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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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101. Failure to Downregulate the Epithelial Sodium Channel Causes Salt Sensitivity in Hsd11b2 Heterozygote Mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. In the present study, renal mechanisms underpinning salt sensitivity were investigated in Hsd11b2(+/-) mice fed low-, standard-, and high-sodium diets. In wild-type mice, there was a strong correlation between dietary sodium content and fractional sodium excretion but not blood pressure. High sodium feeding abolished amiloride-sensitive sodium reabsorption, consistent with downregulation of the epithelial sodium channel. In Hsd11b2(+/-) mice, the natriuretic response to increased dietary sodium content (...) Failure to Downregulate the Epithelial Sodium Channel Causes Salt Sensitivity in Hsd11b2 Heterozygote Mice. In vivo, the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 influences ligand access to the mineralocorticoid receptor. Ablation of the encoding gene, HSD11B2, causes the hypertensive syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. Studies in humans and experimental animals have linked reduced 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity and salt sensitivity of blood pressure

2012 Hypertension

102. Evidence for enhanced distal tubule sodium reabsorption in chronic salt-depleted dogs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

diuresis 0.45% NaCl was used. During the steady state water diuresis delivery of sodium to the diluting segment of the nephron as approximated by solute-free water clearance + sodium clearance/glomerular filtration rate (CH2O + CNa/GFR) was significantly lower in salt-depleted dogs compared to normal dogs with or without aldosterone. During progressive hypotonic saline infusion fractional free water excretion (CH2O/GFR) was similar in all three groups as CH2O + CNa/GFR increased up to 12-14 ml/min-100 (...) Evidence for enhanced distal tubule sodium reabsorption in chronic salt-depleted dogs. In order to assess the renal tubular site(s) at which sodium reabsorption is enhanced in chronic sodium-depletion, seven normal dogs, six salt-depleted dogs, and three normal dogs receiving aldosterone were studied during a steady-state water diuresis under Pentothal anesthesia and during progressive hypotonic saline diuresis. For both maintenance of the water diuresis and progressive hypotonic saline

1976 Journal of Clinical Investigation

103. Effects of increased sodium delivery on distal tubular sodium reabsorption with and without volume expansion in man Full Text available with Trip Pro

was lower and fractional sodium excretion higher during saline diuresis compared to acetazolamide diuresis; (b) although free water clearance was moderately reduced by chlorothiazide at low rates of urine flow, there was no difference in free water clearance between saline loading alone and saline plus chlorothiazide at high rates of urine flow; and (c) during saline loading free water clearance rose without evidence of a limit when increased distal delivery was accompanied by spontaneous increases (...) in glomerular filtration rate, but tended toward a limit when glomerular filtration rate remained constant. The data indicate that during acute volume expansion with saline, there is a decrease in the fraction of delivered sodium reabsorbed in the distal nephron when compared to the response of the distal nephron to comparable increases in distal sodium delivery in the absence of volume expansion.

1970 Journal of Clinical Investigation

104. Renal Sodium-Potassium-Activated Adenosine Triphosphatase and Sodium Reabsorption Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the infused kidney. Despite over 90% enzyme inhibition in many experiments, at least 80% of the filtered sodium continued to be reabsorbed. The per cent change in enzyme activity correlated with the rate of digoxin administration and the total dose administered but not with changes in sodium excretion. Changes in medullary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, however, bore a direct relationship to alterations in fractional solute free water reabsorption (T(c) (H2O)). Inhibition of cortical enzyme activity alone (...) was not associated with natriuresis, suggesting that medullary enzyme activity must be depressed for increased sodium excretion to occur during digoxin infusion. In high-dose experiments, significant inhibition of cortical and medullary enzyme in the contralateral control kidney was also observed, but natriuresis did not occur. In these experiments the rate at which digoxin reached the control kidney rose progressively but never equaled the rates in the directly infused kidney with either dose. Nevertheless

1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation

105. An Study to Investigate the Recovery, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of 14C-GSK1265744 Administered as a Single Oral Dose and a Study to Describe the Pharmacokinetics of a Supratherapeutic Dose of GSK1265744 in Healthy Adult Subjects

of supratherapeutic dose of GSK1265744 150 mg compared with placebo. Each subject will receive a single dose of GSK1265744 150 mg or placebo on Day 1 under fasting conditions in the morning. Blood, urine and fecal samples will be collected for 336 hours (14 days) following dosing. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase HIV-associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome Drug: GSK1265744B (sodium salt) containing 14C-GSK1265744B Drug: 150 mg GSK1265744B Drug: Placebo Phase 1 Study Design Go to Layout table for study (...) Dose of GSK1265744 in Healthy Adult Subjects Study Start Date : May 2013 Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2013 Actual Study Completion Date : July 2013 Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: Part A: 14C-GSK1265744 Arm Each subject will receive a single 30 mg oral solution dose of GSK1265744 containing 14C-GSK1265744 of approximately 70 mcgCi (0.96 MSv) of radioactivity. Drug: GSK1265744B (sodium salt) containing 14C-GSK1265744B A white to slightly colored

2013 Clinical Trials

106. Diuretic and anti-diuretic activities of fractions of Alismatis rhizoma. (Abstract)

Diuretic and anti-diuretic activities of fractions of Alismatis rhizoma. Alismatis rhizoma or Alisma orientale (Zexie in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Alisma orientale Juzepzuk (Alismataceae), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is used as an agent for diuresis and for excreting dampness in China and Japan. In this paper, we report the diuretic activities of the petroleum ether fraction, the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-buthanol fraction, and the remaining fraction (...) , of the ethanol extract of Alismatis rhizoma (AR).The single dose of the petroleum ether fraction, the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-buthanol fraction, and the remaining fraction, of the ethanol extract of AR were orally administered to rats. Urinary excretion rate, pH and electrolyte excretion were measured in the urine of saline-loaded rats.In this study, the 100 and 400mg/kg doses of the ethyl acetate fraction and the 12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg doses of the n-butanol fraction all produced an increase in urine

2014 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

107. Abnormal increase in urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to hypertonic saline in essential hypertension. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-ENaC(β-CR)), prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2) and cyclic AMP (u-cAMP), fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)), free water clearance (C(H2O)), as well as plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (Aldo), and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP) in 21 patients with essential hypertension and 20 normotensive controls during 24-h urine collection (baseline), and after hypertonic saline infusion on a 4-day high sodium (HS) diet (300 mmol sodium/day (...) Abnormal increase in urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to hypertonic saline in essential hypertension. Dysregulation of the expression/shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in renal collecting duct principal cells has been found in animal models of hypertension. We tested whether a similar dysregulation exists in essential hypertension.We measured urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC β-subunit corrected for creatinine (u-AQP2(CR), u

2012 BMC nephrology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

108. Urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during basal conditions and after a hypertonic saline infusion. (Abstract)

), and prostaglandin E(2) (u-PGE(2)); free water clearance (C(H2O)); fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)); and plasma vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (p-Renin), angiotensin II (p-ANG II), aldosterone (p-Aldo), and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (p-ANP, p-BNP) in patients with ADPKD and healthy controls during 24-h urine collection and after hypertonic saline infusion during high sodium intake (HS; 300 mmol sodium/day) and low sodium intake (LS; 30 mmol sodium/day). No difference in u-AQP2, u-ENaC(β), u-cAMP, u (...) Urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during basal conditions and after a hypertonic saline infusion. Renal handling of sodium and water is abnormal in chronic kidney diseases. To study the function and regulation of the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we measured urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2), the β-subunit of ENaC (u-ENaC(β)), cAMP (u-cAMP

2012 American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

109. Salmeterol Inhalation Powder Administered as the Xinafoate Salt From Hard Polyethylene Capsules Via the HandiHaler® 2, and Serevent® Diskus® in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

6h 5min to 8h 5min after administration ] fet1-t2 (fraction of administered drug excreted unchanged in urine from time point t1 to t2) [ Time Frame: 0 to 3h 5min, from 3h 5min to 6h 5min, and from 6h 5min to 8h 5min after administration ] CLR,t1-t2 (renal clearance of the analyte in plasma from the time point t1 to t2) [ Time Frame: 0 to 3h 5min, from 3h 5min to 6h 5min, and from 6h 5min to 8h 5min after administration ] Number of patients with adverse events [ Time Frame: up to 36 days (...) Salmeterol Inhalation Powder Administered as the Xinafoate Salt From Hard Polyethylene Capsules Via the HandiHaler® 2, and Serevent® Diskus® in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Salmeterol Inhalation Powder Administered as the Xinafoate Salt From Hard Polyethylene Capsules Via the HandiHaler® 2, and Serevent® Diskus® in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer

2014 Clinical Trials

110. Effect of vasopressin antagonism on renal handling of sodium and water and central and brachial blood pressure during inhibition of the nitric oxide system in healthy subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-NMMA).Nineteen healthy subjects were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study of two examination days. Tolvaptan 15 mg or placebo was given in the morning. L-NMMA was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 minutes. We measured urine output(UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma vasopressin (p-AVP), central and brachial blood (...) Effect of vasopressin antagonism on renal handling of sodium and water and central and brachial blood pressure during inhibition of the nitric oxide system in healthy subjects. Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist (V2R) that increases free water excretion. We wanted to test the hypotheses that tolvaptan changes both renal handling of water and sodium and systemic hemodynamics during basal conditions and during nitric oxide (NO)-inhibition with L-NG-monomethyl-arginine (L

2014 BMC nephrology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

111. Physical and Functional Links between Anion Exchanger-1 and Sodium Pump. Full Text available with Trip Pro

kidney membrane proteins showed that the last 11 residues of AE1 are important for β1 binding. siRNA-induced knockdown of β1 in cell culture resulted in a significant reduction in kidney AE1 levels at the cell membrane, whereas overexpression of kidney AE1 increased cell surface sodium pump levels. Notably, membrane staining of β1 was reduced throughout collecting ducts of AE1-null mouse kidney, where increased fractional excretion of sodium has been reported. These data suggest a requirement of β1 (...) an important role in its polarized membrane residency. We have identified the β1 subunit of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) as a binding partner for AE1 in the human kidney. Kidney AE1 and β1 colocalized in renal α-intercalated cells and coimmunoprecipitated (together with the catalytic α1 subunit of the sodium pump) from human kidney membrane fractions. ELISA and fluorescence titration assays confirmed that AE1 and β1 interact directly, with a Kd value of 0.81 μM. GST-AE1 pull-down assays using human

2014 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

112. Pharmacokinetics of Bisacodyl or Sodium Picosulfate Administered Orally in Healthy Lactating Females

Sponsor: Boehringer Ingelheim Information provided by (Responsible Party): Boehringer Ingelheim Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To investigate if bisacodyl (Dulcolax®) and sodium picosulfate (Laxoberal®) is excreted in breast milk of healthy lactating women after an oral administration of 10 mg once daily over a period of 8 days. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Healthy Drug: Bisacodyl Drug: Sodium picosulfate Phase 1 Study Design Go to Layout table for study (...) Pharmacokinetics of Bisacodyl or Sodium Picosulfate Administered Orally in Healthy Lactating Females Pharmacokinetics of Bisacodyl or Sodium Picosulfate Administered Orally in Healthy Lactating Females - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please

2014 Clinical Trials

113. BASAL RENAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND THE EFFICIENCY OF OXYGEN UTILIZATION FOR SODIUM REABSORPTION. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the best possible estimate of the fractional contribution of Vo2(basal) to Vo2(total) under physiological conditions (basal percent renal Vo2). Estimates of basal percent renal Vo2 from 24 studies varied from 0% to 81.5%. Basal percent renal Vo2 varied with the fractional excretion of Na(+) (FENa(+)) in the 14 studies in which FENa(+) was measured under control conditions. Linear regression analysis predicted a basal percent renal Vo2 of 12.7-16.5% when FENa(+) = 1% (r(2) = 0.48, P = 0.001 (...) BASAL RENAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND THE EFFICIENCY OF OXYGEN UTILIZATION FOR SODIUM REABSORPTION. We examined how the presence of a fixed level of basal renal O2 consumption (Vo2(basal); O2 used for processes independent of Na(+) transport) confounds the utility of the ratio of Na(+) reabsorption (TNa(+)) to total renal Vo2 (Vo2(total)) as an index of the efficiency of O2 utilization for TNa(+). We performed a systematic review and additional experiments in anesthetized rabbits to obtain

2014 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

114. Rho kinase inhibition mitigates sunitinib-induced rise in arterial pressure and renal vascular resistance but not increased renal sodium reabsorption. (Abstract)

by 30 mmHg and 5 mmHg × ml × min × g kidney weight, respectively, accompanied by reduced glomerular filtration rate and fractional Na+ excretion with unaffected fractional Li+ excretion. ROCK inhibition blunted sunitinib-induced hypertension and prevented the early rise in RVR, but not the decrease in fractional Na+ excretion, which may explain its modest effect on sunitinib-induced hypertension.Our data indicate that early sunitinib-induced hypertension is associated with modest alterations (...) Rho kinase inhibition mitigates sunitinib-induced rise in arterial pressure and renal vascular resistance but not increased renal sodium reabsorption. The therapeutic use of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist sunitinib is limited by sunitinib-induced hypertension. The hypotheses were tested that sunitinib increases renal vascular resistance (RVR) and renal Na+ reabsorption, and that Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibition blunts sunitinib-induced hypertension.Sunitinib actions

2014 Journal of Hypertension

115. Influence of dehydrocholate and taurocholate on bromsulphthalein uptake, storage, and excretion in the dog. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of dehydrocholate and taurocholate on bromsulphthalein uptake, storage, and excretion in the dog. The influence of dehydrocholate on bromsulphtalein relative-storage capacity, bilary transport maximum (Tm), and fractional transfer rates between plasma, liver and bile have been studied in unanaesthetized dogs. In six dogs, storage capacity, Tm, and fractional transfer rates from plasma to liver, liver to bile, and liver to plasma were measured during 0-15 M NaCL infusion (...) and the measurements were repeated under a dehydrocholate infusion of 95 mumol. min-1, ie, an infusion rate approaching the known biliary Tm of bile salts. It was found that: (a) storage capacity and fractional transfer rates from plasma to liver significantly lower during dehydrocholate infusions (respectively 18-0 plus or minus SD 9-0 mg-mg-1. 100 ml-1 and 0-120 plus or minus SD 0-035 min-1) than during NaCL infusions (respectively 47-0 plus or minus 21-0 mg. mg-1. 100 ml-1 and 0-280 plus or minus SD 0-055 min-1

1975 Gut

116. Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in the Hypothyroid Rat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in the Hypothyroid Rat The ability to excrete an oral water load and the renal diluting mechanism were studied in hypothyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Hypothyroid animals excreted a significantly smaller fraction of a 50-ml/kg oral water load than controls, demonstrating the same limited ability to excrete free water as thyroid-deficient man. During hypotonic (0.45%) saline infusion, absolute sodium delivery to the diluting segment (...) in hypothyroid rats was further demonstrated in experiments in which distal delivery was increased by contralateral nephrectomy or by administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which decrease proximal sodium reabsorption. In both studies, fractional free water clearance increased markedly reaching levels significantly greater than in euthyroid controls. These results demonstrate that the impaired ability of the hypothyroid rat to excrete a water load is not due to incomplete suppression of ADH

1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

117. The Effects of Functional Adaptation of Residual Nephrons on the Urinary Excretion of Drugs Full Text available with Trip Pro

normal value of 50 percent as an exponential function of the decrease of GFR, and as a linear function of the fractional excretion of water or of sodium. Dietary sodium restriction had no influence on C(CHL) in the patients, while water diuresis, in normal subjects, enhanced the urinary excretion of chloramphenicol. The data suggest that chloramphenicol is reabsorbed by back-diffusion and that increases of the rate of flow of urine and tubular fluid prevent back-diffusion. (...) The Effects of Functional Adaptation of Residual Nephrons on the Urinary Excretion of Drugs In patients with chronic renal failure due to glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis or polycystic kidneys the urinary clearance of free chloramphenicol (C(CHL)) was depressed proportionally to GFR (C(In)). The ordinate intercept of the regression line of C(CHL) on C(In), however, consistently was positive (+3 to +5 ml/min). The fractional excretion of chloramphenicol in renal failure increased from its

1978 The Yale journal of biology and medicine

118. The nature of the copper complexes in bile and their relationship to the absorption and excretion of copper in normal subjects and in Wilson's disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

The nature of the copper complexes in bile and their relationship to the absorption and excretion of copper in normal subjects and in Wilson's disease Copper in bile has been shown by electrophoresis to occur neither as free ions nor complexed to protein but to be associated with a component of the micellar complexes of bile. Solvent fractionation studies suggest that the bile salt components of the lecithin-bile salt complexes are the active binding agents. The effects of specific bile salts (...) on the behaviour of copper during electrophoresis supports this possibility. The relationship of certain bile salts to the excretion of copper in man during the time that an external biliary fistula was functioning and to the intestinal absorption of copper in the rat was found to confirm this concept. The results show that copper in bile is associated with taurochenodeoxycholate and suggest an explanation for the elevated tissue copper levels found in Wilson's disease.

1973 Gut

119. Excretion patterns of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in normal human urine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Excretion patterns of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in normal human urine Glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in the urine of 100 healthy, active, human subjects were examined by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and salt gradient, ion-exchange, column chromatography. The cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) turbidity and uronic acid:creatinine ratio was also studied. Fractions were identified by electrophoretic mobility, staining reactions, susceptibility to enzyme digestion, identification (...) in every urine sample. Hyaluronic acid was identified in some samples. A small amount of keratan sulphate was present in the ;heparan sulphate' fraction. Chondroitin sulphate excretion is high in children. Adults excrete relatively less chondroitin sulphate and more heparan sulphate. In old age, the proportion of glycoprotein increases. The excretion pattern in the first few days of life resembles that of the adult. It is stressed that extreme caution must be exercised in interpreting the urinary

1968 Journal of Clinical Pathology

120. Urinary excretion of C-20-reduction products of corticosterone Full Text available with Trip Pro

Urinary excretion of C-20-reduction products of corticosterone 1. A 200 mg. portion of corticosterone was ingested by a healthy man and the urine collected. Part of the urine was treated with the gastric juice of Helix pomatia and extracted with ethyl acetate, and the extract fractionated with Girard T. Paper-chromatographic separation of the non-ketonic fraction in the Bush (1952) system B(5) revealed the presence of two unknown polar components. 2. The unknown compounds did not possess (...) a reducing (blue tetrazolium) or a reducible (potassium borohydride) grouping. Both contained a terminal alpha-glycollic fragment as shown by the formation of formaldehyde, and of a non-volatile aldehyde on oxidation with sodium bismuthate. 3. Unknown compound (I) had paper-chromatographic mobilities identical with those of 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,11beta,20beta,21-tetraol. The oxidation product of compound (I) had a retention time (gas-liquid chromatography) on an SE30 column identical with that of 3alpha

1965 Biochemical Journal

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