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Fractional Excretion of Sodium


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1621. Effects of chronic intake of vegetable protein added to animal or fish protein on renal hemodynamics. (Abstract)

was applied to two groups of 7 healthy individuals after the control dietary program. Renal function and 24 hours' urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) were examined on every 7th day of three consecutive 1-week dietary programs.Glomerular filtration rate (GFR; sodium thiosulphate clearance) and renal plasma flow (RPF) significantly decreased after decreasing the intake of animal protein by one third with keeping the amount of vegetable protein constant. The results when substituting vegetable protein (...) for some of the animal protein in the diet without changing the total amount of protein were identical. The filtration fraction and AER did not change over the study periods regardless of dietary composition.The lack of an effect a 1-week intake of vegetable protein added to animal protein on GFR and RPF suggests that vegetable protein may be excluded from lists of restriction in low protein diet therapy in patients with renal insufficiency.Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

2002 Nephron Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1622. Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beings. (Abstract)

Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beings. The major procedure used to correct iodine deficiency is the universal salt iodization by addition of iodide or iodate to salt with an iodine content varying from 7 to 100 mg/kg of salt depending on the country legislation. As an important fraction of consumers in the world prefers natural products over artificial ones, we investigated the industrial feasibility of naturally iodized salt using seaweed as source of iodine. We report the results (...) in nine normal subjects from Marseille (France) which is an iodine sufficient area based on a median urinary iodine level of 137 microg/day and innine normal subjects from Brussels (Belgium) who present a mild iodine deficiency with a value of 73 microg/day. The iodine bioavailability of Gracilaria verrucosa is better than for Laminaria hyperborea (101% versus 90% in Marseille, t=0.812, NS; 85% versus 61.5% in Brussels, t = 2.486, p = 0.024, S*). The urinary excretion of iodine is lower in Brussels

2002 Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)

1623. Hormonal, renal, hemodynamic responses to acute neutral endopeptidase inhibition in heart transplant patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was observed between excreted cGMP and sodium reabsorption (r = -0.71, P < 0.0001). Thus, despite significantly increasing endothelin-1, NEP inhibition did not adversely influence systemic or renal hemodynamics in transplant patients. ANP, possibly through a tubular action, enhances the natriuresis observed after NEP inhibition. (...) -1 (from 2.01 +/- 0.1 to 2.90 +/- 0.2 pmol/l; P < 0.01), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; from 21.5 +/- 2.7 to 29.6 +/- 3.7 pmol/l; P < 0.01), and the ANP second messenger cGMP. Noteworthy, systemic blood pressure did not increase. Renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate remained unmodified after NEP inhibition. Filtration fraction (33 +/- 13%), diuresis (196 +/- 62%), and natriuresis (315 +/- 105%) increased significantly in relation to ANP and cGMP. A strong inverse relationship

2002 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1624. Neuroendocrine and renal effects of intravascular volume expansion in compensated heart failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and elicited a natriuresis (P < 0.05 for all) compared with seated control. Compared with control subjects (n = 9), ANG II, Aldo, and ANP concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in HF, whereas absolute and fractional sodium excretion rates were attenuated [47 +/- 16 vs. 88 +/- 15 micromol/min and 0.42 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.12% (mean +/- SE), respectively, both P < 0.05]. When ANG II and Aldo concentrations were further suppressed (P < 0.05) during WI (...) in HF (by sustained angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, n = 9) absolute and fractional sodium excretion increased (P < 0.05) to the level of control subjects (108 +/- 34 micromol/min and 0.70 +/- 0.23%, respectively). Renal free water clearance increased during WI in control subjects but not in HF, albeit plasma vasopressin concentrations were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal sodium excretion is preserved in compensated

2001 American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1625. Dopamine D2-like receptors and amino acid-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

urinary sodium excretion as well as urinary osmolality were similar at baseline and increased in response to amino acids, to the same extent, in all series. No changes in renal dopamine excretion occurred.The results indicate that in man dopamine D2-like receptors are involved in the renal haemodynamic response to amino acid infusion. Whether dopamine D2-like receptor blockade diminishes glomerular hyperfiltration in pathological states requires clinical investigations. (...) D2-like receptors.In the placebo series, amino acid infusion significantly increased GFR and RPF by up to 15.8 +/- 5.3% and 14.4 +/- 6.1%, respectively, while mean blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. Pretreatment with domperidone only marginally altered the renal response to amino acids (maximal increase by 13.2 +/- 5.6 and 11.9 +/- 4.0% in GFR and RPF, respectively), while sulpiride completely abolished the renal haemodynamic changes induced by amino acids. Total and fractional

2001 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1626. Relationship between diurnal blood pressure, renal hemodynamic function, and the renin-angiotensin system in type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

and filtration fraction (FF) in the high N/D ratio group. In the second experiment, we examined the renal response to graded angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion while subjects were euglycemic and salt replete. High N/D ratio was associated with an enhanced FF response to Ang II. In the third experiment, the N/D ratio and GFR were assessed after 3 weeks of ACE inhibition. This maneuver corrected the high N/D ratio, but it had no effect on glomerular hyperfiltration. These results suggest that RAS activation does (...) Relationship between diurnal blood pressure, renal hemodynamic function, and the renin-angiotensin system in type 1 diabetes. In patients with diabetes, altered diurnal blood pressure (BP) regulation (high night-to-day [N/D] ratio, or "nondipping") is associated with increases in albumin excretion and a decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by an unknown mechanism. Because it is known that renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation and defective glucose control contribute to adverse

2003 Diabetes

1627. Long-term renal effects of diltiazem in essential hypertension. (Abstract)

intrarenal effects of angiotensin II and/or norepinephrine. No long-term effect was seen on salt and water excretion or body fluid composition. (...) , effective renal plasma flow, filtration fraction, and renal vascular resistance were unchanged throughout the protocol period. In individuals with pretreatment glomerular filtration rates less than or equal to 80 ml/min/1.73m2, diltiazem monotherapy showed both short-term and long-term improvement in glomerular filtration rate (62%) and effective renal plasma flow (34%). Filtration fraction was unchanged, suggesting that the changes in glomerular filtration rate might be related to the attenuated

1987 American Heart Journal

1628. Captopril does not prevent nitroglycerin tolerance in heart failure. (Abstract)

vasopressin. However, plasma renin activity increased and atrial natriuretic peptide decreased in both groups, these changes being significant after 1 h of infusion but gradually returning towards baseline, in both groups, over the next 71 h. The nitroglycerin infusion did not alter body weight, urine output, creatinine clearance or fractional sodium excretion in either group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (...) Captopril does not prevent nitroglycerin tolerance in heart failure. Tolerance to the continuous intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin is thought to be largely the result of a decrease in vascular responsiveness, possibly due to intra-smooth muscle sulfhydryl group depletion. Another mechanism proposed to contribute to tolerance is nitroglycerin-induced reflex neurohumoral activation resulting in vasoconstriction and sodium and water retention. It has been proposed that the sulfhydryl group

1990 The Canadian journal of cardiology

1629. Role of angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors in mediating the renal effects of angiotensin II in the anaesthetized dog. Full Text available with Trip Pro

increasing plasma renin activity (+ 173 +/- 42%). In contrast to GR117289, the AT2 receptor antagonist, PD123177 (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1 intra-renal artery; i.r.a.) caused no significant change in blood pressure, renal blood flow, or sodium and urine excretion, indicating that the renal effects of endogenous AII in these salt-replete animals are mediated predominantly by AT1 receptors. 3. Intra-renal artery infusion of AII (1-300 ng kg-1 min-1) caused dose-related renal vasoconstriction, and decreases (...) in urine output, sodium excretion, fractional excretion of sodium, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The AT1 receptor antagonist, GRI 17289 (0.5 mg kg-1 + 1 microg kg-1 min-1, i.v.)antagonized these renal effects of AII, causing 15-38 fold rightward displacements of mean dose response curves for these parameters. In contrast, PD123177 (20 microg kg-1 min-1, i.r.a.) failed to antagonize the renal haemodynamic and excretory effects of lower doses of All (1-10 ng kg-1 min-1,i.r.a.). However, at higher

1993 British journal of pharmacology

1630. Profiles of serological reactivity against cytosoluble antigens of Brucella ovis in experimentally infected rams. Full Text available with Trip Pro

groups, while C and D antigens were serologically unreactive in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In contrast to the reactivity patterns shown by native high-pressure liquid chromatography-fractionated cytosolic supernatant antigens, immunoblotting of C and D polypeptides generated by boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and mercaptoethanol was particularly useful in distinguishing between sera collected at the mid-surge phase of infected rams from sera obtained at the mid-fall (...) Profiles of serological reactivity against cytosoluble antigens of Brucella ovis in experimentally infected rams. Sera from rams infected with and excreting Brucella ovis in the semen (shedders), as well as from animals which had recovered from previous experimental challenge with B. ovis, were analyzed for their serological reactivities against cytosolic antigens of the bacterium. Membrane vesicles, including outer and inner membrane components, were precluded from the analyses by subjecting

1990 Journal of clinical microbiology

1631. Enzymatic iron oxidation by Leptothrix discophora: identification of an iron-oxidizing protein. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enzymatic iron oxidation by Leptothrix discophora: identification of an iron-oxidizing protein. An iron-oxidizing factor was identified in the spent culture medium of the iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain Leptothrix discophora SS-1. It appeared to be a protein, with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 150,000. Its activity could be demonstrated after fractionation of the spent medium by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A spontaneous mutant of L (...) . discophora SS-1 was isolated which excreted neither manganese- nor iron-oxidizing activity, whereas excretion of other proteins seemed to be unaffected. Although the excretion of both metal-oxidizing factors was probably linked, the difference in other properties suggests that manganese and iron oxidation represent two different pathways. With a dot-blot assay, it was established that different bacterial species have different metal-oxidizing capacities. Whereas L. discophora oxidized both iron

1992 Applied and environmental microbiology

1632. Renal handling and effects of S(+)-ibuprofen and R(-)-ibuprofen in the rat isolated perfused kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of 133 ng ml-1 reversed the effects on renal function of both enantiomers. 4. Very high S(+)- and R(-)-ibuprofen concentrations (greater than 400 micrograms ml-1) resulted in an increase in urinary flow and fractional excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose and calcium. 5. It is concluded that the pharmacokinetic behaviour of ibuprofen in the kidney is not stereoselective. Relatively high concentrations of both enantiomers increased the urinary flow and electrolyte excretion (...) ml-1 (1.2 to 120 microM) caused a decrease in urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and electrolyte excretion. Urinary pH and excretion of glucose were not influenced. R(-)-ibuprofen concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 25 micrograms ml-1 (12 to 120 microM) also decreased urinary flow and electrolyte excretion. This decrease, however, was less than observed with S(+)-ibuprofen. GFR, urinary pH and glucose excretion were not affected by R(-)-ibuprofen. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations

1991 British journal of pharmacology

1633. The influence of co-administered organic acids on the kinetics and dynamics of frusemide. Full Text available with Trip Pro

did not differ significantly between treatments over the 5 h period. 4. The diuretic efficiency of frusemide was significantly increased with probenecid pretreatment during the first 90 min period after frusemide administration. Furthermore, in the first 30 min after administration the percent sodium fractional excretion was higher after pretreatment with probenecid even though the mean frusemide excretion rate was more than three times with frusemide alone than with probenecid-frusemide (374.4 (...) frusemide administration thereby attempting optimal suppression of proximal tubular secretion. Urinary losses were replaced i.v. with isovolumetric amounts of normal saline while insensible losses were compensated for by taking tap water orally. 3. The mean cumulative urinary frusemide excretion was significantly and similarly decreased by pretreatment with probenecid (34.9%) and probenecid plus pyrazinamide (33.6%), but the mean total volume of diuresis and the mean cumulative urinary sodium excretion

1991 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1634. Acute effects of combined vasodilation and beta-adrenoceptor blockade with prizidilol on renal function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

%). Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and epinephrine levels did not change consistently. 6 The results indicate that the acute effects of prizidilol on blood pressure and renal function are more marked in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects. Prizidilol increases renal plasma flow like hydralazine and depresses glomerular filtration rate and fractional sodium excretion like endralazine. In addition to the fall in arterial pressure, efferent vasodilation and/or a specific effect on the glomerular (...) was increased to 107% of control values while glomerular filtration rate (83%), filtration fraction (79%), sodium (84%) and potassium (50%) clearances were significantly decreased. 4 In hypertensive subjects, effective renal plasma flow was increased to 120% of control values, while glomerular filtration rate (67%), filtration fraction (57%), sodium (27%) and potassium (72%) clearances were significantly decreased. 5 Plasma noradrenaline increased significantly in normal subjects (150%) and in patients (173

1983 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1635. Effects of repeated doses of enalapril on renal function in man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the study. Fractional sodium excretion increased in a biphasic manner by approximately 50% over control between 1-2 h and 4-8 h on day 1. Significant chloruresis (+39.0 +/- 12.9%) and kaluresis (+26.5 +/- 10.3%) occurred between 4-8 h. Urinary pH increased between 0-1 h (+0.29 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.05), and between 4-8 h (+0.50 +/- 0.08; P less than 0.01). The biphasic saluretic effect was also seen between 1-2 h and 4-8 h on day 8. Enalapril caused significant increases in urate and phosphate (...) excretion on day 8 of therapy. There was a biphasic increase in fractional urate excretion at 1-2 h (+28.1 +/- 6.9%; P less than 0.05) and at 4-8 h (+21.0 +/- 6.0% P less than 0.01). Significant phosphaturia (+36.8 +/- 5.2%; P less than 0.05) was also observed at 4-8 h on day 8. Urinary drug excretion was also biphasic; over the first 2 h the predominant drug form was unchanged enalapril, whilst the peak excretion of the diacid metabolite, enalaprilat, occurred at 4-8 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1985 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1636. Renal function impairment induced by change in posture in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Full Text available with Trip Pro

perfusion. All parameters were evaluated during bed rest for two hours and in the sitting posture for one hour. Basal plasma renin activity (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05), aldosterone and noradrenaline concentrations (p less than or equal to 0.01) were raised in cirrhotics. The renal function tests (creatinine clearance, filtered sodium, tubular rejection fraction, urinary sodium excretion) were significantly reduced in cirrhosis. Under basal conditions, in cirrhotic patients tubular rejection (...) fraction and urinary sodium excretion were inversely related to both noradrenaline and aldosterone concentrations. After tilting, the noradrenaline and aldosterone integrated outputs (sigma delta) were significantly greater in cirrhosis. All renal function tests significantly decreased in cirrhotics, whereas creatinine clearance only significantly decreased in controls. Patient's tubular rejection fraction of sodium and sodium excretion were related to sigma delta aldosteronaemia (r = -0.72; p less

1985 Gut

1637. Effect of angiotensin II and captopril on renal tubular function in man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

a significant effect on arterial blood pressure. This subpressor dose of angiotensin II significantly decreased urine volume, urinary excretion of sodium, chloride and phosphate and distal delivery [(CH2O + CCl)/GFR X 100] in the absence of changes in GFR or distal fractional chloride absorption [CH2O/(CH2O + CCl)]. In a second series of experiments, an oral dose of 50 mg of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril was given to the sodium replete volunteers. In this study, captopril did (...) not affect arterial blood pressure, GFR or any of the determined parameters of renal tubular function. Our results strongly suggest that the nonpressor dose of angiotensin II induced renal retention of sodium chloride via increased absorption in the proximal tubule. Thus, they further support the concept that angiotensin II participates in the regulation of renal sodium chloride excretion by affecting proximal tubular absorptive capacity. However, in the sodium replete stage, angiotensin II

1985 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1638. The pharmacokinetics and diuretic effects of piretanide in chronic renal insufficiency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

drugs equally increased the 24 h output of urine (delta V), sodium (delta UNaV), chloride (delta UC1V), potassium (delta UKV) and calcium (delta UCaV). Fractional excretion of sodium (ENa%) was doubled by piretanide in patients with GFR less than 8 ml/min while a five fold increase was found in patients with GFR greater than 8 ml/min. The onset of effect was the same for both drugs, but the duration exceeded 6 h only for piretanide. Both drugs were most effective on the first of two consecutive (...) treatment days. Delta UC1V was always greater than delta UNaV and urinary phosphate excretion was unchanged, as expected of a loop diuretic without significant proximal effects. Metabolic or clinical side effects were not noticed.

1983 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1639. The effect of enalapril on the renal response to tilting in humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

resulted from a transient fall in glomerular filtration and from a sustained increase in the tubular reabsorption of sodium, as reflected by a prolonged fall in fractional sodium excretion. 3. Enalapril caused a reduction in blood pressure in the upright position; there was no effect on heart rate. The antinatriuresis of tilt was significantly blunted by enalapril. This resulted from blunting of the transient fall in creatinine clearance and of the increase in tubular sodium reabsorption. Urinary (...) potassium excretion during tilting was not altered by enalapril. 4. These findings are consistent with a direct intrarenal action of angiotensin II, mediating some of the alterations in renal function apparent on assumption of the upright position.

1989 British journal of clinical pharmacology

1640. Enhancement of renal function with ornipressin in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhancement of renal function with ornipressin in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis. An infusion with Ornipressin (8-ornithin vasopressin) in a patient with decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis increased urinary volume from 30 ml/h to 500 ml/h, creatinine clearance from 24 to 65 ml/min, and fractional sodium excretion from 0.86% to 11.1%. Free water clearance decreased from -10.2 ml/h to -26.2 ml/h and noradrenaline plasma concentrations dropped from 2.04 to 1.37 ng/ml. After stopping

1985 Gut

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