium (UNaV) from 1.7 +/- 0.4 micromol/min to 8.6 +/- 0.9 micromol/min, and fractional excretion of sodium FENa from 1.2 +/- 0.4% to 7.6 +/- 1.2%. Urinary excretion of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation, increased during HX/XO infusion. These changes were completely reversible. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased from 1.12 +/- 0.08 during baseline to 0.79 +/- 0.06 during HX/XO (P < 0.05) and tended (...) and intravenous xanthine oxidase (HX/XO) infusion would decrease or increase sodium excretion, and whether HX/XO infusion could be responsible for the diminished efficacy of renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation in ischemia/reperfusion.In the first group of Sprague-Dawley rats, renal sodium handling was measured before and during O2-. infusion. In the second group, renal hemodynamics and RBF autoregulation were assessed.Intrarenal O2-. infusion dramatically increased urine flow from 14.5 +/- 2.0 microL/min

2003 Kidney International

1669. Renal fluid and electrolyte handling in BKCa-beta1-/- mice. (Abstract)

) are present in various renal cells including the mesangium and cortical collecting ducts, we determined whether fluid or electrolyte excretion was impaired in Mbeta1(-/-) under euvolemic, volume-expanded, or high-salt diet conditions. Under euvolemic conditions, no differences in renal function were found between Mbeta1(-/-) and Mbeta1(+/+). However, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional K(+) excretion were significantly impaired in Mbeta1(-/-) in response to acute volume expansion. In contrast (...) , Mbeta1(-/-) exhibited enhanced Na(+) excretion and fractional Na(+) excretion responses to acute volume expansion. Differences in renal function between Mbeta1(+/+) and Mbeta1(-/-) were not observed when chronically treated with a high-salt diet. These observations indicate that the beta1-subunit of BK(Ca) contributes to the increased GFR that accompanies an acute salt and volume load and raises the possibility that it is also involved in regulating K(+) excretion under these conditions.

2003 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1670. Role of nitric oxide in the natriuretic and diuretic responses in pregnant rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

; and LP-VE-l-NMMA, n = 12) that underwent simultaneous VE and l-NMMA infusion after a control period. The change in fractional excretion of sodium was 7.22 +/- 1.03% for NPVE, 9.89 +/- 1.85% for NP-l-NMMA, and 17.66 +/- 1.85% for NP-VE-l-NMMA (P < 0.05 vs. NP-VE and NP-l-NMMA); 6.61 +/- 1.07% for MP-VE, 7.99 +/- 1.92% for MP-l-NMMA, and 10.24 +/- 1.91% for MP-VE-l-NMMA [not significant (NS) vs. MP-VE and MP-l-NMMA]; 8.20 +/- 1.92% for LP-VE, 8.09 +/- 0.70% for LP-l-NMMA, and 7.57 +/- 1.11% for LP-VE-l (...) Role of nitric oxide in the natriuretic and diuretic responses in pregnant rats. Normal pregnancy is characterized by sodium conservation and increase in plasma volume, yet the natriuretic response to acute saline volume expansion (VE) is intact in pregnant rats. Nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested to play a role in renal and cardiovascular adaptations to normal pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine the role of NO in the natriuretic and diuretic responses to VE during

2003 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1671. Segment-specific ENaC downregulation in kidney of rats with lithium-induced NDI. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and blood pressure. We hypothesized that dysregulation of ENaC subunits may be responsible for the increased sodium excretion associated with lithium treatment. Lithium treatment for 28 days resulted in severe polyuria, increased fractional excretion of sodium, and increased plasma aldosterone concentration. Immunoblotting revealed that lithium treatment induced a marked decrease in the protein abundance of beta-ENaC and gamma-ENaC in the cortex and outer medulla. Moreover, immunohistochemistry (...) cotransporter, the key renal sodium transporters upstream from the connecting tubule (including the alpha1-subunit of Na-K-ATPase, type 3 Na/H exchanger, and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter) were unchanged. These results identify a marked and highly segment-specific downregulation of beta-ENaC and gamma-ENaC in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct, chief sites for collecting duct sodium reabsorption, in rats with a lithium-induced increase in fractional excretion of sodium.

2003 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

1672. The urinary response to an oral oxalate load in recurrent calcium stone formers. (Abstract)

formers without hyperoxaluria excrete similar fractions of an oral oxalate load. Increased gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion of dietary oxalate may be a significant pathophysiological mechanism of stone formation in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. (...) The urinary response to an oral oxalate load in recurrent calcium stone formers. Dietary oxalate may contribute up to 50% to 80% of the oxalate excreted in urine. We studied the urinary response to an oral oxalate load in male and female idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers with and without mild hyperoxaluria to evaluate the potential pathophysiological significance of dietary oxalate.A total of 60 recurrent calcium stone formers underwent an oral oxalate load test. Urine samples

2003 Journal of Urology

1673. Is kidney function altered by the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass? (Abstract)

excretion of sodium, urine concentrations of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase-pi, and glutathione transferase-alpha were measured after induction of anesthesia at the end of the operation, and on the first and second postoperative days in the intensive care unit.CPB times were 58 +/- 12 minutes and 116 +/- 18 minutes, respectively. Hemodynamics, volume replacement, and use of catecholamines during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were without significant (...) Is kidney function altered by the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass? Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is considered responsible for kidney damage. By using sensitive markers of kidney damage we assessed whether the length of CPB influences kidney function.In a prospective study, 50 consecutive cardiac operation patients with CPB times of less than 70 minutes were compared with 50 consecutive patients showing CPB times of more than 90 minutes. Aside from creatinine clearance and fractional

2003 Annals of Thoracic Surgery

1674. Renal function and plasma volume following ultramarathon cycling. (Abstract)

and the athlete's training kilometers. The serum urea/CR ratio rose above 40 in 12 athletes (75 %). Mean fractional sodium excretion and fractional uric acid excretion fell below 0.5 % (p <0.001) and 7 %, indicating reduced renal perfusion. The deflection of the renal functional parameters was temporary and nearly gone after 24 hours of recovery. Hct declined during the race from 0.44 to 0.42, and continued falling on the next day (0.42 --> 0.40; p <0.001). The corresponding rises in calculated PV were + 8

2005 International Journal of Sports Medicine

1675. Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism: a possible etiological factor of septic shock-induced acute renal failure. (Abstract)

total volume of infused fluid, serum creatinine level, and fractional excretion of sodium values; aldosterone and serum creatinine were negatively correlated. Hypoaldosteronism was reversible within 1 week. Duration of ICU stay (p=0.0026) and the need for renal replacement therapy (p=0.0021) were greater in the group with PAC/renin less than 2.Transient hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism is common in patients with septic shock. These abnormal aldosterone levels are associated with greater sodium

2003 Intensive Care Medicine

1676. Endogenous glycosides in critically ill patients. (Abstract)

creatinine, fractional sodium excretion, proinflammatory mediators, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A (p

2003 Critical Care Medicine

1677. Pattern of renal dysfunction associated with myocardial revascularization surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. (Abstract)

with preoperative normal renal function, defined by plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of sodium and renal excretion of proteins, undergoing elective myocardial revascularization surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, were prospectively studied. Variables recorded were demographic and haemodynamic variables, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping, intra- and postoperative urine output, plasma creatinine concentration, creatinine clearance and excretion of sodium, albumin (...) Pattern of renal dysfunction associated with myocardial revascularization surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. A variable incidence rate of renal dysfunction (3-35%) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass has been reported. The aim was to define the typical pattern of renal dysfunction that follows coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass using albumin, immunoglobulin (IgG), alpha1-microglobulin and beta-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) excretion as indicators.Twenty patients

2003 European Journal of Anaesthesiology

1678. Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on selected plasma and urinary cytokine antagonists in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

excretions of TNFsr1 and TNFsr2 during normoglycaemia were comparable in diabetic patients and controls. In diabetic patients, hyperglycaemia decreased TNFsr1 excretion (study 1 vs study 2; p<0.01), while TNFsr1 excretion did not change in control subjects. Hyperglycaemia did not affect TNFsr2 excretion in diabetic patients, while it led to an increase in TNFsr2 excretion in control subjects (study 1 vs study 2; p<0.05). Despite comparable renal haemodynamics, diabetic patients had lower fractional (...) excretion of sodium compared to control subjects ( p<0.01). No significant relationships between cytokine antagonists and renal functions have been found.Type 1 diabetic patients with normal renal haemodynamics are associated with impaired regulation of renal IL-1ra, TNFsr1 and TNFsr2 production with a potential impact on local control of cytokine activity in the kidneys.

2003 Diabetologia

1679. Systemic nitric oxide production and renal function in nonazotemic human cirrhosis: a reappraisal. (Abstract)

a significant positive correlation between metoclopramide-induced incremental aldosterone plasma levels (i.e., endogenous dopaminergic tone) and fractional excretion of sodium (r = 0.58; p < 0.05). In the group of compensated patients, NO levels correlated inversely with creatinine plasma concentrations (r = -0.85; p < 0.001) and directly with inulin clearance (r = 0.65; p < 0.05).These data show that, at least in compensated cirrhotic patients, the stimulation of systemic NO production and the increased (...) dopaminergic function may be mechanisms preventing renal perfusion, GFR, and fractional excretion of sodium from precocious reductions.

2002 American Journal of Gastroenterology

1680. Renal tubular events following passage from the supine to the standing position in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis: loss of tubuloglomerular feedback. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal tubular events following passage from the supine to the standing position in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis: loss of tubuloglomerular feedback. Patients with preascitic liver cirrhosis display significant renal sodium retention in the upright posture and an exaggerated natriuresis during recumbency. To date, intrarenal sodium handling in these patients has not been studied using lithium clearance and fractional excretion techniques during recumbency and orthostatism.Ten (...) patients with preascitic (Child-Pugh A) liver cirrhosis and 10 healthy subjects underwent the following measurements during recumbency and then after four hours of standing: (a) active renin and aldosterone plasma levels; and (b) renal clearance of creatinine, sodium, potassium, and lithium (an index of fluid delivery to the loop of Henle).Unlike the control group, in the upright posture patients had significantly lower values of lithium clearance and fractional excretion compared with recumbency (21.6

2002 Gut

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