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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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141. BILE SALT METABOLISM AS INFLUENCED BY PURE AMINO ACIDS AND CASEIN DIGESTS Full Text available with Trip Pro

BILE SALT METABOLISM AS INFLUENCED BY PURE AMINO ACIDS AND CASEIN DIGESTS A non-protein diet supplemented with vitamins fed to a bile fistula dog caused marked reduction in cholic acid and taurocholic acid formation. A mixture of pure amino acids, essential for growth, promoted taurocholic acid production for a limited period. A mixture of amino acids composed of 2 fractions of a casein digest fortified with dl-methionine and dl-tryptophane, (Merck Vuj-N-ix), also resulted in increased (...) taurocholic acid excretion. A casein digest, Amigen, supported cholic acid production, but there was very low taurocholic acid excretion. Addition of methionine to the Amigen brought about increased taurocholic acid excretion with reduction in the amount of free cholic acid in the bile. A bile fistula animal was maintained for a year in excellent condition and produced bile salt on a non-protein diet supplemented by vitamins, Amigen, and methionine. Unhydrolyzed alcoholic filtrate of bile contained traces

1949 The Journal of experimental medicine

142. Natriuretic activity in plasma and urine of salt-loaded man and sheep Full Text available with Trip Pro

Natriuretic activity in plasma and urine of salt-loaded man and sheep The present study was designed to examine the question of whether or not there is a natriuretic hormonal substance involved in the renal regulation of sodium balance. For this purpose, procedures for concentration and fractionation of plasma and urine samples and a sensitive bioassay for demonstrating changes in renal sodium excretion were developed. The natriuretic assay utilized rats with mild diabetes insipidus which were (...) maintained in salt and water balance. Using these approaches a natriuretic humoral substance was demonstrated in plasma and urine from normal man and sheep, and in patients with primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension. It seems likely that this substance participates in day to day regulation of sodium balance because it was not detectable in sodium-depleted subjects and it consistently appeared in the sodium-loaded subjects. The hormonal agent may not act immediately and its activity can

1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

143. Maturation of the renal response to hypertonic sodium chloride loading in rats: micropuncture and clearance studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maturation of the renal response to hypertonic sodium chloride loading in rats: micropuncture and clearance studies. 1. The ability of maturing rats to excrete a sodium load was studied by micropuncture and clearance procedures. 2. During control conditions, no change of glomerular filtration rate or sodium excretion was observed for the time period of the entire procedure (P greater than 0-20). During the infusion of hypertonic (4%) sodium chloride, fractional sodium excretion was 0-08 +/- 0 (...) -01 in rats 21-30 days old and 0-14 +/- 0-01 (P less than 0-01) in adults. However, the depression of proximal tubular water re-absorption was equal in both groups (P greater than 0-20). 3. Proximal glomerulotubular balance for water re-absorption was similar in all groups (P less than 0-20). Since end proximal tubular water excretion and depression of fractional water excretion were the same in all animals, differences of urinary sodium excretion during development are probably due to differences

1976 The Journal of physiology

144. The effect of thyroid hormone on bile salt-independent bile flow and Na+, K+ -ATPase activity in liver plasma membranes enriched in bile canaliculi. Full Text available with Trip Pro

+/- 0.24 mul/min per g liver), while it diminished in hypothyroid animals (1.58 +/- 0.17 mul/min per g liver). Although bile salt excretion was also increased in hyperthyroid animals (62.4 +/- 13.3 vs. 41.2 +/- 8.4 nmol/min per g liver), the stimulation in canalicular secretion was primarily related to enhancement of the bile salt-independent fraction of flow (2.47 mul/min per g liver in hyperthyroid rats vs. 1.67 mul/min per g liver in controls). LPM Na+, K+-ATPase activity doubled in hyperthyroid (...) /mg protein per h), although comparable reductions in the specific activity of Mg++-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase were also observed. Administration of L-thyroxine to hypothyroid animals restored both bile salt-independent canalicular secretion and membrane enzymes to control values within 2 and 4 days, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis demonstrated no significant changes in LPM protein fractions from any of the treatment groups. These studies indicate that thyroid hormone has

1976 Journal of Clinical Investigation

145. Relationship of Sodium Reabsorption and Glomerular Filtration Rate to Renal Glucose Reabsorption Full Text available with Trip Pro

from animals that had fractional sodium excretion rates of less than 1%. Under this condition the relationship of glucose reabsorption to glomerular filtration rate is highly linear. When points obtained during sodium diuresis (C(Na)/GFR>0.1) are plotted on the same graph, glucose reabsorption at any given glomerular filtration rate is much less than during antidiuresis. Glucose reabsorption divided by glomerular filtration rate varies inversely with fractional sodium excretion. This study (...) Relationship of Sodium Reabsorption and Glomerular Filtration Rate to Renal Glucose Reabsorption Glucose reabsorption was measured in dogs in which sodium reabsorption was stimulated by obstruction of the thoracic inferior vena cava or inhibited by volume expansion with Ringer's lactate. Glucose reabsorption was much higher during periods of enhanced sodium reabsorption than during sodium diuresis. The relationship of glucose reabsorption to glomerular filtration rate was examined using data

1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

146. The effect of bradykinin on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog: evidence for functional nephron heterogeneity Full Text available with Trip Pro

performed in the dog in which the tubular fluid to plasma inulin ratio and nephron filtration rate were determined before and during the administration of a structurally different renal vasodilator, bradykinin. This agent increased sodium excretion from 12 to 96 muEq/min and decreased total kidney filtration fraction from 0.35 to 0.25. However, sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the superficial nephrons was unchanged during bradykinin administration. Since it has been shown that a decrease (...) The effect of bradykinin on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog: evidence for functional nephron heterogeneity In a previous study we have found that acetylcholine, a renal vasodilator, inhibits fractional and absolute reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule of the dog. To delineate whether this effect on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption was related to alterations in renal hemodynamics or to a direct tubular action of the drug, free-flow micropuncture studies were

1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

147. Tubular reabsorption of sodium during acute and chronic volume expansion in man Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tubular reabsorption of sodium during acute and chronic volume expansion in man Renal hemodynamics and tubular fractional sodium reabsorption (FSR) were evaluated by clearance techniques during acute and chronic extracellular volume expansion in man. (1 - V/GFR) x 100 was used as an index of proximal and (C(H2O)/V) x 100 as an estimate of distal fractional reabsorption. After acute loading with isotonic saline 37 ml/kg body wt, proximal FSR decreased by 4.8% and distal FSR decreased by 4.4 (...) by 14.8% after E(1) and by an additional 4.9% after E(2). In the nonexcreters, GFR was stable and proximal FSR did not fall significantly after E(1) or E(2). Distal FSR decreased 4.5% after E(1) and 1.3% further after E(2). It is concluded that both acute and chronic extracellular expansion decrease proximal FSR in man, but only acute loading depresses distal FSR. Ability of some men to excrete sodium rapidly after acute infusion is related to larger increases in GFR and greater decreases in both

1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

148. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat: Clearance and micropuncture studies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat: Clearance and micropuncture studies Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats (...) . Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P](IN)) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced

1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

149. Effect of Chronic Bile Duct Obstruction on Renal Handling of Salt and Water Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Chronic Bile Duct Obstruction on Renal Handling of Salt and Water Renal sodium reabsorption and the concentrating and diluting abilities of the kidney were evaluated in the same trained mongrel dogs before and after chronic common bile duct ligation (BDL). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and C(PAH) were not altered by BDL. The natriuretic response to a standardized infusion of 0.45% solution of NaCl was markedly blunted by BDL (P < 0.01); calculated distal sodium delivery (...) was significantly less in experiments after BDL than in control studies. Furthermore, the fractional reabsorption of sodium at the diluting segment for any given rate of distal delivery was enhanced by BDL. Similarly, C(H2O)/100 ml GFR for a given sodium delivery was higher after BDL than control values. Maximal urinary concentration (Uosm-max) was lower after BDL, and the mean Uosm-max for the whole group of animals was 60% of the control value (P < 0.001). Mean maximal T(H2O)/100 ml GFR after BDL

1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

150. A Comparison of the Segmental Analysis of Sodium Reabsorption during Ringer's and Hyperoncotic Albumin Infusion in the Rat Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Comparison of the Segmental Analysis of Sodium Reabsorption during Ringer's and Hyperoncotic Albumin Infusion in the Rat Studies were designed to compare the segmental analysis of sodium reabsorption along the nephron during volume expansion with either 10% body weight Ringer's or 0.6% body weight hyperoncotic albumin. Total kidney and nephron glomerular filtration rate increased similarly with both, but urinary sodium excretion (12.7 vs. 4.0 mueq/min, P < 0.001) and fractional sodium (...) excretion (5.0 vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001) increased to a greater extent with Ringer's. Fractional reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule was diminished in both groups but to a significantly greater extent during Ringer's (P < 0.005). Absolute reabsorption was inhibited only in the Ringer's group. Delivery of filtrate out of the proximal tubule was greater in the Ringer's studies, 45 vs. 37 nl/min (P < 0.001). However, both fractional and absolute sodium delivery to the early and late distal tubule were

1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

151. Micropuncture Studies of Phosphate Transport in the Proximal Tubule of the Dog THE RELATIONSHIP TO SODIUM REABSORPTION Full Text available with Trip Pro

ultrafilterable (TF/UF) phosphate ratio. A correlation was found between the changes in fractional reabsorption of sodium and phosphate but the phosphate changes were generally greater than those of sodium. Also, a high distal phosphate delivery in the face of low fractional excretion of phosphate in the urine in thyroparathyroidectomized dogs suggests significant phosphate reabsorption in the distal nephron. On the other hand, calcium chloride infusion to saline-loaded, normal dogs to suppress endogenous (...) Micropuncture Studies of Phosphate Transport in the Proximal Tubule of the Dog THE RELATIONSHIP TO SODIUM REABSORPTION Micropuncture studies were performed in the dog to examine the relationship between sodium and phosphate transport in the proximal tubule. In hydropenic, thyroparathyroidectomized animals, administration of parathyroid extract, saline, or acetazolamide resulted in a fall in proximal tubule fluid-to-plasma (TF/P) inulin ratio as well as a rise in tubule fluid-to-plasma

1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

152. Micropuncture Studies of Sodium Tranport in the Remnant Kidney of the Dog THE EFFECT OF GRADED VOLUME EXPANSION Full Text available with Trip Pro

tubule as well as loop fractional reabsorption of sodium. After ECV expansion to 3% body weight proximal tubule reabsorption was depressed in all groups of animals, while little further inhibition was observed in this segment with additional expansion to 10% body weight. In contrast, the fraction of filtered sodium remaining in the distal tubule rose progressively in all three groups after graded ECV expansion, suggesting that the graded natriuretic response found in the final urine was largely due (...) to a similar response in the loop of Henle rather than that in the proximal tubule. The distal tubule response of the remnant kidney in both stages II and III was greater than that in stage I. These data indicate that although enhanced sodium excretion per nephron in chronic renal failure may be related to uremia, its exaggerated response to ECV expansion is due, at least in part, to certain as yet unidentified intrarenal factors consequent to reduction in functioning renal mass.

1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

153. Daily loss of calcium and sodium from the skin of two healthy men Full Text available with Trip Pro

ranged from 45 to 146 mg with mean values of 97 and 77 mg respectively.3. The ratio of the daily skin loss to the urinary excretion of Ca was 6.8 and 3.4%.4. There was no correlation between the daily skin loss of Ca and atmospheric humidity.5. In the last experiment, the fraction of the total skin loss of Ca due to fluid secretion was assessed by giving an I.V. dose of (47)Ca to each subject. The values derived for this fraction were 0.37 and 0.38. (...) Daily loss of calcium and sodium from the skin of two healthy men 1. The daily losses from the skin of Ca and Na have been measured for two healthy men. The losses included Ca and Na in exfoliated skin cells as well as in insensible perspiration. The daily output of Ca in urine was also measured.2. In five measurements, the total daily skin loss of Ca ranged from 8.0 to 21.1 mg with mean values of 16.7 and 10.8 mg for the two subjects. The total daily skin loss of Na under the same conditions

1973 The Journal of physiology

154. Abnormally sustained aldosterone secretion during salt loading in patients with various forms of benign hypertension; relation to plasma renin activity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Abnormally sustained aldosterone secretion during salt loading in patients with various forms of benign hypertension; relation to plasma renin activity Among 25 patients with benign, essential hypertension, and an equal number with other benign forms of hypertension, without serious cardiac, renal, or cerebrovascular impairment, 41 cases failed to reduce aldosterone excretion rates into the normal range (less than 5 mug/day) on a daily intake of 300 mEq of sodium. The hypertensive patients (...) excreted slightly less than the normal fraction of labeled aldosterone as acid-hydrolyzable conjugate. Secretion rates were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than in normotensive controls taking the high-sodium intake. On a 10 mEq sodium intake, the increase in excretion and secretion rates of aldosterone in the hypertensive patients could be correlated with plasma renin activity (PRA). The patients with the least increase in PRA had subnormal increase in aldosterone secretion

1970 Journal of Clinical Investigation

155. Disproportionate inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the unilaterally diseased kidney of dog and man after an acute saline load Full Text available with Trip Pro

saline loading, base line studies in many of the dogs and the three humans were in agreement with previously published data. However, in dogs with a severe pyelonephritic lesion, a greater difference in DK vs. CK fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) and water was noted, whose magnitude was inversely correlated with the level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and maximum urine osmolality of DK compared to CK. An acute saline load (75 ml/kg) resulted in an inhibition of fractional sodium and water (...) reabsorption in the diseased dog kidney which was disproportionately greater than in the simultaneously studied CK, regardless of the type or severity of the lesion. While mean DK GFR for all dogs increased 15% more than CK GFR, failure of FE(Na) to increase after induction of a disproportionate increase in DK GFR with parathyroid hormone suggested that the saline-induced disproportionate increase in GFR was not solely responsible for the exaggerated inhibition of fractional sodium and water reabsorption

1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

156. Change of tubular reabsorption of sodium and water after denervation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Change of tubular reabsorption of sodium and water after denervation 1. Renal function was compared in dogs before and after denervation, with normal or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR was reduced by one of two means, aortic clamping or injection of plastic microspheres into one renal artery.2. The data showed that the tubular rejection fraction of denervated kidneys increased at a time when the same value for the control kidney decreased, indicating that denervation diuresis (...) is not simply a result of increased filtered load of Na and water.3. Changes in excretion after aortic clamping are not due solely to reduced filtered load. A reduction in renal blood pressure itself appears to have a direct effect on Na transport since Na excretion was significantly decreased before there were any changes in GFR, renal plasma flow and urine volume.4. When GFR in a denervated kidney was reduced by microsphere injection it was demonstrated that a significant natriuresis (U(Na) V

1969 The Journal of physiology

157. Increased sodium reabsorption in the proximal and distal tubule of caval dogs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increased sodium reabsorption in the proximal and distal tubule of caval dogs The effects of water diuresis, hypotonic NaCl, and hypotonic mannitol diuresis on renal sodium and water excretion were examined in normal dogs and in dogs with chronic constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava and ascites (caval dogs). During all three diuretic states, the capacity to excrete solute-free water relative to the supply of sodium to the water clearing segment of the nephron was significantly (...) greater in the caval dog. This finding was most evident during hypotonic NaCl diuresis but was also striking during hypotonic mannitol diuresis despite the more unfavorable gradient for sodium reabsorption at the distal tubule produced by this agent in caval dogs. In addition, fractional distal sodium load was significantly smaller in caval dogs during water diuresis and could not be increased as readily as in normal dogs by hypotonic NaCl or mannitol infusion. The data indicate that fractional sodium

1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

158. Depression of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog in response to renal beta adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol Full Text available with Trip Pro

Depression of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog in response to renal beta adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol Water diuresis was produced in anesthetized hypophysectomized, cortisone-treated dogs by infusion of 2.5% dextrose. Alpha adrenergic blockade of the left kidney produced by infusion of phenoxybenzamine in the left renal artery was associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater rate of urine flow (V) and free water excretion (C(H2O)) in the left kidney than (...) in the right despite similar glomerular filtration rates (GFR) (17 +/- 1.3 ml/min, left; 18 +/-0.9 ml/min, right). Sodium excretion (U(Na)V) was similar in the two kidneys (3 and 5 muEq/min). When beta adrenergic stimulation of the left kidney was superimposed on alpha blockade by the addition of isoproterenol to the left renal artery infusate, GFR remained unchanged and similar in the two kidneys, as V and C(H2O) increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the left kidney but not in the right. When

1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

159. Effects of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the rat kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the rat kidney. 1. The effect of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the kidney in anaesthetized rats was investigated, using clearance techniques, during infusion of saline (200 microliter min-1) or saline to which either low (0.1 mumole kg body weight-1 ml.-1) doses of phlorizin had been added. 2. Phlorizin increased the absolute and fractional excretion of glucose, urine osmolality and negative free water clearance (...) ; and reduced urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), absolute and fractional excretion of sodium, absolute excretion of sodium, absolute excretion of potassium and absolute and fractional rates of glucose reabsorption. 3. The data indicate that phlorizin has sites of action and effects additional to those on glucose transport in the proximal tubule. 4. Within each series there was a positive correlation between sodium and glucose reabsorption; but the rate of glucose reabsorption was different

1978 The Journal of physiology

160. Micropuncture Study of Diuretic Effects on Sodium and Calcium Reabsorption in the Dog Nephron Full Text available with Trip Pro

experimental phases: expansion to 3% of body weight (BWt) with Ringer's solution, chlorothiazide infusion at 20 mg/kg/h, and furosemide in a prime of 10 mg/kg/ and a 10 mg/kg/h infusion. Diuretic losses were balanced with infusion of equal volumes of Ringer's solution throughout the experiment. Chlorothiazide increased the fractional excretion (FE) of sodium almost threefold while FE(Ca) was not significantly altered. Furosemide increased FE(Na) and FE(Ca) to an approximately equal, and more marked, degree (...) Micropuncture Study of Diuretic Effects on Sodium and Calcium Reabsorption in the Dog Nephron A close relationship has been observed between the clearance rates of sodium and calcium under a variety of diuretic conditions. The thiazide diuretics act differently in dissociating the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and calcium. This phenomenon has been further investigated using recollection micropuncture and clearance techniques in a group of 14 dogs subjected to three consecutive

1973 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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