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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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121. The relative contributions of reabsorptive rate and redistributed nephron filtration rate to changes in proximal tubular fractional reabsorption during acute saline infusion and aortic constriction in the rat (PubMed)

was calculated for filtering nephrons. During hydropenia this value averaged 32.9 +/-7.1 nl/min. Saline infusion increased sodium excretion to 5.5% of the filtered load as the absolute rate of proximal tubular reabsorption decreased 38% and fractional reabsorption decreased 45%. Calculated superficial nephron filtration rate increased 21% which on the average was identical with the simultaneously measured increase in whole kidney filtration rate. Similar results were obtained in a separate group of animals (...) The relative contributions of reabsorptive rate and redistributed nephron filtration rate to changes in proximal tubular fractional reabsorption during acute saline infusion and aortic constriction in the rat The absolute rate of reabsorption by superficial rat proximal tubules was measured by the in situ microperfusion technique under conditions of hydropenia, infusion of saline, and infusion of saline plus aortic constriction sufficient to decrease whole kidney filtration rate below

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1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

122. The effect of eprosartan on reflex sympathetic activation in sodium restricted patients with essential hypertension. (PubMed)

and vasoactive hormones with radioimmunoassays. Eprosartan had no effect on the increases in heart rate and plasma levels of noradrenaline during reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system. However, eprosartan significantly decreased in fractional excretions of sodium (mean ± SD) (0.23 ± 0.22%) and lithium (3.1 ± 1.7%) during the sodium nitroprusside infusion, compared to placebo. Very short-term eprosartan treatment does not seem to have any sympathoinhibitory effects in sodium restricted patients (...) on urinary sodium and lithium excretion, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasoactive hormones was measured during reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system by a cold pressor test and by a sodium nitroprusside induced 10 mm Hg reduction of the mean arterial pressure. It was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study in 14 patients with essential hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular function were determined with continuous infusion clearance technique

2011 Journal of the American Society of Hypertension : JASH

123. Intrarenal Ghrelin Infusion Stimulates Distal Nephron-Dependent Sodium Reabsorption in Normal Rats. (PubMed)

PCR product. To test intrarenal ghrelin action, uninephrectomized rats received 3 cumulative 1-hour renal interstitial (RI) infusions of 5% dextrose in water (vehicle, n=21), ghrelin (n=10), ghrelin plus specific ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 (n=24), or [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 alone (n=32). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), urine sodium excretion rate (U(Na)V), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)), and fractional excretion of lithium (FE(Li)) were (...) Intrarenal Ghrelin Infusion Stimulates Distal Nephron-Dependent Sodium Reabsorption in Normal Rats. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide hormone that exerts powerful orexigenic effects. Ghrelin receptor expression has been reported in the kidney, but the role of ghrelin in the kidney is unknown. The present studies confirmed ghrelin receptor mRNA expression in the kidneys of normal Sprague Dawley rats (n=6) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 588-bp

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2011 Hypertension

124. Phase I Study of Colistin Methanesulfonate Sodium

), Clearance (CL), Fraction of urinary excretion (fe), Accumulation ratio (Ro and Rs). Profile of safety (single) [ Time Frame: Vital: -24h, pre-dose, 2,4,8,12,24,36,48h after the start of infusion. ECGs: -24h, pre-dose, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after the start of infusion. Clinical lab: pre-dose, 24 and 48h after the start of infusion. Adverse event: All study period. ] Vital signs, ECGs, clinical laboratory test and adverse events. Profile of renal function [ Time Frame: Single and repeat dose day 3: Pre-dose (...) Phase I Study of Colistin Methanesulfonate Sodium Phase I Study of Colistin Methanesulfonate Sodium - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Phase I Study of Colistin Methanesulfonate Sodium

2011 Clinical Trials

125. THE EPITHELIAL SODIUM-PROTON EXCHANGER, NHE3, IS NECESSARY FOR RENAL AND INTESTINAL CALCIUM (RE)ABSORPTION. (PubMed)

these epithelia by comparing Ca(2+) handling between wild-type and NHE3(-/-) mice. Serum Ca(2+) and plasma parathyroid hormone levels were not different between groups. However, NHE3(-/-) mice had increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). The fractional excretion of Ca(2+) was also elevated in NHE3(-/-) mice. Paracellular Ca(2+) flux across confluent monolayers of a PT cell culture model was increased by an osmotic gradient equivalent to that generated by NHE3 across the PT in vivo and by overexpression (...) THE EPITHELIAL SODIUM-PROTON EXCHANGER, NHE3, IS NECESSARY FOR RENAL AND INTESTINAL CALCIUM (RE)ABSORPTION. Passive paracellular proximal tubular (PT) and intestinal calcium (Ca(2+)) fluxes have been linked to active sodium (re)absorption. Although the epithelial sodium/proton exchanger, NHE3, mediates apical sodium entry at both these sites, its role in Ca(2+) homeostasis remains unclear. We, therefore, set out to determine whether NHE3 is necessary for Ca(2+) (re)absorption from

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2011 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

126. Evidence for enhanced distal tubule sodium reabsorption in chronic salt-depleted dogs. (PubMed)

diuresis 0.45% NaCl was used. During the steady state water diuresis delivery of sodium to the diluting segment of the nephron as approximated by solute-free water clearance + sodium clearance/glomerular filtration rate (CH2O + CNa/GFR) was significantly lower in salt-depleted dogs compared to normal dogs with or without aldosterone. During progressive hypotonic saline infusion fractional free water excretion (CH2O/GFR) was similar in all three groups as CH2O + CNa/GFR increased up to 12-14 ml/min-100 (...) Evidence for enhanced distal tubule sodium reabsorption in chronic salt-depleted dogs. In order to assess the renal tubular site(s) at which sodium reabsorption is enhanced in chronic sodium-depletion, seven normal dogs, six salt-depleted dogs, and three normal dogs receiving aldosterone were studied during a steady-state water diuresis under Pentothal anesthesia and during progressive hypotonic saline diuresis. For both maintenance of the water diuresis and progressive hypotonic saline

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1976 Journal of Clinical Investigation

127. Maturation of the renal response to hypertonic sodium chloride loading in rats: micropuncture and clearance studies. (PubMed)

Maturation of the renal response to hypertonic sodium chloride loading in rats: micropuncture and clearance studies. 1. The ability of maturing rats to excrete a sodium load was studied by micropuncture and clearance procedures. 2. During control conditions, no change of glomerular filtration rate or sodium excretion was observed for the time period of the entire procedure (P greater than 0-20). During the infusion of hypertonic (4%) sodium chloride, fractional sodium excretion was 0-08 +/- 0 (...) -01 in rats 21-30 days old and 0-14 +/- 0-01 (P less than 0-01) in adults. However, the depression of proximal tubular water re-absorption was equal in both groups (P greater than 0-20). 3. Proximal glomerulotubular balance for water re-absorption was similar in all groups (P less than 0-20). Since end proximal tubular water excretion and depression of fractional water excretion were the same in all animals, differences of urinary sodium excretion during development are probably due to differences

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1976 The Journal of physiology

128. Effects of Hypotonic Saline Loading in Hydrated Dog: Evidence for a Saline-induced Limit on Distal Tubular Sodium Transport (PubMed)

during mannitol loading. In contrast, during hypotonic (0.45%) saline loading C(H2O) rose initially, but as urine flow (V) exceeded 25% of the filtered load C(H2O) attained maximal levels (up to 20% of the filtered load) and remained stable as V increased to 50% of the filtered load. It was concluded that saline loading progressively inhibits proximal sodium reabsorption. Initially, the distal tubule absorbes a large fraction of the proximal rejectate and sodium excretion rises slightly. Eventually (...) , an alteration in distal sodium transport appears which culminates in a maximal rate or transport limit. This distal transport limit provoked by saline loading could not be characterized by a classical Tm as seen with glucose and does not seem to be consequent to high rates of flow through the distal tubule. Regardless of the precise nature of this limit, the major increment in sodium excretion develops during saline loading only after saline alters the capacity of the distal tubule to transport sodium.

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1967 Journal of Clinical Investigation

129. The Effects of Infusion of Water on Renal Hemodynamics and the Tubular Reabsorption of Sodium (PubMed)

. The extent to which fractional sodium reabsorption decreased and the excretion of sodium increased was inversely related to the degree to which the filtered load of sodium was depressed as a result of the decreased plasma sodium concentration. We conclude that, in the presence of the diuretic blockade of distal tubular sodium reabsorption, infusion of water depresses proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium and that these changes are qualitatively similar to those previously observed during infusions (...) of saline. Similar depression of tubular reabsorption of sodium and increased excretion of sodium occurred during water loading in the absence of diuretics in dogs undergoing saline diuresis, which presumably provided a high rate of distal sodium reabsorption before water loading. We suggest that volume expansion with water depresses proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium in a manner qualitatively similar to infusions of saline and that the extent to which sodium excretion is increased during water

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1967 Journal of Clinical Investigation

130. Effects of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the rat kidney. (PubMed)

Effects of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the rat kidney. 1. The effect of phlorizin on glucose, water and sodium handling by the kidney in anaesthetized rats was investigated, using clearance techniques, during infusion of saline (200 microliter min-1) or saline to which either low (0.1 mumole kg body weight-1 ml.-1) doses of phlorizin had been added. 2. Phlorizin increased the absolute and fractional excretion of glucose, urine osmolality and negative free water clearance (...) ; and reduced urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), absolute and fractional excretion of sodium, absolute excretion of sodium, absolute excretion of potassium and absolute and fractional rates of glucose reabsorption. 3. The data indicate that phlorizin has sites of action and effects additional to those on glucose transport in the proximal tubule. 4. Within each series there was a positive correlation between sodium and glucose reabsorption; but the rate of glucose reabsorption was different

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1978 The Journal of physiology

131. Change of tubular reabsorption of sodium and water after denervation (PubMed)

Change of tubular reabsorption of sodium and water after denervation 1. Renal function was compared in dogs before and after denervation, with normal or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR was reduced by one of two means, aortic clamping or injection of plastic microspheres into one renal artery.2. The data showed that the tubular rejection fraction of denervated kidneys increased at a time when the same value for the control kidney decreased, indicating that denervation diuresis (...) is not simply a result of increased filtered load of Na and water.3. Changes in excretion after aortic clamping are not due solely to reduced filtered load. A reduction in renal blood pressure itself appears to have a direct effect on Na transport since Na excretion was significantly decreased before there were any changes in GFR, renal plasma flow and urine volume.4. When GFR in a denervated kidney was reduced by microsphere injection it was demonstrated that a significant natriuresis (U(Na) V

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1969 The Journal of physiology

132. Failure to demonstrate a hormonal inhibitor of proximal sodium reabsorption (PubMed)

Failure to demonstrate a hormonal inhibitor of proximal sodium reabsorption Recently, it has been reported that a humoral inhibitor of proximal sodium reabsorption could be detected in plasma, and dialysates of plasma, of rats and dogs undergoing saline diuresis. We have repeated these studies using similar techniques and protocols. Fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule (as estimated in free-flow micropuncture studies from tubule fluid-to-plasma inulin ratios) was found (...) not to be lower during infusion of "natriuretic" plasma than during subsequent infusion of "hydropenic" plasma. Similarly, infusion of natriuretic plasma failed to prolong reabsorptive half-time of the shrinking drop beyond that seen during hydropenic plasma infusion. No increase in urine volume or rate of sodium excretion was observed during the period of natriuretic plasma infusion, nor did natriuretic plasma result in an increase in these measures in rats undergoing water diuresis. It also has been

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1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

133. Increased sodium reabsorption in the proximal and distal tubule of caval dogs (PubMed)

Increased sodium reabsorption in the proximal and distal tubule of caval dogs The effects of water diuresis, hypotonic NaCl, and hypotonic mannitol diuresis on renal sodium and water excretion were examined in normal dogs and in dogs with chronic constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava and ascites (caval dogs). During all three diuretic states, the capacity to excrete solute-free water relative to the supply of sodium to the water clearing segment of the nephron was significantly (...) greater in the caval dog. This finding was most evident during hypotonic NaCl diuresis but was also striking during hypotonic mannitol diuresis despite the more unfavorable gradient for sodium reabsorption at the distal tubule produced by this agent in caval dogs. In addition, fractional distal sodium load was significantly smaller in caval dogs during water diuresis and could not be increased as readily as in normal dogs by hypotonic NaCl or mannitol infusion. The data indicate that fractional sodium

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1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

134. The phosphaturic effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs (PubMed)

The phosphaturic effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs Urinary inorganic phosphate excretion was studied before and during the administration of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs that were not given infusions of phosphate. The excretion fraction of filtered phosphate increased after sodium bicarbonate or acetazolamide was given. This phosphaturia was attributed to decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate consequent to alkalinization of either tubular urine

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1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

135. Disproportionate inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the unilaterally diseased kidney of dog and man after an acute saline load (PubMed)

saline loading, base line studies in many of the dogs and the three humans were in agreement with previously published data. However, in dogs with a severe pyelonephritic lesion, a greater difference in DK vs. CK fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) and water was noted, whose magnitude was inversely correlated with the level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and maximum urine osmolality of DK compared to CK. An acute saline load (75 ml/kg) resulted in an inhibition of fractional sodium and water (...) reabsorption in the diseased dog kidney which was disproportionately greater than in the simultaneously studied CK, regardless of the type or severity of the lesion. While mean DK GFR for all dogs increased 15% more than CK GFR, failure of FE(Na) to increase after induction of a disproportionate increase in DK GFR with parathyroid hormone suggested that the saline-induced disproportionate increase in GFR was not solely responsible for the exaggerated inhibition of fractional sodium and water reabsorption

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1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

136. Relationship of Sodium Reabsorption and Glomerular Filtration Rate to Renal Glucose Reabsorption (PubMed)

from animals that had fractional sodium excretion rates of less than 1%. Under this condition the relationship of glucose reabsorption to glomerular filtration rate is highly linear. When points obtained during sodium diuresis (C(Na)/GFR>0.1) are plotted on the same graph, glucose reabsorption at any given glomerular filtration rate is much less than during antidiuresis. Glucose reabsorption divided by glomerular filtration rate varies inversely with fractional sodium excretion. This study (...) Relationship of Sodium Reabsorption and Glomerular Filtration Rate to Renal Glucose Reabsorption Glucose reabsorption was measured in dogs in which sodium reabsorption was stimulated by obstruction of the thoracic inferior vena cava or inhibited by volume expansion with Ringer's lactate. Glucose reabsorption was much higher during periods of enhanced sodium reabsorption than during sodium diuresis. The relationship of glucose reabsorption to glomerular filtration rate was examined using data

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1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

137. Depression of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog in response to renal beta adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol (PubMed)

Depression of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog in response to renal beta adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol Water diuresis was produced in anesthetized hypophysectomized, cortisone-treated dogs by infusion of 2.5% dextrose. Alpha adrenergic blockade of the left kidney produced by infusion of phenoxybenzamine in the left renal artery was associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater rate of urine flow (V) and free water excretion (C(H2O)) in the left kidney than (...) in the right despite similar glomerular filtration rates (GFR) (17 +/- 1.3 ml/min, left; 18 +/-0.9 ml/min, right). Sodium excretion (U(Na)V) was similar in the two kidneys (3 and 5 muEq/min). When beta adrenergic stimulation of the left kidney was superimposed on alpha blockade by the addition of isoproterenol to the left renal artery infusate, GFR remained unchanged and similar in the two kidneys, as V and C(H2O) increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the left kidney but not in the right. When

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1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

138. The effect of bradykinin on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog: evidence for functional nephron heterogeneity (PubMed)

performed in the dog in which the tubular fluid to plasma inulin ratio and nephron filtration rate were determined before and during the administration of a structurally different renal vasodilator, bradykinin. This agent increased sodium excretion from 12 to 96 muEq/min and decreased total kidney filtration fraction from 0.35 to 0.25. However, sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the superficial nephrons was unchanged during bradykinin administration. Since it has been shown that a decrease (...) The effect of bradykinin on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption in the dog: evidence for functional nephron heterogeneity In a previous study we have found that acetylcholine, a renal vasodilator, inhibits fractional and absolute reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule of the dog. To delineate whether this effect on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption was related to alterations in renal hemodynamics or to a direct tubular action of the drug, free-flow micropuncture studies were

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1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

139. Tubular reabsorption of sodium during acute and chronic volume expansion in man (PubMed)

Tubular reabsorption of sodium during acute and chronic volume expansion in man Renal hemodynamics and tubular fractional sodium reabsorption (FSR) were evaluated by clearance techniques during acute and chronic extracellular volume expansion in man. (1 - V/GFR) x 100 was used as an index of proximal and (C(H2O)/V) x 100 as an estimate of distal fractional reabsorption. After acute loading with isotonic saline 37 ml/kg body wt, proximal FSR decreased by 4.8% and distal FSR decreased by 4.4 (...) by 14.8% after E(1) and by an additional 4.9% after E(2). In the nonexcreters, GFR was stable and proximal FSR did not fall significantly after E(1) or E(2). Distal FSR decreased 4.5% after E(1) and 1.3% further after E(2). It is concluded that both acute and chronic extracellular expansion decrease proximal FSR in man, but only acute loading depresses distal FSR. Ability of some men to excrete sodium rapidly after acute infusion is related to larger increases in GFR and greater decreases in both

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1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

140. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat: Clearance and micropuncture studies (PubMed)

. Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P](IN)) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced (...) Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat: Clearance and micropuncture studies Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats

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1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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