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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1641. Renal function in sick very low birthweight infants: 4. Glucose excretion. (PubMed)

Renal function in sick very low birthweight infants: 4. Glucose excretion. Renal glucose excretion was measured on 239 occasions in a sample of 36 infants of 25.5-33 weeks' gestation, birth weight 720-2000 g, between the ages of 0.5 and 32 days. Glucose was invariably present in urine from the first day. Fractional glucose excretion varied widely from 0.1% to 90% of filtered glucose and glucose excretion rate was up to 15.5 mmol/kg/day and was higher in the most immature infants, especially (...) below 28 weeks' gestation. The highest values were in association with hyperglycaemia between 5 and 15 days but there was no consistent plasma glucose threshold with frequent glucose spillage at normal blood glucose concentrations. There was some correlation with sodium excretion in the first week suggesting that in the absence of hyperglycaemia with a normal filtered glucose load, glucose excretion is caused by proximal tubular immaturity.

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1992 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1642. Lithium clearance during variations in sodium intake in man: effects of sodium restriction and amiloride. (PubMed)

Lithium clearance during variations in sodium intake in man: effects of sodium restriction and amiloride. Assuming that lithium is exclusively reabsorbed in the proximal tubules in proportion to sodium and water, the lithium clearance (CLi) has been advanced as an index of filtrate delivery from the proximal tubules. However, studies in the rat and dog showed that CLi drops sharply at fractional sodium excretion rates (FENa) below 0.4% due to lithium reabsorption in the amiloride-sensitive (...) segment of the distal nephron, which disqualified CLi as an index of distal filtrate delivery during sodium restriction in these animals. In order to investigate whether this phenomenon also occurs in man, we studied CLi in 103 normal subjects at varying sodium intakes, including marked sodium restriction. In contrast to findings in the rat and dog, no sharp drop but a gradual fall in CLi was observed at decreasing FENa values down to 0.02%. Maximum urine flow, another index of filtrate delivery from

1988 European journal of clinical investigation

1643. Effects of Inhibition of NO-Synthesis on Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension and Healthy Controls

in patients with essential hypertension. The results are compared with a group of healthy subjects. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hypertension Drug: Ng-monomethyl-L-arginine (drug) Phase 1 Detailed Description: The study investigates the effects of Ng-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on: renal hemodynamics (renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate) renal sodium excretion lithium clearance and fractional lithium excretion plasma levels of vasoactive hormones blood pressure (...) Effects of Inhibition of NO-Synthesis on Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension and Healthy Controls Effects of Inhibition of NO-Synthesis on Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension and Healthy Controls - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save

2006 Clinical Trials

1644. Effects of somatostatin, terlipressin and somatostatin plus terlipressin on portal and systemic hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion in patients with cirrhosis. (PubMed)

). Fractional sodium excretion significantly increased in patients without ascites (0.43 vs 0.16%) while it did not change in patients with ascites. Somatostatin did not alter portal hemodynamics whereas it significantly reduced MAP, heart rate (HR) and CO (86.9 vs 98.6 mmHg, 65 vs 73 bpm and 8.4 vs 9.1 L/min, respectively) and, in patients with ascites, sodium excretion (0.13 vs 0.23%). The addition of terlipressin to somatostatin induced similar changes to those observed after terlipressin alone (...) Effects of somatostatin, terlipressin and somatostatin plus terlipressin on portal and systemic hemodynamics and renal sodium excretion in patients with cirrhosis. Terlipressin and somatostatin are the most preferable agents for the control of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. The present study evaluated the hemodynamic effects of somatostatin, terlipressin and somatostatin plus terlipressin in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension, as well as the effect of each regimen on renal

2005 Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology

1645. Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on sodium handling and excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, bradykinin, and cGMP in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

, whereas fractional excretion of sodium was decreased in DM1 (1.84 +/- 0.75 vs. 2.36 +/- 0.67%; P < 0.05) due to an increase in fractional distal tubular reabsorption of sodium (94.01 +/- 1.94 vs. 92.24 +/- 2.47%; P < 0.05). A comparison of changes during Study 1 and Study 2 revealed acute hyperglycaemia did not change renal haemodynamics significantly, while fractional distal tubular reabsorption of sodium increased (DM1: P < 0.05; C: P < 0.01) and fractional excretion of sodium decreased (P < 0.01 (...) Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on sodium handling and excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, bradykinin, and cGMP in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acutely induced hyperglycaemia on renal sodium handling and to explore the role of the bradykinin-nitric oxide-cGMP signalling pathway.We compared 20 Type 1 diabetic (DM1) patients without microalbuminuria with 15 weight-, age-, and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Clearances of para-aminohippuric acid

2004 Diabetic Medicine

1646. Effects of renal neutral endopeptidase inhibition on sodium excretion, renal hemodynamics and neurohormonal activation in patients with congestive heart failure. (PubMed)

filtration fraction with no significant effect on glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow or lithium clearance. A significant reduction in aldosterone concentration with a similar trend in plasma renin activity was noted in candoxatril-treated patients. Thus in patients with moderate heart failure, renal neutral endopeptidase inhibition increases urinary sodium excretion. The lack of an effect on renal hemodynamics suggests that this natriuresis results from ANF-mediated inhibition of tubular (...) Effects of renal neutral endopeptidase inhibition on sodium excretion, renal hemodynamics and neurohormonal activation in patients with congestive heart failure. We investigated the effects of inhibiting endogenous atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) metabolism on renal hemodynamics, sodium excretion and neurohormones in 12 patients with New York Heart Association functional class II congestive heart failure (CHF) due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In a randomized, placebo-controlled

1996 Cardiology

1647. Comparison of the effects on urinary sodium excretion of indomethacin and of carbidopa in normal volunteers given an intravenous saline infusion. (PubMed)

Comparison of the effects on urinary sodium excretion of indomethacin and of carbidopa in normal volunteers given an intravenous saline infusion. 1. Dopamine and prostaglandins are putative endogenous natriuretic hormones. The role of each in facilitating natriuresis induced by intravenous saline infusion was examined in normal volunteers in relation to administration of carbidopa, a dopadecarboxylase inhibitor, and indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase. 2. In a placebo (...) diminished natriuresis and increased distal fractional Na+ reabsorption in proportion to the antinatriuretic effect. 4. The changes in plasma concentrations of albumin, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide and renin activity associated with volume expansion were not modified by either carbidopa or indomethacin. Urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion was decreased transiently by indomethacin and was unaffected by carbidopa. 5. This study suggests that prostaglandins may modulate urinary Na+ excretion

1997 Clinical science (London, England : 1979)

1648. Inhibition of neutral endopeptidase stimulates renal sodium excretion in patients with chronic renal failure. (PubMed)

Inhibition of neutral endopeptidase stimulates renal sodium excretion in patients with chronic renal failure. 1. The acute effects of a single oral dose of sinorphan (100 mg), an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase, on the plasma atrial natriuretic factor level and the fractional excretion of sodium were examined in 12 patients with severe chronic renal failure who were not on maintenance haemodialysis and who ingested a normal sodium diet. The drug was administered against placebo by a double (...) -blind cross-over protocol. 2. Basal plasma atrial natriuretic factor level and fractional excretion of sodium were high (23.2 +/- 3.7 pmol/l and 2.64 +/- 0.38%, respectively). Sinorphan inhibited plasma neutral endopeptidase activity by 68-75% 30 min after ingestion. This effect persisted for at least 4 h. There were simultaneously increases in plasma atrial natriuretic factor and cyclic GMP levels to 1.9 and 1.4 times the basal values, respectively. Fractional excretion of sodium increased during

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979)

1649. The effect of angiotensin II and noradrenaline alone and in combination on renal sodium excretion in man. (PubMed)

and fractional sodium excretion. Angiotensin II when infused with placebo caused a 37% fall in absolute sodium excretion and a 32% fall when infused with noradrenaline (no significant difference between the 2 days). Similar changes were seen for urinary flow and fractional sodium excretion. 5. We have therefore found no evidence to support a postsynaptic interaction of low doses of angiotensin II and noradrenaline on renal sodium excretion in man. (...) The effect of angiotensin II and noradrenaline alone and in combination on renal sodium excretion in man. 1. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system is important for the maintenance of sodium balance in man. Recent animal evidence suggests the angiotensin II can modulate the effect of the renal sympathetic nervous system on renal function. We have investigated the possible interaction of physiological doses of angiotensin II and noradrenaline on sodium excretion in man. 2. Seven normal

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1989 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1650. Renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion after acute and chronic administration of cicletanine in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. (PubMed)

Renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion after acute and chronic administration of cicletanine in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. We examined the effects of two therapeutic oral (p.o.) doses of cicletanine (50 and 100 mg daily) on renal hemodynamics and segmental tubular handling of sodium. Six normotensive (NT) healthy subjects (group 1) received 50 mg cicletanine, and 12 moderately hypertensive (HT) patients with normal sodium diet and randomly divided into two groups of 6 were treated (...) either with cicletanine 50 mg (group II) or with cicletanine 100 mg (group III). Studies were performed both acutely and after 4 weeks of cicletanine administration. After 28-day treatment, blood pressure (BP) was significantly reduced in HT patients. In NT subjects (group I) and HT patients (groups II and III), acute administration of cicletanine 50 or 100 mg at day 0 did not significantly modify glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or renal blood flow (RBF), but markedly increased fractional excretion

1995 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology

1651. Effect of estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen on blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and renal sodium excretion. (PubMed)

and then to crossover to the alternative regimen for a second 6-week period. Measurements of clinic and ambulatory BP, plasma renin activity (PRA), and fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)) were performed at baseline and at the end of each study period.Twenty-three women completed the study (mean age 60.6 +/- 8.3 years). There was no effect of tamoxifen on clinic BP (mean difference between withdrawal and continuation for systolic BP, 0.4 +/- 8.4 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.0 to 3.2, and diastolic 0.6 (...) Effect of estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen on blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and renal sodium excretion. Adjuvant treatment with the estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen is a well established long-term therapy in breast cancer. This study investigated the effect of tamoxifen on blood pressure (BP) and on factors by which it might be influenced.Normotensive postmenopausal women on > 12 months adjuvant tamoxifen therapy were randomized to withdraw or continue tamoxifen for 6 weeks

2002 American journal of hypertension

1652. Effect of Medullary Tonicity on Urinary Sodium Excretion in the Rat (PubMed)

in urine osmolality and an increase in urine flow rate but had no effect on proximal reabsorption in either superficial or juxtamedullary nephrons, and did not alter urinary sodium excretion. Volume expansion with 2% body weight Ringer solution resulted in a significant fall in proximal reabsorption and a trivial increment in sodium excretion. When this same degree of volume expansion was conferred on animals undergoing a water diuresis, a marked increase in absolute and fractional sodium excretion (...) occurred. In a second group of studies medullary tonicity was reduced in the left kidney only by removal of the left ureter 1 h before micropuncture. When these animals were infused with 2% body weight Ringer solution, proximal reabsorption was decreased in juxtamedullary nephrons, and a marked increase in sodium excretion was observed only from the left kidney. Finally, the effect of water diuresis on fractional sodium delivery to the early and late distal tubule of superficial nephrons during 2

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1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1653. Significance of the fractional excretion of urea in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure. (PubMed)

Significance of the fractional excretion of urea in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) has been used in the diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) to distinguish between the two main causes of ARF, prerenal state and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). However, many patients with prerenal disorders receive diuretics, which decrease sodium reabsorption and thus increase FENa. In contrast, the fractional excretion of urea nitrogen (FEUN

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2002 Kidney International

1654. Sodium fraction excretion rate in nocturnal enuresis correlates with nocturnal polyuria and osmolality. (PubMed)

Sodium fraction excretion rate in nocturnal enuresis correlates with nocturnal polyuria and osmolality. We verify the sodium fraction excretion rate (FE Na) and potassium fraction excretion (FE K) rates in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. We also correlate FE Na and FE K to urinary osmolality, nocturnal polyuria and vasopressin in the same population.A total of 438 children 6 to 15 years old (mean age 9.7) presenting with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were recruited from different

2004 Journal of Urology

1655. Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure, serum levels and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normotensives with and without familial predisposition to hypertension. (PubMed)

and after sudden rising), body weight, and urinary output of creatinine, sodium and potassium on the third, sixth and ninth days. In addition, plasma levels of creatinine, sodium and potassium were determined on the ninth day so that sodium and potassium clearance and fractional excretion could be calculated. 2. Eleven of the volunteers had a family history of hypertension. Compared to the six without such a history, these subjects showed: 1) higher supine systolic blood pressure on the third day (...) Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure, serum levels and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normotensives with and without familial predisposition to hypertension. 1. Seventeen normal volunteers aged 19 to 22 were randomly subjected, in a trial of crossover design, to three distinct regimens of sodium chloride intake: high (16 to 20 g), normal (8 to 12 g) and low (0.5 to 1 g). Each regimen lasted nine days, with determination of blood pressure and heart rate (in the supine position

1987 Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas médicas e biológicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofísica ... [et al.]

1656. Diagnostic performance of fractional excretion of urea and fractional excretion of sodium in the evaluations of patients with acute kidney injury with or without diuretic treatment. (PubMed)

Diagnostic performance of fractional excretion of urea and fractional excretion of sodium in the evaluations of patients with acute kidney injury with or without diuretic treatment. The accuracy of fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) for the diagnosis of transient acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by decreased kidney perfusion is reported to be low in patients administered diuretics.This is a prospective study of diagnostic accuracy comparing the performance of fractional excretion of urea

2007 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

1657. Prediction of diuretic mobilization of cirrhotic ascites by pretreatment fractional sodium excretion. (PubMed)

Prediction of diuretic mobilization of cirrhotic ascites by pretreatment fractional sodium excretion. In a randomized prospective study the efficacy and side effects of xipamide versus the combination spironolactone/furosemide in the treatment of cirrhotic ascites were studied. Out of 27 patients four responded to a basic treatment consisting of salt and water restriction and one had to be excluded because of deterioration of kidney function. The remaining 22 patients were randomized (...) to additional treatment with either 20 mg xipamide/day (group I) or 200 mg spironolactone/day combined with 40 mg of furosemide every other day (group II). A response to treatment during the first 4 days was seen in 7 of 11 patients of group I versus only 3 of 11 patients in group II. In the latter group 7 of 11 patients finally responded after 8 days of treatment. Responsiveness to either diuretic treatment strongly depended on pretreatment fractional Na excretion, FENa. The resistance to diuretic

1990 Klinische Wochenschrift

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