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Fractional Excretion of Sodium


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1581. EC 24.11 inhibition in man alters clearance of atrial natriuretic peptide. (Abstract)

significantly enhanced urinary sodium excretion above preinfusion values in both study phases in both groups. Candoxatril significantly further augmented natriuresis in group 2 (P less than 0.01), but not group 1. Inulin clearance was minimally enhanced, and para-aminohippuran clearance was slightly decreased by candoxatril in both groups. Neither effect alone was statistically significant, but derived renal filtration fractions were significantly enhanced in both groups [group 1, 15.5 +/- 0.5% vs. 13.9

1991 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1582. The influence of oral alkali citrate on intestinal calcium absorption in healthy man. (Abstract)

fractional CaA decreased significantly from 30 to 110 min post-load, and 3 h cumulative CaA dropped to 54.6 +/- (SEM) 6.1% of the total dose as opposed to 76.3 +/- 4.5% after vehicle administration (P less than 0.002). Citrate administration raised serum and urinary citrate, but had little effect on blood acid-base status. After both loads, urinary specific activity of 47Ca significantly correlated with 3 h cumulative CaA, while citrate administration decreased urinary calcium excretion only slightly (...) The influence of oral alkali citrate on intestinal calcium absorption in healthy man. The influence of citrate on intestinal calcium absorption (CaA) was studied in eight healthy males. On separate occasions, either a load containing 5 mmol of calcium chloride and 21 mmol of citrate in the form of sodium potassium citrate or a citrate-free vehicle load corrected for pH and cations was ingested. CaA was measured over 3 h with a 47Ca-85Sr double tracer method. After citrate administration, 10 min

1987 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1583. Effect of a meal containing protein on lithium clearance and plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide in man. (Abstract)

excretion and a transient decrease in urine flow after both meals suggest that the protein content of the meal is not an important contributory factor in these responses to feeding. 3. Absolute delivery of sodium and water out of the proximal tubules (assessed by the lithium clearance method) was higher after both meals than while fasting; fractional lithium clearance was higher after the low protein meal than the high protein meal and while fasting. Absolute reabsorption from proximal tubules (...) was increased after only the high protein meal. 4. A transient decrease in the fraction of water delivered to distal nephron segments that appeared in the urine (fractional distal water excretion) was observed after both meals. Fractional distal sodium excretion and absolute distal sodium and water reabsorption increased after both meals. 5. Since plasma atrial natriuretic peptide either decreased (high protein meal) or remained unchanged (low protein meal and fasting), it is unlikely that this hormone

1988 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1584. Renal effects of nicardipine in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. (Abstract)

+/- 12.4% (p less than 0.05), and urinary excretion of sodium by 56.4 +/- 10.7% (p less than 0.05) with a significant (p less than 0.01) reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to control values. Nicardipine decreased total renal vascular resistance by 30.0 +/- 3.2% (p less than 0.05) from the control value, while filtration fraction remained unchanged. Our results indicate that nicardipine has several favorable renal effects with a concomitant hypotensive action in patients

1986 American heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1585. Parenteral nutrition for infants: effect of high versus low calcium and phosphorus content. (Abstract)

weeks. TRP also was higher (p = 0.02) and remained consistently greater than 90%. There were no significant differences between groups in serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, Ca, Mg, P, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D binding protein, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations; urine Ca/creatinine and Mg/creatinine ratios, and fractional excretion of sodium (Na). Thus, a "high" Ca (60 mg/dl) and P (46.5 mg/dl) content in PN solutions can result in stable serum 1,25(OH)2D and TRP, presumably reflecting (...) minimal stress to Ca and P homeostatic mechanisms without further increase in urinary Ca excretion.

1987 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1586. Evaluation of the natriuretic and beta-adrenoceptor-blocking effects of tienoxolol in normal volunteers. (Abstract)

, and diuresis and urinary electrolyte excretion values were measured before and at intervals up to 24 h after oral administration of the drugs. In addition, the clearances of electrolytes, uric acid, and creatinine were calculated, as well as the fractional sodium excretion (Fe Na%) before and 4 h and 24 h after drug intake. Finally, tienoxolol plasma levels were measured. Tienoxolol significantly and dose-dependently reduced exercise-induced tachycardia. This effect started 1 h after drug administration (...) , peaked between 4 h and 6 h (-12% and -17% from control values at 150 mg and 300 mg, respectively), and lasted at least 12 h. Resting HR was decreased at 300 mg (P less than 0.05), PRA was decreased at both doses (P less than 0.05), but PEFR was not drug-affected. 24-h cumulative sodium excretion was increased (+24% at 150 mg [NS], +38% at 300 mg [P less than 0.01]) as compared to placebo, and Fe Na% did not change, regardless of the dose administered. 24-h cumulative diuresis was moderately increased

1988 Fundamental & clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1587. Effects of acute and chronic dosing of NSAIDs in patients with renal insufficiency. (Abstract)

, P = 0.001; I: from 37 +/- 6 to 30 +/- 7 ml/min, P = 0.032; in RPF (K: from 194 +/- 21 to 146 +/- 21 ml/min, P = 0.002; I: from 222 +/- 33 to 147 +/- 18 ml/min, P = 0.016); and in urinary PGE2 excretion (K: from 0.60 +/- 0.25 to 0.08 +/- 0.02 ng/min, P = 0.05; I: from 0.34 +/- 0.06 to 0.18 +/- 0.06 ng/min, P = 0.042). Fractional excretion of sodium chloride and fractional free water clearance (CH2O/CIn) also decreased significantly after both agents. In normal subjects, GFR and RPF were (...) not significantly decreased after acute dosing, whereas urinary PGE2 and fractional excretions of NaCl and free water decreased significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1986 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1588. Renal effects of nicardipine, a calcium entry blocker, in hypertensive type II diabetic patients with nephropathy. (Abstract)

in all study groups compared with the respective placebo. Nicardipine increased RBF (P less than .01), GFR (P less than .05), and urinary Na+ excretion (P less than .01) and decreased total renal vascular resistance (P less than .01) in groups A and B, but these parameters remain unchanged in group C. The filtration fraction remained unaltered in all groups. The results indicate that nicardipine has several favorable renal effects with a concomitant hypotensive action in hypertensive type II (...) ). The patients received an intravenous dose of nicardipine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) or saline placebo in a random order. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured by means of thiosulfate sodium and p-aminohippurate, respectively, during the 30 min after the nicardipine or saline injection. Blood pressures were serially monitored during the study. Nicardipine reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly (P less than .05 to .01) at all measurement periods

1986 Diabetes Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1589. Haemodynamic (systemic and renal) and humoral interactions between nicardipine and domperidone in hypertensives. (Abstract)

natriuretic effect of nicardipine was associated with an increase in the amount of filtered sodium (+43%) and with fractional sodium excretion (+110%), and a direct correlation was found between changes in RPF and in urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.68) and fractional sodium excretion (r = 0.57). Plasma renin activity (PRA) did not change, plasma aldosterone was significantly reduced (-10%) and plasma noradrenaline significantly increased (+63%). Domperidone pretreatment prevented the GFR increase induced (...) ) for 30 min and repeated the same sequence introducing domperidone (10 mg i.v.) between saline and nicardipine; the effects of each treatment were followed for 30 min. The sequence was randomized with a 72-h interval between each study. Compared with placebo, nicardipine significantly reduced mean blood pressure (-14%) and renovascular resistance (-28%), increased heart rate (+15%), renal plasma flow (RPF; +21%), glomerular filtration rate (GFR; +43%) and urinary sodium excretion (+181%). The acute

1987 Journal of hypertension. Supplement : official journal of the International Society of Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1590. Pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline influenced by oral charcoal and urine pH. (Abstract)

Pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline influenced by oral charcoal and urine pH. The effects of orally given activated charcoal, sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride on the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline were studied in 6 volunteers in a randomized, cross-over study. The serum and urine concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline were determined by HPLC for up to 72 h. Activated charcoal (50 g), given within 5 min of the amitriptyline hydrochloride dose (75 mg), reduced its absorption (...) by 99%. When given in repeated doses from 6 h on, 50 g followed by 12.5 g at 6-h intervals, charcoal shortened the serum half-life of amitriptyline by 20% and that of nortriptyline by 35% (p less than 0.05). The renal excretions of amitriptyline and nortriptyline increased 1000-fold by the acidification of urine pH to 4. However, the cumulative excretion of amitriptyline and nortriptyline even into acidic urine only accounted for up to 5% of the dose during 72 h. Since urinary pH has a great

1986 International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1591. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics and diuretic effects of two loop diuretics, torasemide and furosemide, in normal volunteers. (Abstract)

conditions, were used for clearance determinations and measurement of plasma and urinary drug concentrations. Urine volume, osmolar clearance, absolute and fractional urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium and creatinine clearance increased similarly after torasemide and furosemide according to the logarithm of the dose of the drug. Free water clearance stabilized at a constant level with torasemide and increased continuously after each dose of furosemide. During each (...) of the three drug administration periods, the plasma levels of torasemide were not significantly different from those of furosemide, whereas the urinary concentrations and absolute excretion rates of torasemide were more than 5-times lower than those of furosemide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1986 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1592. Effects of indomethacin on kidney function in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy. (Abstract)

function studies. Indomethacin treatment induced a significant reduction in urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion (73%, p less than 0.01), glomerular filtration rate diminished from 120 +/- 18 to 106 +/- 17 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p less than 0.05), albuminuria declined from 148 to 69 micrograms/min (median and range) (p less than 0.05) and fractional clearance of albumin diminished 42% (p less than 0.05). Blood glucose concentrations were comparable during the placebo and indomethacin treatment, 13.4 +/- 4 (...) Effects of indomethacin on kidney function in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy. We investigated whether the glomerular synthesis of prostaglandins modulates the glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. The urinary excretion of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (253 pg/min) was significantly elevated in eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic women with nephropathy as compared with nine normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic women (95 pg/min

1987 Diabetologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1593. The effects of naproxen and sulindac on renal function and their interaction with hydrochlorothiazide and piretanide in man. Full Text available with Trip Pro

or sulindac. None of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or diuretic exposures significantly influenced glomerular filtration rate, as measured by creatinine clearance. Over the first 4 h of the study, both naproxen and sulindac reduced fractional excretion of sodium by approximately 50%. Sulindac also caused a significant uricosuria whilst naproxen promoted urate retention. Similar changes were observed over 8 h. Superimposition of either hydrochlorothiazide or piretanide on top of chronic (...) sulindac therapy resulted in a blunting of the natriuresis by approximately 30% compared to when these diuretics were given alone: the action of the diuretics was unchanged by naproxen. Sulindac pretreatment did not alter the urinary excretion of either hydrochlorothiazide or piretanide; naproxen did not alter hydrochlorothiazide excretion. On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that NSAIDs exert direct tubular effects that do not necessarily interfere with the delivery of diuretics

1987 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1594. Site of the action of a synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide evaluated in humans. (Abstract)

hours, followed by a two-hour recovery period. Blood pressure, heart rate and insulin clearance remained unchanged. During hANP infusion, the filtration fraction increased slightly from 19.6 to 24.3% (P less than 0.001), fractional water excretion rose transiently at the beginning of the infusion. Fractional excretion of sodium increased markedly from 2.2% to 7.4% (P less than 0.001) but remained unchanged with Ve. ANP increased fractional excretion of lithium slightly from 46 to 58% (P less than (...) 0.01), while it remained stable at 47% during Ve. The distal tubular rejection fraction of sodium calculated from sodium and lithium clearances rose markedly from 4.7 to 13% (P less than 0.001) and returned to 6.2% at the end of the recovery period. Thus, under salt loading and water diuresis conditions, hANP infusion did not alter GFR, but reduced proximal reabsorption of sodium, and markedly enhanced the fraction of sodium escaping distal tubular reabsorption, suggesting that hANP-induced

1987 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1595. Comparison of loop diuretics in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. (Abstract)

, respectively (ratio = 40:1) were sufficient to produce a maximum response. Despite similarities in maximal fractional excretion of sodium (18.2 +/- 2.6% with furosemide vs. 19.4 +/- 4.5% with bumetanide, P = 0.687) demonstrating an equal tubular responsiveness to both drugs, overall response as quantified by cumulative natriuresis in the initial eight hour period was 52% greater with furosemide (108 +/- 17 vs. 71 +/- 7 mEq; P = 0.042). The difference in total excreted sodium was accounted (...) the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of intravenously administered furosemide and bumetanide in ten adult patients with stable, chronic renal insufficiency (mean creatinine clearance = 14.1 +/- 2.0 ml/min/1.73 m2) in a randomized, cross-over study during controlled sodium intake. Our goals were to assess differences in diuretic effectiveness and in so doing to determine the dose required to produce a maximal response. The mean diuretic doses of 172 and 4.3 mg for furosemide and bumetanide

1987 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1596. Effect of metoclopramide on dopamine-induced changes in renal function in healthy controls and in patients with renal disease. (Abstract)

) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with a fall in filtration fraction (FF) in eight hydrated healthy volunteers and, to a lesser degree, in 12 patients with renal disease. An increase in natriuresis (urinary excretion of sodium, UNa+V), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa+) and diuresis (urine flow rate, UV) was found in both groups for doses of 2 micrograms min-1 kg-1 and higher. 3. Metoclopramide infusion did not alter baseline values of GFR, ERPF or FF, but shifted the dopamine dose-response curve (...) for ERPF and FF in the healthy volunteers. Metoclopramide induced a fall in UNa+V and FENa+ in both groups (fall in baseline FENa+ from 1.52 to 0.71 during metoclopramide in healthy volunteers and from 1.23 to 0.56 in patients; P less than 0.01) and blunted the natriuretic response to subsequent dopamine infusion. The fall in UNa+V during metoclopramide infusion showed a strong correlation with baseline GFR (r = -0.944). In the patients, the response for the fractional excretions of beta 2

1988 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1597. [Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of bemetizid in comparison with hydrochlorothiazide. A controlled human pharmacologic study of acute effects]. (Abstract)

effects of bemetizide and hydrochlorothiazide were qualitatively equal, though after higher doses bemetizide showed greater maximal, statistically significant effects on the excretion of sodium, chloride and urine volume (relative efficacy). A trend to increased elimination of potassium was detectable. Diuresis of calcium and magnesium and pH of urine were unchanged. The effects of the reference dosis of hydrochlorothiazide were constantly lower than those of higher doses of bemetizide conferring (...) to the 24-h aliquot and the fractioned samples. The action of both substances began within 1 to 2 h after oral application exceeding 24 h. Kinetics of effects and pharmacokinetics were closely correlated. The evidence of dose-dependent kinetics for bemetizide supports the assumption, that it is absorbed incompletely in higher doses. Because of the lack of a parenteral preparation it is not possible to provide reliable information on the maximal potency of bemetizide.

1983 Arzneimittel-Forschung Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1598. [Efficacy of thiazide in idiopathic calcium urolithiasis. Results of a one-year double-blind study (author's transl)]. (Abstract)

raised in both groups (protein-bound fraction) since ionized and ultrafiltrable calcium remained unchanged and parameters for parathyroid gland function tended to be reduced. The daily oxalate excretion in the urine was reduced in both groups during treatment and most expressedly in the placebo group (p < 0.05), which indicates an influence of unspecific factors. Activity products of calcium oxalate and brushite were reduced in both groups almost equally within the metastable region. In each group, 6 (...) patients spontaneously developed kidney stones while treated. Our data indicate that effective reduction of urinary calcium by means of hydrochlorothiazide without dietary sodium restriction is possible and that causes other than urinary calcium must account for stone formation under thiazide administration.

1980 Arzneimittel-Forschung Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1599. Plasma insulin during physiological and pathophysiological changes in atrial natriuretic factor. (Abstract)

Plasma insulin during physiological and pathophysiological changes in atrial natriuretic factor. Changes in plasma insulin in response to a physiological or pathophysiological elevation in circulating atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) have been investigated. Plasma insulin, glucose, immunoreactive (ir) ANF, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), absolute and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), have been measured in 14 volunteers before and during infusion of low (...) were not affected, and diuresis, FENa and urinary Na excretion were increased significantly and dose-dependently during ANF, but not V infusion. Compared to baseline, ANF 4, 8 and 16 increased urinary Na excretion by 147,241 and 446 mumol.min-1, respectively. The findings indicate that, in normal humans, an acute increase in irANF within or slightly above the physiological range, which modified natriuresis and diuresis, did not alter circulating plasma insulin.

1992 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1600. Renal function in preterm infants during the first five days of life: influence of maturation and early colloid treatment. (Abstract)

) and fractional urinary sodium excretion significantly higher (p less than 0.002) in infants of G less than 30 than in infants of G 30-34. Infants of G less than 30 had significantly higher plasma potassium concentrations (p less than 0.01) than infants of G 30-34. Despite the low CCr and the high urinary sodium excretion rate, infants of G less than 30 had stable fluid and electrolyte balance. (...) randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, one receiving FFP, the other not, yielding four study groups; G less than 30 and no FFP (8 infants), G less than 30 and FFP (8 infants), G 30-34 and no FFP (9 infants) and G 30-34 and FFP (10 infants). The infants in the two FFP groups received FFP 10 ml/kg on days 1-3. FFP did not significantly influence creatinine clearance (CCr) or the urinary sodium excretion rate either in G less than 30 or G 30-34. CCr was significantly lower (p less than 0.001

1992 Biology of the neonate Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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