How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

1,793 results for

Fractional Excretion of Sodium


Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

1621. Effects of amlodipine on renal haemodynamics in mild to moderate hypertensive patients. A randomized controlled study versus placebo. (Abstract)

vascular resistance (RVR = MBP x 80/ERBF) were calculated. Plasma renin activity (PRA), serum aldosterone (ALD) and urinary excretion of sodium (NaU) were evaluated. At the end of amlodipine administration a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in SBP, DBP and MBP from baseline values was observed. A significant decrease (P < 0.01) in RVR and significant increases (P < 0.05) in ERPF, ERBF and in NaU were also found, without relevant changes in GFR, FF, PRA and ALD. No significant variation in clinical (...) cardiac or renal diseases were randomly allocated to a double-blind 4 weeks controlled study with amlodipine 10 mg once a day (15 patients) or placebo (15 patients). Renal haemodynamic measurements included effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by radionuclide study using 131I-hippuran and 99mTc, with methods described by Schlegel and Gates, respectively. In addition, effective renal blood flow [ERBF = ERPF/(1-Ht)], filtration fraction (FF = GFR/ERPF) and renal

1993 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1622. The acute haemodynamic and renal effects of oral felodipine and ramipril in healthy subjects. (Abstract)

resistance (FVR), renal blood flow (RBF), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), filtration fraction (FF), diuresis, and sodium excretion were recorded for 4.75 h after administration. Felodipine 20 mg caused a significant fall in diastolic blood pressure, maximal 12% compared with placebo, while there were no significant effects of felodipine 5 mg or the two doses of ramipril. Heart rate increased significantly after both doses of felodipine, maximal 28% after the 20 mg dose

1993 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1623. Renal function changes in microalbuminuric normotensive type II diabetic patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. (Abstract)

was untreated.Microalbuminuria decreased only in the treated group at 6 mo (P = 0.044) and a significant (P = 0.027) mean percentage change on microalbuminuria excretion between the groups was observed. Filtration fraction decreased in group A (baseline: 0.23 +/- 0.03; 6 mo: 0.22 +/- 0.04) and increased in group B (baseline: 0.22 +/- 0.04; 6 mo: 0.25 +/- 0.04) with a significant mean percentage change between the groups at 6 mo (P = 0.032). The mean percentage change in microalbuminuria was significantly correlated (...) with a mean percentage change in diastolic blood pressure throughout the trial. Neither metabolic control nor sodium or protein intake changed in either group during the trial.These results suggest that captopril can help arrest microalbuminuria in normotensive type II diabetic patients, with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure and filtration fraction after a 6-mo treatment.

1993 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1624. A comparison of spirapril and isradipine in patients with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension. (Abstract)

A comparison of spirapril and isradipine in patients with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension. The effects of spirapril and isradipine on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and sodium-volume homeostasis in hypertensive insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy were assessed. Fifteen Type 1 diabetic patients aged 28-53 years with a diabetes duration of 19-37 years were studied. All had hypertension and diabetic nephropathy with a urinary albumin excretion of more than 300 mg (...) +/- 13 vs 143 +/- 11 mmHg (p < 0.01) and 90 +/- 4 vs 84 +/- 4 mmHg (p < 0.05). The fractional albumin clearance was unchanged on isradipine but decreased after 6 months treatment with spirapril with on average 20% (p < 0.05). Total body exchangeable sodium decreased on spirapril treatment: 2994 +/- 296 vs 2636 +/- 194 meq/1.73 m2 (p < 0.05) and extracellular volume tended to do so (p = 0.12). On isradipine treatment these parameters remained unchanged. In conclusion both isradipine and spirapril

1993 Blood pressure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1625. Lithium pretreatment affects renal and systemic responses to angiotensin II infusion in normal man. (Abstract)

in blood pressure during angiotensin II infusion was lower [8.2 (1.8) versus 12.2 (2.4) mmHg, P less than 0.02]. 3. Lithium at a dose of 750 mg increased overnight urinary sodium excretion before the study. The fall in fractional sodium excretion during angiotensin II infusion was reduced after pretreatment with 750 mg of lithium [750 mg of lithium, 2.73 (0.24) to 1.34 (0.08)%; placebo, 2.69 (0.26) to 1.01 (0.11)%; P = 0.02]. The increases in effective filtration fraction [750 mg of lithium, 5.4 (1.0 (...) angiotensin II are altered after pretreatment with a 750 mg dose of lithium in normal man. This dose of lithium is not an inert marker of sodium handling.

1992 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1626. Interaction between cyclosporine and felodipine in renal transplant recipients. (Abstract)

, and renal plasma flow, and tubular function evaluated by the lithium clearance technique were determined. Both glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, urinary sodium excretion, fractional excretion of sodium, and lithium clearance increased after felodipine, whereas proximal and distal fractional reabsorption and blood pressure were reduced. Intravenous infusion of cyclosporine per se did not influence any of the parameters. It is concluded that a single dose of felodipine in cyclosporine-treated

1992 Kidney international. Supplement Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1627. Captopril augments both basal and frusemide-induced natriuresis in normal man by suppression of circulating angiotensin II. Full Text available with Trip Pro

II. In the same subjects we also studied the effect of captopril (25 mg) with and without exogenous angiotensin II (1 ng kg-1 min-1) on the natriuretic response to intravenous frusemide (20 mg). 2. In the pre-frusemide study captopril increased absolute and fractional excretion of sodium and paraaminohippurate clearance but had no effect on inulin clearance. 3. Reinfusion of angiotensin II after captopril pretreatment completely suppressed the renal effects of ACE inhibition, yielding renal (...) vasoconstrictor and antinatriuretic effects equivalent to those produced by infused angiotensin II in the absence of captopril. 4. Frusemide increased renal sodium excretion without affecting paraaminohippurate or inulin clearance. Captopril augmented frusemide-induced natriuresis and again this effect was reversed by angiotensin II reinfusion. 5. We conclude that captopril augments both basal and frusemide-induced renal sodium excretion in normal man. Our findings suggest that these renal responses to ACE

1992 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1628. Discrepancy between bioavailability as estimated from urinary recovery of frusemide and total diuretic effect. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and the plain tablets on the other, in excretion of frusemide and diuresis vs time. The total diuretic/saluretic effect was only marginally lower (19 and 28% respectively, P less than 0.05) after CR compared with plain tablets although the fraction absorbed was markedly decreased (39 and 51% lower, respectively, P less than 0.05), estimated as urinary recovery of frusemide. The total diuresis of the two CR formulations did not differ although the urinary recovery was significantly different (P less than (...) Discrepancy between bioavailability as estimated from urinary recovery of frusemide and total diuretic effect. 1. Frusemide was given at a dose of 60 mg as two oral controlled release (CR) formulations and as plain tablets in a randomised, balanced, three way cross over design to 26 healthy volunteers. Urinary volume, and contents of frusemide, sodium, chloride and potassium were measured in samples taken over 24 h. 2. There was a marked difference between the CR formulations on one hand

1992 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1629. Renal effects of cyclosporin A in children treated for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. (Abstract)

cyclophosphamide 2.5 mg/kg/day (group B). The latter were considered as controls together with 10 other children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in complete remission and off therapy (group C). We monitored creatinine clearance and tubular handling of beta 2-microglobulin, sodium, phosphorus and uric acid for one year. Cyclosporin A induced a decrease in creatinine clearance with a decrease in fractional excretion of beta 2-microglobulin; sodium excretion was similar in the two treated groups (...) and a transient decrease in fractional excretion of uric acid was seen only in patients receiving cyclosporin A. Both groups showed an increased renal threshold phosphate concentration. Our results suggest that in children, cyclosporin A therapy induces a decrease in glomerular filtration rate associated with increased reabsorption activity of proximal tubular cells.

1993 Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1630. A potential role for endogenous adenosine in control of human glomerular and tubular function. (Abstract)

of 51Cr-labeled EDTA) rose by 18.0%, 3 h after the administration of 100 mg of FK-453 and by 18.3% and 23.5%, 2 and 3 h, respectively, after the 200-mg dose, which was significantly different from the changes following placebo. There were no significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure or effective renal plasma flow (clearance of 125I-Hippuran). In contrast there were statistically significant increases in urine flow rate and osmolar clearance, as well as absolute and fractional excretions (...) of sodium, phosphate, bicarbonate, chloride, magnesium, and uric acid in response to FK-453. No glycosuria or aminoaciduria was detected on urinalysis. There was, in addition, a marked increase in PRC in response to FK-453.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1993 The American journal of physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1631. Antinatriuretic action of insulin is preserved after angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition in normal man. (Abstract)

before each study as an indirect marker of tubular sodium handling. Renal haemodynamics did not change during hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin infusion reduced both the absolute and fractional urinary excretion rates of sodium (P < 0.001) and potassium (P < 0.001); these effects of insulin were not altered after converting enzyme inhibition. Lithium clearance did not change during insulin infusion on either day. The antinatriuretic effect of hyperinsulinaemia is mediated at a tubular site distal

1993 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1632. Dose-response study of atrial natriuretic peptide bolus injection in healthy man. (Abstract)

bolus injection to five different groups. GFR rose after ANP, whereas no immediate change in RPF was observed. Significant increases with no distinct additional effect of ANP doses higher than 1.0 microgram kg-1 were detected in filtration fraction, urinary flow rate and urinary excretion rate of sodium. Both proximal and distal fractional reabsorption of sodium was reduced and the effect seemed to flatten out at doses higher than 1.0 microgram kg-1. Dose-dependent increases in cyclic guanosine (...) were observed with higher doses despite dose-dependent increases in urinary cGMP excretion and plasma cGMP. Inhibition of both proximal and distal tubular fractional sodium reabsorption by ANP contributed to the natriuretic effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1993 European journal of clinical investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1633. Relationship between insulin release, antinatriuresis and hypokalaemia after glucose ingestion in normal and hypertensive man. (Abstract)

similar glycaemic profiles, the patients showed a hyperinsulinaemic response incremental area 49 +/- 8 versus 27 +/- 6 nmol l-1 3 h, P < 0.04) but a blunted hypokalaemic response (-7 +/- 1 versus -16 +/- 1%, P < 0.001). Both absolute and fractional urinary excretion of sodium and potassium were significantly decreased during glucose-induced hyperinsulinaemia in hypertensive patients as well as in normotensive subjects (P < 0.05 for all changes). 3. To test whether hypokalaemia is required for insulin

1993 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1634. Renal function and cardiopulmonary bypass: effect of perfusion pressure. (Abstract)

into two groups: group 1 included 14 patients whose arterial blood pressure during CPB was left untreated, and group 2 consisted of 7 patients who received phenylephrine to maintain their arterial pressure above 70 mmHg. Plasma and urine creatinine, sodium, potassium, and osmolality were measured preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. Creatinine, osmolal and free water clearances, and excreted sodium fraction were calculated. Plasma creatinine remained normal throughout the study in all

1992 Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1635. Torasemide versus furosemide in cirrhosis: a long-term, double-blind, randomized clinical study. (Abstract)

on body weight, urinary volume, and fractional excretion of uric acid, sodium, and chloride. The effect of torasemide on fractional potassium excretion was lower than that of furosemide. Torasemide showed higher sparing effect than furosemide on calcium, inorganic phosphate, and magnesium excretion and stronger action on free water clearance. No changes in serum parameters were induced by either treatment. Two episodes of hepatic encephalopathy occurred in the torasemide group. In view of its effects (...) on sodium and water excretion and on other urinary parameters, torasemide can represent an alternative tool for the long-term treatment of ascites.

1993 The Clinical investigator Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1636. Effect of dopamine on failure of indomethacin to close the patent ductus arteriosus. (Abstract)

characteristics. Serum creatinine concentrations, urine output, and fractional excretion of sodium were not different in the three groups after indomethacin treatment. Two patients receiving placebo required a second course of indomethacin compared with four patients in the low-dopamine group and one in the high-dopamine group. The proportion of failures of medical treatment was not statistically different among the three groups. We conclude that concomitant dopamine therapy neither decreases the failure rate

1992 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1637. Treatment of intraoperative hypertension with enflurane, nicardipine, or human atrial natriuretic peptide: haemodynamic and renal effects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

phosphate (PO4). Hypertension during gastrectomy was treated by increasing the concentration of enflurane, by nicardipine infusion (0.5-2.0 x min-1), or by hANP infusion (0.05-0.2 x min-1) under general anaesthesia. Enflurane, nicardipine and hANP all decreased arterial pressure to the same extent. Urine flow, Na and PO4 excretion increased following the administration of nicardipine or hANP. Fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was suppressed from 89.7 +/- 2.8 (...) Treatment of intraoperative hypertension with enflurane, nicardipine, or human atrial natriuretic peptide: haemodynamic and renal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the calcium entry blocker nicardipine and alpha human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) on antihypertensive and diuretic activity in hypertensive surgical patients. The site of the diuretic actions of these drugs along the nephron were also investigated by measuring the excretion rate of inorganic

1992 Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1638. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition does not prevent the natriuretic effect of felodipine. (Abstract)

tested this hypothesis in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in 12 male volunteers by comparing intravenous felodipine after 1 week of oral ramipril with felodipine after placebo and with solvent after ramipril. Ramipril pretreatment reduced ACE activity to 11 +/- 1%, lowered the blood pressure, and increased renal blood flow. However, ramipril pretreatment did not prevent the pronounced increase in natriuresis and diuresis with felodipine. Fractional sodium excretion only tended to increase (...) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition does not prevent the natriuretic effect of felodipine. The mechanism of natriuresis with calcium entry blockers such as felodipine is largely unexplained. As these drugs prevent sodium retention following exogenous angiotensin II, the natriuretic effect of felodipine might be due to a similar interaction with endogenous angiotensin II. In such a case, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with ramipril should prevent natriuresis with felodipine. We

1993 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1639. Renal effects of low dose prazosin in patients with congestive heart failure. (Abstract)

) were examined in eight female patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure. Segmental tubular function was assessed by the lithium clearance method. Compared to placebo, prazosin caused a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion (from 56 +/- 7 to 92 +/- 7 mumol.min-1, P < 0.01), paralleled by significant increases in fractional excretion of sodium and lithium. Glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were not altered by prazosin. Prazosin pre-treatment did (...) Renal effects of low dose prazosin in patients with congestive heart failure. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system may contribute to the renal vasoconstriction and sodium retention seen in congestive heart failure. Previous studies in congestive heart failure patients employing large doses of prazosin that lowered systemic blood pressure have been generally disappointing. The renal haemodynamic and segmental tubular effects of low non-depressor doses of prazosin (0.25 mg and 0.50 mg

1993 European heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1640. Pretreatment renal vascular tone predicts the effect of specific renin inhibition on natriuresis in essential hypertension. (Abstract)

remikiren could be predicted from pretreatment renal vascular tone.Renal hemodynamics, and the effects of single (n = 17) and multiple doses (n = 8, 8 days) of remikiren (600 mg day-1) on sodium excretion were studied under conditions of carefully controlled sodium balance.Pretreatment renal vascular tone showed considerable individual differences: filtration fraction (FF) ranged from 21.2 to 30.3% and RVR from 18.8 to 33.5 10-2 mmHg min mL-1 in the single dose study, and FF from 20.8 to 24.9% and RVR (...) Pretreatment renal vascular tone predicts the effect of specific renin inhibition on natriuresis in essential hypertension. In essential hypertension an elevated renal vascular resistance (RVR) may be a marker of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-mediated impairment of renal sodium excretion. This hypothesis was tested by investigating whether, in subjects with essential hypertension, the natriuretic response to specific renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade by renin-inhibitor

1999 European journal of clinical investigation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>