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1,657 results for

Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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141. Micropuncture Studies of Sodium Tranport in the Remnant Kidney of the Dog THE EFFECT OF GRADED VOLUME EXPANSION (PubMed)

tubule as well as loop fractional reabsorption of sodium. After ECV expansion to 3% body weight proximal tubule reabsorption was depressed in all groups of animals, while little further inhibition was observed in this segment with additional expansion to 10% body weight. In contrast, the fraction of filtered sodium remaining in the distal tubule rose progressively in all three groups after graded ECV expansion, suggesting that the graded natriuretic response found in the final urine was largely due (...) to a similar response in the loop of Henle rather than that in the proximal tubule. The distal tubule response of the remnant kidney in both stages II and III was greater than that in stage I. These data indicate that although enhanced sodium excretion per nephron in chronic renal failure may be related to uremia, its exaggerated response to ECV expansion is due, at least in part, to certain as yet unidentified intrarenal factors consequent to reduction in functioning renal mass.

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1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

142. A Comparison of the Segmental Analysis of Sodium Reabsorption during Ringer's and Hyperoncotic Albumin Infusion in the Rat (PubMed)

A Comparison of the Segmental Analysis of Sodium Reabsorption during Ringer's and Hyperoncotic Albumin Infusion in the Rat Studies were designed to compare the segmental analysis of sodium reabsorption along the nephron during volume expansion with either 10% body weight Ringer's or 0.6% body weight hyperoncotic albumin. Total kidney and nephron glomerular filtration rate increased similarly with both, but urinary sodium excretion (12.7 vs. 4.0 mueq/min, P < 0.001) and fractional sodium (...) excretion (5.0 vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001) increased to a greater extent with Ringer's. Fractional reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule was diminished in both groups but to a significantly greater extent during Ringer's (P < 0.005). Absolute reabsorption was inhibited only in the Ringer's group. Delivery of filtrate out of the proximal tubule was greater in the Ringer's studies, 45 vs. 37 nl/min (P < 0.001). However, both fractional and absolute sodium delivery to the early and late distal tubule were

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1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

143. Effect of Extracellular Volume Expansion upon Sodium Reabsorption in the Distal Nephron of Dogs (PubMed)

Effect of Extracellular Volume Expansion upon Sodium Reabsorption in the Distal Nephron of Dogs Micropuncture studies have disclosed that extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion inhibits sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule. The diuresis that ensues represents only a portion of the increment in sodium and water escaping proximal reabsorption, since a large and variable fraction of the increment is reabsorbed distally. In certain experimental models proximal reabsorption may (...) /2 isotonic saline infusion. C(H2O) at high distal sodium loads was depressed by expansion of the ECF volume with hypotonic saline. The difference in free water formation between dogs which did and did not receive hypotonic saline was accounted for by the difference in sodium excretion. In one dog hypotonic saline expansion failed to depress free water formation; likewise the level of natriuresis in this dog was severely attenuated. The results of these experiments provide strong evidence

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1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

144. Micropuncture Study of Diuretic Effects on Sodium and Calcium Reabsorption in the Dog Nephron (PubMed)

experimental phases: expansion to 3% of body weight (BWt) with Ringer's solution, chlorothiazide infusion at 20 mg/kg/h, and furosemide in a prime of 10 mg/kg/ and a 10 mg/kg/h infusion. Diuretic losses were balanced with infusion of equal volumes of Ringer's solution throughout the experiment. Chlorothiazide increased the fractional excretion (FE) of sodium almost threefold while FE(Ca) was not significantly altered. Furosemide increased FE(Na) and FE(Ca) to an approximately equal, and more marked, degree (...) Micropuncture Study of Diuretic Effects on Sodium and Calcium Reabsorption in the Dog Nephron A close relationship has been observed between the clearance rates of sodium and calcium under a variety of diuretic conditions. The thiazide diuretics act differently in dissociating the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and calcium. This phenomenon has been further investigated using recollection micropuncture and clearance techniques in a group of 14 dogs subjected to three consecutive

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1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

145. Daily loss of calcium and sodium from the skin of two healthy men (PubMed)

ranged from 45 to 146 mg with mean values of 97 and 77 mg respectively.3. The ratio of the daily skin loss to the urinary excretion of Ca was 6.8 and 3.4%.4. There was no correlation between the daily skin loss of Ca and atmospheric humidity.5. In the last experiment, the fraction of the total skin loss of Ca due to fluid secretion was assessed by giving an I.V. dose of (47)Ca to each subject. The values derived for this fraction were 0.37 and 0.38. (...) Daily loss of calcium and sodium from the skin of two healthy men 1. The daily losses from the skin of Ca and Na have been measured for two healthy men. The losses included Ca and Na in exfoliated skin cells as well as in insensible perspiration. The daily output of Ca in urine was also measured.2. In five measurements, the total daily skin loss of Ca ranged from 8.0 to 21.1 mg with mean values of 16.7 and 10.8 mg for the two subjects. The total daily skin loss of Na under the same conditions

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1973 The Journal of physiology

146. Micropuncture Studies of Phosphate Transport in the Proximal Tubule of the Dog THE RELATIONSHIP TO SODIUM REABSORPTION (PubMed)

ultrafilterable (TF/UF) phosphate ratio. A correlation was found between the changes in fractional reabsorption of sodium and phosphate but the phosphate changes were generally greater than those of sodium. Also, a high distal phosphate delivery in the face of low fractional excretion of phosphate in the urine in thyroparathyroidectomized dogs suggests significant phosphate reabsorption in the distal nephron. On the other hand, calcium chloride infusion to saline-loaded, normal dogs to suppress endogenous (...) Micropuncture Studies of Phosphate Transport in the Proximal Tubule of the Dog THE RELATIONSHIP TO SODIUM REABSORPTION Micropuncture studies were performed in the dog to examine the relationship between sodium and phosphate transport in the proximal tubule. In hydropenic, thyroparathyroidectomized animals, administration of parathyroid extract, saline, or acetazolamide resulted in a fall in proximal tubule fluid-to-plasma (TF/P) inulin ratio as well as a rise in tubule fluid-to-plasma

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1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

147. Increased renal sodium absorption by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis during fasting in healthy man. A possible role of the epithelial sodium channels. (PubMed)

and the epithelial sodium channels.The effect of ibuprofen, 600 mg thrice daily, was measured during fasting in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study of 17 healthy humans. The subjects received a standardized diet on day 1, fasted at day 2, and received an IV infusion of 3% NaCl on day 3. The effect variables were urinary excretions of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), the beta-fraction of the epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaCbeta), cyclic-AMP (u-cAMP), prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2). Free water (...) clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), and plasma concentrations of vasopressin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial-, and brain natriuretic peptide.Ibuprofen decreased u-AQP2, u-PGE2, and FENa at all parts of the study. During the same time, ibuprofen significantly increased u-ENaCbeta. Ibuprofen did not change the response in p-AVP, u-c-AMP, urinary output, and free water clearance during any of these periods. Atrial-and brain natriuretic peptide were higher.During inhibition

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2010 BMC nephrology

148. Hyponatraemia

water excretion fractional excretion of sodium thyroid-stimulating hormone serum cortisol level and/or adrenocorticotrophic hormone test serum lipids and serum protein electrophoresis CT brain, chest, abdomen/pelvis other tests targeted at evaluating the underlying cause Treatment algorithm ACUTE ONGOING Contributors Authors Associate Director Nephrology MedStar Washington Hospital Center Washington DC Disclosures JHV declares that she has no competing interests. Peer reviewers Director Department (...) Hyponatraemia Hyponatraemia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Hyponatraemia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Defined as a serum sodium concentration of <135 mmol/L. Most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Can occur in settings of volume depletion, volume overload, or euvolaemia. Serum osmolality, urine osmolality, and urine sodium concentration

2019 BMJ Best Practice

149. Acute kidney injury

(including urea and creatinine) ratio of serum urea to creatinine urinalysis urine culture full blood count fractional excretion of sodium fractional excretion of urea urinary eosinophil count venous blood gases fluid challenge bladder catheterisation urine osmolality urine sodium concentration renal ultrasound chest x-ray ECG anti-nuclear antibodies anti-DNA complement (C3, C4, CH50) anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies acute hepatitis profile HIV serology (...) obstructive symptoms haematuria fever rash arthralgia/arthritis altered mental status signs of uraemia nausea thirst flank pain abdominal distension abdominal bruit livedo reticularis petechiae ecchymoses advanced age underlying renal disease malignant hypertension diabetes mellitus myeloproliferative disorders, such as multiple myeloma connective tissue disease sodium-retaining states (e.g., congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome) radiocontrast exposure to nephrotoxins (e.g

2019 BMJ Best Practice

150. British guideline on the management of asthma

structured clinical assessment, 3.4 Organisation of diagnostic services 4 Monitoring asthma New: Table 7, 4.1 Targeting care, 4.2 Monitoring current asthma symptom control, 4.3 Predicting future risk of asthma attacks, 4.3.1 Adults, 4.3.2 School-aged children, 4.3.3 Preschool children, 4.3.4 People with severe asthma, 4.4 Physiological measures, 4.4.1 Spirometry and peak expiratory flow, 4.4.2 Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, 4.4.3 Eosinophils, 4.5 Other approaches 5 Supported self management New: 5.2.3

2019 SIGN

151. Guidelines on Diabetes, Pre-Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD

rate; GLP1-RA = glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; HF = heart failure; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; ICD = implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LEAD = lower extremity artery disease; MRA = mineralocorticoid receptor agonist; o.d. = once daily (omni die); PAD = peripheral arterial disease; PCSK9 = proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9; RAAS = renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; SGLT2 = sodium-glucose co-transporter-2; T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM (...) Sulfonylureas 38 8.5.3 Thiazolidinediones 38 8.5.4 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors 38 8.5.5 Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists 38 8.5.6 Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors 38 9 Arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death 40 9.1 Atrial fibrillation 40 9.1.1 Diabetes and risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation 40 9.2 Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death 40 9.2.1 Ventricular premature beats and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia 40 9.2.2

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2019 European Society of Cardiology

152. Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney. (PubMed)

-controlled, single-blinded cross-over study of 15 healthy humans. The subjects received a standardized diet on day 1, fasted on day 2, and received 500 mg methylprednisolone intravenously on day 3. The effect variables were urinary excretions of AQP2 (u-AQP2), urinary excretion of the beta-fraction of the ENaC (u-ENaC(beta)), cAMP (u-cAMP), prostaglandin E(2) (u-PGE(2)), free water clearance (C(H2O)), and fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)), and plasma vasopressin (p-AVP), angiotensin II (p-Ang II (...) Direct effect of methylprednisolone on renal sodium and water transport via the principal cells in the kidney. Glucocorticoids influence renal concentrating and diluting ability. We tested the hypothesis that methylprednisolone treatment increased renal water and sodium absorption by increased absorption via the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels and the epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) respectively.The effect of methylprednisolone was measured during fasting in a randomized, placebo

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2010 European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies

153. Study of Sodium Bicarbonate in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of sodium bicarbonate versus no sodium bicarbonate treatment on urinary ammonia levels and urinary transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) excretion in renal transplant patients with low-to-normal serum bicarbonate levels (20 - 28 mmol/L). Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Kidney Transplantation Drug: Sodium bicarbonate Early Phase 1 Detailed Description: Renal allograft survival ten years after (...) such as sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate may reduce CKD progression. Design: this is an open-label randomized study testing the effect of a six-month intervention with sodium bicarbonate 650 mg orally thrice daily versus no sodium bicarbonate treatment on renal ammonia excretion and urinary TGF-beta1. Visits will occur at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At each follow-up visit, the study coordinator or principal investigator will review a medical questionnaire with the participant and collect a sample

2010 Clinical Trials

154. Intercalated Cell BK-{alpha}/{beta}4 Channels Modulate Sodium and Potassium Handling During Potassium Adaptation. (PubMed)

with wild-type mice when fed a regular or potassium-rich diet for ten days. We did not detect differences in urinary flow or fractional excretions of potassium (FE(K)) or sodium (FE(Na)) between Kcnmb4-deficient and wild-type mice fed a regular diet. However, a potassium-rich diet led to >4-fold increases in urinary flows for both groups of mice, although Kcnmb4-deficient mice exhibited less urinary flow, higher plasma potassium concentration, more fluid retention, and significantly lower FE(K) and FE (...) Intercalated Cell BK-{alpha}/{beta}4 Channels Modulate Sodium and Potassium Handling During Potassium Adaptation. The large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels help eliminate potassium in mammals consuming potassium-rich diets. In the distal nephron, principal cells contain BK-alpha/beta1 channels and intercalated cells contain BK-alpha/beta4 channels. We studied whether BK-beta4-deficient mice (Kcnmb4(-/-)) have altered renal sodium and potassium clearances compared

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2010 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

155. Glomerular hyperfiltration and increased proximal sodium reabsorption in subjects with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose in a population of the African region. (PubMed)

. The prevalence of GHF, defined as a GFR >140 ml/min, was 17.2%, 29.2% and 52.8% in NFG, IFG and DM, respectively (P trend <0.001). Compared to NFG, the adjusted odds ratio for GHF was 1.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-5.44] for IFG and 5.88 (2.39-14.45) for DM. Lithium clearance and fractional excretion of lithium were lower in DM and IFG than NFG (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION. In this population of African descent, subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes had a high prevalence of GHF (...) Glomerular hyperfiltration and increased proximal sodium reabsorption in subjects with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose in a population of the African region. BACKGROUND. Glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is a well-recognized early renal alteration in diabetic patients. As the prevalence of GHF is largely unknown in populations in the African region with respect to normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes [diabetes mellitus (DM)], we conducted

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2010 Transplantation

156. Acute kidney injury

(including urea and creatinine) ratio of serum urea to creatinine urinalysis urine culture full blood count fractional excretion of sodium fractional excretion of urea urinary eosinophil count venous blood gases fluid challenge bladder catheterisation urine osmolality urine sodium concentration renal ultrasound chest x-ray ECG anti-nuclear antibodies anti-DNA complement (C3, C4, CH50) anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies acute hepatitis profile HIV serology (...) obstructive symptoms haematuria fever rash arthralgia/arthritis altered mental status signs of uraemia nausea thirst flank pain abdominal distension abdominal bruit livedo reticularis petechiae ecchymoses advanced age underlying renal disease malignant hypertension diabetes mellitus myeloproliferative disorders, such as multiple myeloma connective tissue disease sodium-retaining states (e.g., congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome) radiocontrast exposure to nephrotoxins (e.g

2018 BMJ Best Practice

157. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

headache seizure coma no hx of recent diuretic use age >50 years pulmonary conditions (e.g., pneumonia) nursing home residence postoperative state malignancy medicine associated with SIADH induction central nervous system (CNS) disorder endurance exercise Diagnostic investigations serum sodium serum osmolality serum urea urine osmolality urine sodium diagnostic trial with normal saline infusion serum uric acid fractional excretion of sodium fractional excretion of urea serum TSH serum cortisol level (...) Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2018 Summary Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is defined as euvolaemic, hypotonic hyponatraemia secondary to impaired free water excretion, usually from

2018 BMJ Best Practice

158. Volume depletion in adults

intestinal obstruction severe pancreatitis crush injuries intra-abdominal bleeding fatigue thirst dry mucous membranes muscle cramps abdominal pain chest pain confusion decreased skin turgor diuretic therapy chronic kidney disease older adult altered mental status high ambient temperature Diagnostic investigations FBC serum electrolytes blood glucose serum urea serum creatinine urinalysis random urine sodium fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) random urine chloride random urine creatinine random urine (...) osmolality rectal examination and faecal occult blood test urine urea/fractional excretion of urea (FEurea) arterial blood gases nasogastric lavage stool cultures abdominal ultrasound abdominal CT scan upper GI endoscopy colonoscopy saliva osmolality Treatment algorithm ACUTE Contributors Authors Research Associate Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago IL Disclosures SKH is an author of a reference cited in this monograph. Professor Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Department

2018 BMJ Best Practice

159. Hyponatraemia

water excretion fractional excretion of sodium thyroid-stimulating hormone serum cortisol level and/or adrenocorticotrophic hormone test serum lipids and serum protein electrophoresis CT brain, chest, abdomen/pelvis other tests targeted at evaluating the underlying cause Treatment algorithm ACUTE ONGOING Contributors Authors Associate Director Nephrology MedStar Washington Hospital Center Washington DC Disclosures JHV declares that she has no competing interests. Peer reviewers Director Department (...) Hyponatraemia Hyponatraemia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Hyponatraemia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Defined as a serum sodium concentration of <135 mmol/L. Most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Can occur in settings of volume depletion, volume overload, or euvolaemia. Serum osmolality, urine osmolality, and urine sodium concentration

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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