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Fractional Excretion of Sodium


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1601. Role of the Renal Sympathetic Nerves in the Development and Maintenance of Hypertension in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Full Text available with Trip Pro

hypertensive) and 18-wk-old (established hypertensive) male spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to bilateral renal denervation and compared with sham-operated controls. In 7-wk-old animals renal denervation delayed the onset and slowed the rate of development of hypertension. These alterations were associated with a significantly greater fractional excretion of sodium (percentage of sodium intake excreted) during the first 3 wk after denervation. Blood pressure 2 wk after surgery was 169+/-3.5 (...) (sham) vs. 150+/-2.4 mm Hg (denervated) (P < 0.001), corresponding to fractional sodium excretions of 65+/-1.3% (sham) vs. 80+/-2.3% (denervated) (P < 0.001). By the 5th wk after surgery, at which time an increase in renal norepinephrine content of denervated animals suggested reinnervation, blood pressures in the two groups converged (sham, 199+/-6.5 mm Hg vs. denervated 180+/-3.5 mm Hg, NS) and there was no difference in sodium excretion (sham, 77+/-2.5% vs. denervated 79+/-2.3%). Plasma

1980 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1602. Ammonium Handling by Superficial and Juxtamedullary Nephrons in the Rat: EVIDENCE FOR AN AMMONIA SHUNT BETWEEN THE LOOP OF HENLE AND THE COLLECTING DUCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

associated with a doubling in the amount of ammonium excreted and a decline in urine pH. The glomerular filtration rate and absolute delivery of water and sodium to micropuncture sites of surface and deep nephrons was not measurably altered. Ammonium delivery to the end of the proximal tubule increased from 853+/-102% to 1,197+/-142% (SE) of the filtered load of ammonium after the induction of metabolic acidosis. This increase was due to a rise in tubular fluid ammonium content from 2.31+/-0.23 to 4.06 (...) +/-0.28 mM/liter. After the induction of acidosis, absolute and fractional delivery of ammonium ion to the end of the distal tubule was less than to the end of the accessible portion of the proximal tubule. These findings indicate that ammonium is lost in the intervening segment.Ammonium handling by deep nephrons was profoundly affected by acid loading. Absolute delivery to the bend of the loop of Henle increased twofold while fractional delivery rose from 1,222+/-108% to 1,780+/-132% of the filtered

1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1603. Effects of perinatal asphyxia and myoglobinuria on development of acute, neonatal renal failure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of perinatal asphyxia and myoglobinuria on development of acute, neonatal renal failure. Thirty four consecutive neonates with birth asphyxia or respiratory problems were examined in the first week of life to clarify the relation between neonatal myoglobinuria and acute renal failure. Investigations included determination of creatinine clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and N-acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase index as an indicator of tubular injury. The infants' gestational ages ranged

1985 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1604. Effects of thyroid status on renal calcium and magnesium handling. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of thyroid status on renal calcium and magnesium handling. Renal calcium and magnesium handling was studied in rats with chronic thyroid hormone deficiency or excess, hyperthyroidism. Mean kidney weight of the thyroid deficient rats was 42% of age matched, euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals and glomerular filtration rate was 71% of normal. Fractional sodium excretion was consistently elevated in thyroid deficient rats (0.26%) as compared to euthyroid (0.07%) and hyperthyroid animals (...) (0.07%). Urinary calcium excretion (0.39%) was also elevated and parallel to sodium excretion in thyroid deficiency. Despite this renal leak of sodium and calcium, thyroid deficient animals conserved magnesium much more efficiently than either euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats (5.7% vs 17.4% respectively). Plasma magnesium concentration was elevated by acute MgCl2 infusions to determine the reabsorptive capacity of magnesium. Thyroid deficient rats reabsorbed 15-30% more of the filtered magnesium

1984 Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine

1605. Recognition and characterization of stage-specific oocyst/sporozoite antigens of Toxoplasma gondii by human antisera. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recognition and characterization of stage-specific oocyst/sporozoite antigens of Toxoplasma gondii by human antisera. Human infection with Toxoplasma gondii is presumed due to the ingestion of either tissue cysts containing bradyzoites or oocyst/sporozoites that are excreted in the feces of infected cats. The incidence of human infection in the general population by either of these routes is unknown. We have previously described unique stage-specific oocyst/sporozoite antigens identified (...) by murine hybridoma monoclonal antibodies. We obtained acute and convalescent antitoxoplasma antisera from patients in an epidemiologically well-documented outbreak of oocyst-transmitted infection associated with the ingestion of contaminated water. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay comparing equal numbers of tachyzoites (invasive stage) and oocyst/sporozoite (excreted stage) indicated that these antisera recognized antigens from both life forms. Absorption of pooled antisera with purified oocyst

1985 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1606. Effects of chloride and extracellular fluid volume on bicarbonate reabsorption along the nephron in metabolic alkalosis in the rat. Reassessment of the classical hypothesis of the pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with either 6% albumin (VE) or 80 mM non-sodium chloride salts (CC) added to 5% dextrose (DX) and studied by micropuncture. CDA was maintained in rats infused with DX. VE expanded plasma volume (25%), maintained glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but did not correct CDA despite increased fractional delivery of total CO2 (tCO2) out of the proximal tubule (36 +/- 2%) as compared with VE/CON (24 +/- 4%; P less than 0.05). In contrast, CC corrected CDA despite volume contraction (-16%) and lower GFR than CC (...) /CON; proximal tCO2 delivery in CC/CDA (29 +/- 4%) did not differ from VE/CDA. CC was associated with an increment in tCO2 excretion. The data strongly suggest that maintenance and correction of CDA are primarily dependent upon total body chloride and its influences on intrarenal mechanisms and not on the demands of sodium or fluid homeostasis.

1987 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1607. Atrial natriuretic factor in normal subjects and heart failure patients. Plasma levels and renal, hormonal, and hemodynamic responses to peptide infusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

0.01); the latter with twofold right ventricular increment (P less than 0.05). In NL, ANF infusion of 0.10 microgram/kg per min (40 pmol/kg per min) induced increases (P less than 0.05) of absolute (from 160 +/- 23 to 725 +/- 198 mueq/min) and fractional (1-4%) sodium excretion, urine flow rate (from 10 +/- 1.6 to 20 +/- 2.6 ml/min), osmolar (from 3.2 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 1.2 ml/min) and free water (from 6.8 +/- 1.6 to 13.6 +/- 1.6 ml/min) clearances, and filtration fraction (from 20 +/- 1 to 26 (...) and renal excretion were attenuated. ANF infusion increased hematocrit and serum protein concentration by 5-7% in NL (P less than 0.05) but not in CHF.

1986 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1608. Development of hypertension and uraemia after pyelonephritis in childhood: 27 year follow up. Full Text available with Trip Pro

who had neither had renal surgery nor had end stage renal disease, all had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow and higher diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and serum beta 2 microglobulin concentration than 13 healthy age matched controls. Diastolic blood pressure and plasma renin activity were positively correlated (r = 0.50, p less than 0.05) and so were fractional sodium excretion and both systolic and diastolic

1989 BMJ : British Medical Journal

1609. Prediction of acute renal failure after birth asphyxia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), expressed as a ratio with urinary creatinine, were measured and excretion profiles repeated at 3-6 days in 15 infants and at 7-14 days in 11 infants. Plasma creatinine concentration, creatinine clearance, plasma myoglobin concentration, and fractional sodium excretion were measured where possible in asphyxiated infants. Control data were obtained from 50 healthy infants: 28 gave urine samples alone, 17 urine and blood, and five blood alone. Normal urinary values were derived from 17, 25, and three (...) Prediction of acute renal failure after birth asphyxia. Twenty-one babies of 34-41 weeks' gestational age with birth asphyxia (5 minute Apgar score less than or equal to 5 or umbilical artery pH less than or equal to 7.2) were studied during the first two days of life to find out whether the urinary excretion of tubular markers of renal function is of value in the early diagnosis of acute renal failure. Urinary retinol binding protein, myoglobin, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG

1990 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1610. Enterohepatic physiology of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Full Text available with Trip Pro

range tested (0.275-650 ng). The metabolites of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 present in bile were found to be much more polar than 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and were resolved into three fractions on high performance liquid chromatography. 60% of the radioactivity present in bile was retained selectively by DEAE-cellulose; the radioactive material could be eluted from the gel at a low pH or at high salt concentrations. When bile containing the radiolabeled metabolites was incubated at 37 degrees C and pH (...) Enterohepatic physiology of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. After intravenous administration of radiolabeled 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to rats, approximately 25% of the administered radioactivity appeared in the bile within 24 h. Instillation of the biliary radioactivity into the duodena of other rats was followed by recovery of 15% of the radioactivity in newly secreted bile within 24 h. The process by which products of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were excreted in bile was not saturable in the dose

1980 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1611. Renal tubular proteinuria and microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. No correlations were observed with the fractional excretion of sodium, flow rate of urine, glomerular filtration rate, or blood pressure. These data show that tubular abnormalities are present early in the course of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and suggest that the early increase in urinary excretion of albumin may be at least partly tubular in origin, and that glycaemic control may influence this aspect of proximal tubular function. (...) Renal tubular proteinuria and microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. The urinary extraction of albumin, retinol binding protein, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase were studied in 60 children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and in 45 normal children to find out whether the renal tubules played a part in causing the early increase in urinary excretion of albumin that occurs in diabetes mellitus. Two overnight urine samples were collected and the protein excretion measured and expressed

1989 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1612. Disposition of cefmetazole in healthy volunteers and patients with impaired renal function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

clearance (CLP) was 132.8 +/- 25.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and volume of distribution at steady state was 0.165 +/- 0.025 liter/kg. The fraction of dose excreted unchanged in the urine was 84.0% +/- 26.1%. Subjects with CLCRS of 40 to 69 (group 2, n = 6) and 10 to 39 (group 3, n = 6) ml/min per 1.73 m2 demonstrated prolongation of the t1/2 beta (3.62 +/- 1.06 and 5.93 +/- 1.81 h, respectively) and significant reductions in cefmetazole CLP (52.8 +/- 14.3 and 30.2 +/- 10.2 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively (...) Disposition of cefmetazole in healthy volunteers and patients with impaired renal function. The disposition of cefmetazole was studied in 25 subjects with various degrees of renal function after a 1,000-mg, constant-rate, 30-min intravenous infusion of cefmetazole sodium. In six subjects with creatinine clearance (CLCR) of greater than 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (group 1), the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) was 1.31 +/- 0.54 h (mean +/- standard deviation), cefmetazole total body

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

1613. Alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance in thoroughbred racehorses following strenuous exercise during training. Full Text available with Trip Pro

following strenuous exercise were determined for the following variables: serum concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl) and protein; pH of blood; osmolality of plasma and urine; body weight; and, fractional urinary excretion (FE) of Na, K and Cl. The following changes occurred during exercise: increased concentration of Na in blood; increased FE of Na; decreased concentration of Cl in blood; decreased FE of Cl; increased urinary and plasmal osmolality; weight-loss; decreased pH

1993 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

1614. Renal processing of glucose in well and sick neonates Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal processing of glucose in well and sick neonates To determine the extent of renal processing of glucose in sick and well neonates.Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the renal processing of glucose, sodium, and water were measured using prolonged inulin infusion in 47 infants of 26-40 weeks of gestation, aged 1-13 days.GFR rose by 15% after ventilatory support was withdrawn, and was unaffected by clinical instability. Fractional glucose excretion was low in the stable unventilated babies (...) except at very high filtered loads, but rose in one unstable, unventilated baby. It was higher in ventilated babies, and remained high for at least six days after ventilation. For water and sodium, net differences between intake and urine excretion were not affected by ventilation, clinical stability, or glycosuria.A combination of a low GFR and a high fluid intake, urine flow, and urine concentrating capacity, makes neonates very unlikely to develop an osmotic diuresis due to glycosuria while

1999 Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition

1615. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 is a potent tumor-derived phosphaturic agent Full Text available with Trip Pro

-dependent phosphate transport. Infusions of sFRP-4 in normal rats over 2 hours specifically increased renal fractional excretion of inorganic phosphate (FEPi) from 14% +/- 2% to 34% +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM, P < 0.01). Urinary cAMP and calcium excretion were unchanged. In thyro-parathyroidectomized rats, sFRP-4 increased FEPi from 0.7% +/- 0.2% to 3.8% +/- 1.2% (P < 0.05), demonstrating that sFRP-4 inhibits renal inorganic phosphate reabsorption by PTH-independent mechanisms. Administration of sFRP-4 (...) Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 is a potent tumor-derived phosphaturic agent Tumors associated with osteomalacia elaborate the novel factor(s), phosphatonin(s), which causes phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia by cAMP-independent pathways. We show that secreted frizzled-related protein-4 (sFRP-4), a protein highly expressed in such tumors, is a circulating phosphaturic factor that antagonizes renal Wnt-signaling. In cultured opossum renal epithelial cells, sFRP-4 specifically inhibited sodium

2003 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1616. Identification of galectin I and thioredoxin peroxidase II as two arsenic-binding proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) or dithiothreitol (DTT). Three differentially expressed proteins, galectin 1 (Gal-1; in the 2-ME-eluted fraction from CHO cells), glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) and thioredoxin peroxidase II (TPX-II), respectively in the 2-ME- and DTT-eluted fractions from SA7 cells, were identified by partial amino acid sequence analysis after separation by SDS/PAGE. The GST-P protein has been previously shown to facilitate the excretion of sodium arsenite [As(III)] from SA7 cells. TPX II was detected predominately

2003 Biochemical Journal

1617. Renal function in acute falciparum malaria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal function in acute falciparum malaria. Renal function was assessed in 40 children during the acute illness and after recovery from falciparum malaria. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower during the acute illness than after recovery. Six of 18 children with impaired creatinine clearance (< 50 ml/min/1.73 m2) had evidence of acute tubular dysfunction. Hyponatraemia occurred in 12.5% during the acute phase. Fractional sodium excretion was raised in 27% during the acute illness (...) and continuing sodium wastage occurred in 17% after recovery. Plasma potassium was significantly higher and fractional potassium excretion (FeK) significantly lower during the acute illness than after recovery. There was a positive correlation between FeNa and FeK both during and after recovery from the illness but they did not exactly mirror each other in every individual. Urine sodium:potassium ratios were similar during and after recovery from the illness and was related to FeNa. Fractional glucose

1996 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1618. Cyclic AMP is a hepatorenal link influencing natriuresis and contributing to glucagon-induced hyperfiltration in rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, on phosphate excretion (known to depend mostly on PTR) and GFR. After a 60-min control period, cAMP (5 nmol/min x 100 grams of body weight [BW]) or urea (2.5 micromol/min x 100 grams BW) was infused intravenously for 200 min with or without G (1.2 ng/min x 100 grams BW, a physiological dose which, alone, does not influence PTR or GFR). cAMP increased markedly the excretion of phosphate and sodium (+303 and +221%, respectively, P < 0.01 for each) but did not alter GFR. Coinfusion of cAMP and G induced (...) the same tubular effects but also induced a 20% rise in GFR (P < 0.05). Infusion of urea, with or without G, did not induce significant effects on PTR or GFR. After G infusion at increasing doses, the increase in fractional excretion of phosphate was correlated with a simultaneous rise in plasma cAMP concentration and reached a maximum for doubling of plasma cAMP. These results suggest that cAMP, normally released by the liver into the blood under the action of G, (a) is probably an essential

1996 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1619. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis increases blood pressure in healthy humans. (Abstract)

pressure and cardiac and renal function were measured.Compared with placebo, L-NMMA increased mean arterial pressure by 10%, decreased heart rate by 19%, decreased cardiac index by 25% and increased calculated total peripheral resistance by 46%. Effects were maximal 10-15 min after starting L-NMMA infusion. Urinary sodium and fractional sodium excretions were increased by L-NMMA, but creatinine clearance was unchanged.Basal generation of nitric oxide influences total peripheral resistance and blood

1993 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1620. Effect of ketoprofen on blood pressure, endocrine and renal responses to chronic dosing with captopril in patients with essential hypertension. (Abstract)

, between ketoprofen and placebo were 4 (95% confidence intervals -5, +13) and 0 (-8, +8) mmHg, respectively. Ketoprofen had no effect on 24-h urinary sodium excretion (160 +/- 33 and 147 +/- 39 mmol/24 h for ketoprofen and placebo, respectively). Ketoprofen was without effect on glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow and filtration fraction. In conclusion, our data suggest that ketoprofen is a safe choice when short-term treatment with a NSAID is indicated in an essential hypertensive patient

1992 Blood pressure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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