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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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1581. Metamizole-furosemide interaction study in healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

significantly inhibited basal urine flow, whereas the fractional excretion of sodium and chloride and the 12 h-GFR remained unchanged. Metamizole significantly reduced furosemide clearance (175 vs 141 ml.min-1), furosemide-stimulated plasma renin activity (1.42 vs 0.79 ng AI.ml-1.h-1) and the urinary excretion of prostacyclin metabolites and of prostaglandin F2 alpha (by 70-81%). The renal clearance and terminal half-life of furosemide, peak renal chloride and volume excretion were unchanged. Thus (...) Metamizole-furosemide interaction study in healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between metamizole (dipyrone) and furosemide were investigated in 9 of 12 healthy female subjects able to complete the study. They received oral metamizole 3 x 1 g for 3 days or placebo (cross-over) and on the last day of both study periods furosemide 20 mg IV. On the last two days a balanced sodium diet (120 mEq) and on Day 3 an oral water load (600 ml) were given. Metamizole

1992 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1582. Nitrendipine and renal tubular function in human volunteers. (Abstract)

sodium excretion increased by 25.9% from 0.27 +/- 0.03 mmol/min to 0.34 +/- 0.02 mmol/min (P = .02), and fractional sodium excretion increased by 32.3% from 18.9 +/- 3.0% to 25.0 +/- 1.9% (P = .03) after nitrendipine, but both were unchanged after placebo. There was no change in inulin clearance, para-amino hippurate clearance, urine volume, or fractional excretion of uric acid, which made an effect on glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, or proximal tubular function an unlikely explanation (...) of the natriuresis. Fractional excretion of magnesium increased after both placebo and nitrendipine administration, from 5.0 +/- 0.6% to 6.8 +/- 0.7% (P = .027) and 5.7 +/- 0.8% to 8.8 +/- 1.0% (P = .006), respectively. Fractional excretion of phosphate also increased after both placebo and nitrendipine, from 9.5 +/- 2.3% to 12.9 +/- 3.9% (P = .05) and 9.7 +/- 1.7% to 14.2 +/- 1.9% (P = .002), respectively. These changes are likely to be due to the effects of the water load rather than due to a drug effect

1992 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1583. Effect of iodixanol on renal function immediately after abdominal angiography. Clinical comparison with iomeprol and ioxaglate. (Abstract)

was not reduced by any of the contrast media. Fraction excretion of sodium increased immediately and lasted for 30 min after angiography; these changes were more pronounced with ioxaglate than with iomeprol and iodixanol. Urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase increased for 120 min after angiography with iodixanol and iomeprol; these changes were more pronounced with iomeprol than with iodixanol. On the other hand, urinary nu-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase increased for 120 min after angiography with iomeprol

1998 Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1584. Metabolism and action of urodilatin infusion in healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

was recovered in urine. Urodilatin significantly increased glomerular filtration rate (urodilatin, 7.0%, versus placebo, -1.9%; p < 0.05), reduced effective renal plasma flow (urodilatin, -17%, versus placebo, -3%; p < 0.01), increased fractional excretion of sodium (urodilatin, 137%, versus placebo, 27%; p < 0.05), and increased urine flow rate (urodilatin, 46%, versus placebo, -15%; p < 0.01). Fractional excretion of lithium did not change. Mean blood pressure decreased and vasoactive hormone levels

1998 Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1585. Renal effects of a urodilatin infusion in patients with liver cirrhosis, with and without ascites. (Abstract)

by a clearance technique using radioactive tracers, and tubular handling of sodium was evaluated by the lithium clearance method. The renal effects of URO were characterized by a significant increase in urine sodium excretion rate (UNa) and urine flow rate (V) in the cirrhotic patients without ascites (UNa: 173%; V: 94%) and with ascites (UNa: 219%, P < 0.01; V: 42%, P < 0.01) when compared with placebo infusions. Fractional excretion of sodium increased significantly, indicating a tubular effect of URO (...) on sodium handling. Filtration fraction, lithium clearance (a marker of end-proximal fluid delivery), and fractional excretion of lithium increased, fractional proximal tubular sodium reabsorption decreased, and absolute proximal tubular sodium reabsorption remained unchanged, suggesting increased delivery of isotonic fluid from the proximal tubule during URO infusion. In addition, a significant decrease in fractional distal tubular sodium reabsorption contributed to the natriuresis. In conclusion, URO

1998 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1586. Effects of moxonidine on stress-induced peak blood pressure and renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. (Abstract)

-aminohippurate clearance), filtration fraction, sodium excretion, and segmental sodium tubular reabsorption (lithium clearance). During the placebo phase, stress induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (deltaSBP; 15.8+/-10.7 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (deltaDBP; 8.2+/-6.1 mm Hg). During stress, glomerular filtration rate tended to decrease, whereas renal plasma flow significantly decreased, resulting in a significant increase in filtration fraction. Despite the increase in BP (...) , stress induced a decrease in sodium excretion that was mainly due to a nonsignificant increase in sodium reabsorption in the proximal parts of the tubules. Moxonidine significantly reduced rest and stress BP, but the stress cardiovascular reactivity was not altered. At rest, renal function was well preserved by the treatment. Stress-induced modifications in renal function and sodium handling were not altered by the treatment. In conclusion, moxonidine reduced rest and stress-induced peak BP

1998 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1587. The effect of felodipine on renal function and blood pressure in cyclosporin-treated renal transplant recipients during the first three months after transplantation. (Abstract)

function was estimated from clearance of lithium.At 6 weeks after transplantation, felodipine caused a significantly higher RPF [felodipine: 219 +/- 70 ml/min; placebo: 182+/-56 ml/min (mean+/-1 SD); P=0.03]. No differences were found in GFR, filtration fraction (FF), tubular sodium handling, or sodium excretion. Felodipine lowered BP significantly. At 12 weeks after transplantation, felodipine caused a significantly higher GFR (felodipine: 49+/-18 ml/min; placebo: 40+/-16 ml/min; P=0.05) and RPF

1998 Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1588. Ibuprofen does not impair renal function in patients undergoing infrarenal aortic surgery with epidural anaesthesia. (Abstract)

patients were prospectively randomised to receive 400 mg ibuprofen intravenously (i.v.) or a placebo aliquot before surgery.We assessed renal function by calculating creatinine clearance, and fractional sodium excretion before surgery (baseline), 1 h after cross-clamping (intraoperative), 6 h after cross-clamping (postoperative) and 24 h after cross-clamping (on the 1 st postoperative day). At each point in time, we additionally registered haemodynamics and determined the plasma concentration of 6-keto

1998 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1589. Effects of carbidopa and of intravenous saline infusion into normal and hypertensive subjects on urinary free and conjugated dopamine. (Abstract)

surge in excretion of urinary conjugated dopamine and in the dopamine: noradrenaline ratio from 1300 to 1600 h, after either type of infusion. Administration of carbidopa before the saline infusion resulted in a marked decrease in excretion of urinary free dopamine, but had no effect on the surge in excretion of urinary conjugated dopamine. Saline infusion decreased proximal fractional Na+ reabsorption. Administration of carbidopa delayed but did not prevent this decrease. The effects of saline (...) Effects of carbidopa and of intravenous saline infusion into normal and hypertensive subjects on urinary free and conjugated dopamine. To investigate the possible role played by endogenous dopamine as a modulator of renal sodium (Na+) reabsorption after a combined Na+ and volume load.A randomized placebo-controlled study.Ten healthy volunteers and four hypertensive patients were subjected to intravenous infusions of 21 0.9% saline (308 mmol Na+) administered from 1000 to 1300 h after oral

1997 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1590. Furosemide does not prevent indomethacin-induced renal side effects in preterm infants. (Abstract)

of indomethacin (0.20 mg/kg every 12 hours); each dose was followed by a dose of furosemide (1 mg/kg). Group 2 consisted of 18 infants treated only with the same doses of indomethacin. Body weight, urine output, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa+) and potassium (FEK+), and osmolal and free water clearance were evaluated in both groups before, during, and after treatment.The body weight trend, serum sodium, chloride and potassium concentrations, plasmatic and urinary

1997 Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1591. The effects of pathophysiological increments in brain natriuretic peptide in left ventricular systolic dysfunction. (Abstract)

. Compared with time-matched placebo-control, BNP infusion decreased mean systemic arterial pressure (peak decrease, 17.1 mm Hg; P=.04), mean pulmonary artery pressure (peak decrease, 6.1 mm Hg; P=.007), mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (peak decrease, 5.5 mm Hg; P=.04), and systemic vascular resistance (peak decrease, 1400 dyne s(-1) cm(-5); P=.015), but cardiac output and heart rate were unchanged. Urinary volume and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium were not altered. BNP infusion (...) , reproducing the increment in plasma BNP seen with progression from mild to severe heart failure in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function. BNP was infused in a placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover design at a rate of 3.3 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) over 4 hours to 8 patients with a history of congestive heart failure and persistent impairment of left ventricular systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction <35%). Endocrine, renal, and hemodynamic effects were measured

1997 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1592. Acute reversal of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity by neutral endopeptidase inhibition in stable renal transplant recipients. (Abstract)

and 7 hr of postdose evaluation.After administration of candoxatrilat, plasma atrial natriuretic factor rose from 12.8+/-1.6 (mean +/- SEM) to 44.1+/-6.8 pmol/L (P<0.001) in association with a threefold increase in urine cGMP excretion (573+/-195 pmol/min baseline to 1823+/-545 pmol/ min; P<0.001), marked natriuresis (207+/-34 micromol/min baseline to 416+/-62 micromol/min; P<0.001), fractional sodium excretion (3.3+/-0.5% baseline to 5.6+/-0.7%; P<0.01), and diuresis (3.4+/-0.5 ml/min baseline (...) to 7.4+/-1 ml/min; P<0.001). All parameters remained elevated above baseline for the remaining 7-hr study period. In response to candoxatrilat, the glomerular filtration rate rose by 19% (P=0.01), renal plasma flow by 7% (P=0.04), renal blood flow by 13% (P=0.03) in association with an increase in filtration fraction from 24+/-2% to 28+/-2% (P=0.002) and small fall in renal vascular resistance from 0.38+/-0.04 to 0.30+/-0.04 mmHg x min x 1.73 m2 x ml(-1) (P=0.02). There was a fall in plasma

1997 Transplantation. Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1593. Renal protection in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass with preoperative abnormal renal function. (Abstract)

filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow were measured with inulin and 125I-hippuran clearances before the induction of anesthesia, after sternotomy and before CPB, during hypo- and normothermic CPB, after sternal closure, and 1 h postoperatively. Plasma and urine electrolytes were measured, and free water, osmolar, and creatinine clearances, as well as fractional excretion of sodium and potassium, were calculated before and after surgery. Significant differences between groups were found before (...) the induction of anesthesia. A nonsignificant trend toward increased flow was seen during hypothermic CPB. Filtration fraction was high before CPB, which suggests efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction, descending toward normal during and after CPB. The same pattern of changes was present in both groups. In conclusion, there were no clinically relevant differences between the two treatment modalities during and after CPB. However, significant differences were observed before CPB, when dopamine seemed

1998 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1594. Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. Changes in dietary protein in adults are associated with changes in urinary calcium excretion. The mechanisms underlying this effect are not completely understood, but alterations in intestinal absorption of calcium are not thought to be involved.We reexamined this mechanism by evaluating the effect of 2 amounts of dietary protein (low: 0.7 g/kg; and high: 2.1 g/kg) on fractional calcium absorption in 7 healthy, young women.The experiment (...) consisted of 2 wk of a well-balanced diet containing moderate amounts of calcium, sodium, and protein followed by 5 d of an experimental diet that contained 1 of 2 amounts of protein and constant amounts of other nutrients known to influence calcium metabolism. Seven subjects received both amounts of dietary protein in random order. Blood and urine were sampled at baseline and on day 4. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by dual-stable calcium isotopes on day 5. In a second study of 5 additional

1998 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1595. Human renal and systemic hemodynamic, natriuretic, and neurohumoral responses to different doses of L-NAME. (Abstract)

microg. kg-1. min-1 for 30 min) or placebo on mean arterial pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), renal blood flow (RBF), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and fractional sodium and lithium excretion (FENa and FELi) were studied in 12 healthy subjects, each receiving randomly two of the four treatments on two different occasions. MAP was measured continuously by means of the Finapres device, and stroke volume was calculated by a model flow method. GFR

1998 The American journal of physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1596. Effects of prophylactic fenoldopam infusion on renal blood flow and renal tubular function during acute hypovolemia in anesthetized dogs. (Abstract)

, and sodium clearance in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs that had undergone partial exsanguination to acutely decrease cardiac output.Prospective, randomized, controlled experiment.University-based animal laboratory and research unit.Eight female beagle dogs.Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, renal blood flow, urine output, creatinine clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium were measured and calculated at four times: a) before infusion of fenoldopam or normal saline; b) during (...) +/- 6 mL/min and 0.26 +/- 0.15 to 0.08 +/- 0.05 mL/min, respectively) but not in the fenoldopam group (75 +/- 14 to 73 +/- 17 mL/min and 0.3 +/- 0.19 to 0.14 +/- 0.05 mL/min, respectively). Creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium decreased significantly from baseline (p <.01) in the placebo group during the hypovolemic period (3.0 +/- 0.4 to 1.8 +/- 0.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 1.7% +/- 0.9% to 0.4% +/- 0.2%, respectively) but not in the dogs that received fenoldopam (3.0 +/- 1.0

2001 Critical care medicine

1597. Pharmacokinetics of torsemide in patients with decompensated and compensated congestive heart failure. (Abstract)

. During phase A, patients had significantly greater urine output and fractional sodium excretion compared with phase B. A significant increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was observed during phase B compared with phase A. However, no significant differences in maximal excretion rate of torsemide were noted between phase A and phase B. Heart failure status slightly affects the plasma pharmacokinetics of torsemide; however, this does not significantly alter the maximal (...) or clinical signs and symptoms, were enrolled. On admission for treatment of their CHF, the patients were given 100 mg oral torsemide (phase A). A second dose of oral torsemide 100 mg was administered after hemodynamic parameters and clinical signs and symptoms of decompensated CHF resolved (phase B). Plasma and urine samples were collected over a 24-hour period for determination of torsemide concentrations and urine sodium. Hemodynamic measurements and physical signs and symptoms also were evaluated

1998 Journal of clinical pharmacology

1598. Reversal of postischemic acute renal failure with a selective endothelinA receptor antagonist in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

before infusion (24 h control) showed a 98% decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), increase in fractional excretion of sodium from 0.6 to 39%, and in plasma K+ from 4.3 to 6.5 mEq/liter. All vehicle-treated rats died in 4 d because of continuous deterioration of renal function, resulting in an increase of plasma K+ to fatal levels (> 8 mEq/liter). Infusion of BQ123 significantly improved survival rate (75%) by markedly improving tubular reabsorption of Na+ and moderately increasing GFR and K (...) + excretion. Plasma K+ returned to basal levels by the 5th d after ischemia. Improved tubular function was followed by gradual recovery in GFR and urinary concentrating mechanism. Additional data from renal clearance studies in rats with moderate ARF (30-min ischemia) and in normal rats with intact kidneys showed that ETA receptor blockade increases Na+ reabsorption and has no effect on renal hemodynamics. These results indicate that in the rat, the ETA receptor subtype mediates tubular epithelial

1994 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1599. Reversal of Ethinyl Estradiol-induced Bile Secretory Failure with Triton WR-1339 Full Text available with Trip Pro

suggest that decreased or altered bile salt carriers or reduced sodium driving forces resulting from impaired activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase are not responsible for decreased bile salt excretion in ethinyl estradiol-treated rats. It is proposed that the diverse changes in surface membrane function, which are associated with ethinyl estradiol bile secretory failure, may be the result of a generalized alteration in membrane lipid structure. (...) Reversal of Ethinyl Estradiol-induced Bile Secretory Failure with Triton WR-1339 The effects of Triton WR-1339 and phenobarbital on ethinyl estradiol bile secretory failure were examined to determine the mechanism responsible for decreased bile salt excretion. When administered to ethinyl estradiol-treated rats, Triton WR-1339 restored bile salt independent bile flow and maximum taurocholate transport, whereas phenobarbital corrected bile flow only. Ethinyl estradiol decreased the activities

1980 Journal of Clinical Investigation

1600. Human Apolipoprotein A-IV: INTESTINAL ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION IN PLASMA Full Text available with Trip Pro

-IV comprised 10-13% of chylomicron apoprotein and 24-30% of intestinal very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) as assessed by densitometry of sodium dodecyl sulfate gels of lipoproteins from chylous urine (mesenteric lymphatic-urinary fistula) and thoracic duct lymph (postoperative fistula). After one subject with chyluria ingested 40 g of corn oil, triglyceride excretion in urine was accompanied by an increased excretion of apoA-IV. 11.5 g of triglyceride and 81 mg of apoA-IV were recovered (...) in the urine. In chylous urine 56% of apoA-IV was in the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and intestinal VLDL) and 44% in the d > 1.006-g/ml fraction. Normal plasma apoA-IV was 15.7+/-0.9 mg/dl (n = 14) whereas four subjects with abetalipoproteinemia had reduced levels 1.2, 7.6, 9.6, and 8.3 mg/dl, respectively. Lipid feeding in normal volunteers resulted in a rise in plasma apoA-IV (16.1+/-0.7 mg/dl to 18.5+/-0.7 mg/dl, n = 5, P < 0.01). In fasting plasma, 98% of apoA-IV was in the d > 1.21-g

1980 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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