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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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81. Mutation in the Monocarboxylate Transporter 12 Gene Affects Guanidinoacetate Excretion but Does Not Cause Glucosuria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with the glucosuria phenotype did not support a pathogenic role of the mutation in the kidney. Here, we examined MCT12 in the kidney and found that it resides on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Patients with MCT12 mutation exhibited reduced plasma levels and increased fractional excretion of guanidinoacetate, but normal creatine levels, suggesting that MCT12 may function as a guanidinoacetate transporter in vivo However, functional studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that MCT12 transports creatine (...) Mutation in the Monocarboxylate Transporter 12 Gene Affects Guanidinoacetate Excretion but Does Not Cause Glucosuria. A heterozygous mutation (c.643C>A; p.Q215X) in the monocarboxylate transporter 12-encoding gene MCT12 (also known as SLC16A12) that mediates creatine transport was recently identified as the cause of a syndrome with juvenile cataracts, microcornea, and glucosuria in a single family. Whereas the MCT12 mutation cosegregated with the eye phenotype, poor correlation

2015 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

82. Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase

Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase (14C) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02640755 Recruitment Status : Completed

2015 Clinical Trials

83. Differential Response to Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure With Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction: Results From the ROSE AHF Trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure). Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The effect of dopamine (interaction P=0.001) and nesiritide (interaction P=0.039) on urine volume varied by EF group. In heart failure with reduced EF, urine volume was higher with active treatment versus placebo, whereas in heart failure with preserved EF, urine volume was lower with active treatment. The effect of dopamine and nesiritide on weight change, sodium excretion, and incidence of AHF treatment failure also varied by EF group (interaction P<0.05 for all). There was no interaction between (...) Differential Response to Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure With Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction: Results From the ROSE AHF Trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure). The ROSE AHF trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure) found that when compared with placebo, neither low-dose dopamine (2 µg/kg per minute) nor low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg per minute without bolus) enhanced decongestion

2016 Circulation. Heart failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

84. Excretion of Lipoteichoic Acid by Group A Streptococci: INFLUENCE OF PENICILLIN ON EXCRETION AND LOSS OF ABILITY TO ADHERE TO HUMAN ORAL MUCOSAL CELLS Full Text available with Trip Pro

obtained were analyzed by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide, thin-layer chromatography, and paper chromatography. The ability of the same materials to bind to human erythrocytes and epithelial cells was tested. The culture supernate contained lipoteichoic acid, deacylated lipoteichoic acid, glycerol phosphate, and free glycerol. Penicillin caused an increase in the amounts of each of the excreted materials. Streptococci that were stimulated with penicillin to lose (...) Excretion of Lipoteichoic Acid by Group A Streptococci: INFLUENCE OF PENICILLIN ON EXCRETION AND LOSS OF ABILITY TO ADHERE TO HUMAN ORAL MUCOSAL CELLS Group A streptococci were grown in the presence of [2-(3)H]glycerol. Concentrated suspensions of the labeled organisms were incubated with and without penicillin. [(3)H]Glycerol-labeled material accumulated in the supernates in increasing amounts with increasing concentrations of penicillin, ranging from 0 to 50 U/ml. The excretion of labeled

1978 Journal of Clinical Investigation

85. Angiotensin II Type 2-Receptor Agonist C21 Reduces Proteinuria and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of High-Salt-Fed Obese Zucker Rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Angiotensin II Type 2-Receptor Agonist C21 Reduces Proteinuria and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of High-Salt-Fed Obese Zucker Rats. Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in high-sodium diet (HSD)-related hypertensive renal injury. In this study, we investigated angiotensin II type 2-receptor-mediated renoprotection in obese Zucker rats fed HSD. Obese Zucker rats were fed normal sodium diet or HSD 4%, for 14 days, with/without angiotensin II type 2-receptor agonist C21, delivered (...) by C21 treatment. Cortical expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser(1177)), and plasma nitrites were reduced after HSD intake, whereas nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and enzymatic defense (superoxide dismutase-to-catalase activity) remained unaltered. However, C21 preserved plasma nitrites in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat. C21 treatment reduced protein-to-creatinine, albumin-to-creatinine, as well as fractional excretion of protein and albumin

2016 Hypertension

86. Role of the renal sympathetic nerves in renal sodium/potassium handling and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

). The RDNX group excreted significantly more sodium than the sham group during the 2-week observation period (P<0.05). Following bilateral renal denervation, the fractional lithium excretion was elevated in the RDNX group compared with the sham group, but no significant effect was observed of renal denervation on the fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium or the fractional excretion of potassium. Furthermore, the glomerular injury score and the wall-to-lumen ratio of the interlobular artery were (...) Role of the renal sympathetic nerves in renal sodium/potassium handling and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats Renal sympathetic nerve activity has an important role in renal disease-associated hypertension and in the modulation of fluid homeostasis. In the present study, changes in renal function and renal sodium/potassium handling were investigated in groups of 12-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats with renal denervation (RDNX group) or sham denervation (sham group

2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

87. Urine sodium concentration to predict fluid responsiveness in oliguric ICU patients: a prospective multicenter observational study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Physiology Score II score 40 ± 20) were included. Most patients (72 %) were not cardiac responders (CRs), and 50 % were renal responders (RRs) to fluid challenge. Patient characteristics were similar between CRs and cardiac nonresponders. uNa(+) (37 ± 38 mmol/L vs 25 ± 75 mmol/L, p = 0.44) and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa(+)) (2.27 ± 2.5 % vs 2.15 ± 5.0 %, p = 0.94) were not statistically different between those who did and those who did not respond to the fluid challenge. Areas under (...) the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were 0.51 (95 % CI 0.35-0.68) and 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39-0.73) for uNa(+) and FENa(+), respectively. Fractional excretion of urea had an AUROC curve of 0.70 (95 % CI 0.54-0.86, p = 0.03) for CRs. Baseline UO was higher in RRs than in renal nonresponders (1.07 ± 0.78 ml/kg/3 h vs 0.65 ± 0.53 ml/kg/3 h, p = 0.01). The AUROC curve for RRs was 0.65 (95 % CI 0.53-0.78) for uNa(+).In the present study, most oliguric patients were not CRs and half were not renal

2016 Critical Care

88. Azilsartan Improves Salt Sensitivity by Modulating the Proximal Tubular Na+-H+ Exchanger-3 in Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

excretion of sodium during the dark period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 21.37 ± 3.69%; candesartan: 14.17 ± 1.42%; vehicle: 13.85 ± 5.30%; P < 0.05 azilsartan vs. candesartan or vehicle). A pressure-natriuresis curve demonstrated that azilsartan treatment restored salt sensitivity. Immunofluorescence and western blotting showed lower levels of Na+-H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) protein (the major sodium transporter in renal proximal tubules) in the azilsartan group (...) Azilsartan Improves Salt Sensitivity by Modulating the Proximal Tubular Na+-H+ Exchanger-3 in Mice A potent angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker, azilsartan, has been reported to reduce blood pressure more effectively than candesartan. Interestingly, azilsartan can also restore the circadian rhythm of blood pressure. We hypothesized that azilsartan could also improve salt sensitivity; thus, we examined the effect of azilsartan on sodium handling in renal tubules. Subtotal nephrectomized C57BL

2016 PloS one

89. Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Tubular Integrity and Sodium Handling in the Kidney Full Text available with Trip Pro

, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium excretion fraction (FENa+) were also increased in Pla2g5-/- mice. The increased FENa+ observed in Pla2g5-/- mice was correlated to alterations in cortical (Na+ + K+) ATPase activity/ expression. In addition, the kidney from Pla2g5-/- mice showed accumulation of matrix in corticomedullary glomeruli and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These data suggest GV sPLA2 is involved in the maintenance of tubular cell function and integrity, promoting sodium retention through (...) Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Tubular Integrity and Sodium Handling in the Kidney Group V (GV) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a member of the family of secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes. This enzyme has been identified in several organs, including the kidney. However, the physiologic role of GV sPLA2 in the maintenance of renal function remains unclear. We used mice lacking the gene encoding GV sPLA2 (Pla2g5-/-) and wild-type breeding pairs in the experiments. Mice were individually

2016 PloS one

90. Clarifying Optimal Sodium Intake Project

by (Responsible Party): Dr Andrew Smyth, University College Hospital Galway Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) globally, accounting for 25-35% of the population-attributable fraction. Sodium (salt) intake is a key determinant of blood pressure, and reducing sodium intake has emerged as an important target for population-based interventions to prevent CVD. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the optimal level (...) to be associated with abnormal renal sodium excretion, including the following: Bartter syndrome SIADH Diabetes insipidus Serum sodium <125mmol Severe heart failure defined as NYHA Class III/IV OR left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤30% High-dose loop or thiazide diuretic therapy, exceeding a total daily dose of frusemide 80mg, bumetanide 2mg, hydrochlorothiazide 50mg, bendroflumethiazide 2.5mg, indapamide 2.5mg, metolazone 2.5mg or the use of both a loop and thiazide diuretic Unable to follow

2016 Clinical Trials

91. Significant natriuretic and antihypertensive action of the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride in diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. (Abstract)

on standardized NaCl intake (200 mmol/day) with (n = 15) and without diabetic nephropathy (control, n = 12), urinary Na excretion in response to oral amiloride (20 or 40 mg/day for 2 days) was compared.A total of 27 patients completed the study and nine diabetic nephropathy and eight control study participants were compliant (24-h urine Na excretion of 200 mmol ± 30%). Amiloride increased significantly total and fractional Na excretion in both groups. Total natriuresis and weight loss were significantly (...) larger in the control group compared with diabetic nephropathy at day 1 of amiloride, whereas fractional Na excretion did not differ. Amiloride intervention increased plasma renin concentration only in diabetic nephropathy group; it reduced SBP in both groups, whereas DBP was reduced in diabetic nephropathy group only. Albuminuria was reduced significantly by amiloride in diabetic nephropathy group. Urine total amiloride concentration was not different between groups (12 ± 1 and 16 ± 1 μmol/l

2016 Journal of Hypertension

92. The effect of puberty on diurnal sodium regulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

every 4 h, and the urine was collected in fractions. Blood pressure and heart rate were noninvasively monitored. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renin were measured in blood. Children in puberty had lower plasma levels of renin (P<0.05) and angiotensin II (P<0.05) and a 26% reduction in filtered sodium without changes in sodium excretion compared with prepuberty children. A circadian rhythm in sodium excretion, the renin-angiotensin system, ANP, and blood pressure (...) The effect of puberty on diurnal sodium regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sex and puberty stage on circadian changes in sodium excretion, sodium-regulating hormones, and hemodynamics. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers (9 prepuberty boys, 10 prepuberty girls, 10 puberty boys, and 10 puberty girls) were included. They all underwent a 24-h circadian in-patient study under standardized conditions regarding activity, diet, and fluid intake. Blood samples were drawn

2015 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

93. Sodium Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease (STICK)

contains <2-2.3g of sodium). The average intake in the general population is double the recommended intake, between 1-2 teaspoons per day, which is considered 'moderate' intake. In patients with hypertension, reducing from moderate (average) to low intake is associated with a small reduction in blood pressure. However, achieving this low target salt intake is difficult, and can have a negative knock-on effect on other healthy dietary factors and kidney hormones. In addition, there is no convincing (...) Frame: 24 months ] Change in 24-hour urinary protein from baseline to final visit [ Time Frame: 24 months ] Increase in risk category for prognosis of CKD as measured by the KDIGO 2012 CKD classification table [ Time Frame: 24 months ] Change in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from baseline to final visit [ Time Frame: 24 months ] Change in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring completed at baseline and final visit [ Time Frame: 24 months

2015 Clinical Trials

94. Effects of Family Sodium Watcher Program on Outcomes in Heart Failure Patient-Family Caregiver Dyads

who have a decreased sense of taste. It is possible to retrain the taste buds to enjoy low salt foods by gradually reducing the amount of sodium in foods over the course of 16 weeks. This retraining works best with direct involvement and support from family members. The Family Sodium Watcher Program (Family SWaP) proposed in this study incorporates the use of a unique electronic salt monitoring device that easily measures salt content in food—the major source of sodium. The intervention (...) minutes) followed by 5 bi-weekly sessions (15-20 minutes) that will be held at the dyad's preferred time delivered to their homes using a video conferencing program through a mini iPad. Behavioral: Family SWaP intervention with mini iPad The Family Sodium Watcher Program (Family SWaP) proposed in this study incorporates the use of a unique electronic salt monitoring device that easily measures salt content in food—the major source of sodium. The intervention is designed to improve adherence

2015 Clinical Trials

95. The Effect of Sodium Nitrite on Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Versus Healthy Subjects

nitrite Sodium nitrite, 240 micrograms/kg/hour for 2 hours Drug: Sodium nitrite Sodium nitrite, 240 micrograms/kg/hour for 2 hours Other Name: NaNO2 Placebo Comparator: Placebo Sodium chloride, isotonic 0.9%, 25 ml/hour for 2 hours Drug: Sodium chloride Sodium chloride, isotonic 0.9%, 25 ml/hour for 2 hours Other Name: NaCl Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Fractional urinary sodium excretion (FENa) [ Time Frame: 1 day ] Secondary Outcome Measures : Peripheral (brachial) blood pressure (...) , vasoactive hormones and central blood pressure are previously unexamined. It is now possible to achieve serial estimations of the central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) by a wrist born device. Hypothesis: Sodium nitrite infusion increases the urinary sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Sodium nitrite infusion increases plasma levels of nitrite, nitrate, NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) Sodium nitrite infusion lowers the peripheral and central blood pressure Renal clearance

2015 Clinical Trials

96. Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Bioavailability and Tolerability of 3 Oral Formulations of Sodium Thiosulfate

release formulation first, followed by slow and fast Drug: Sodium thiosulfate oral administration of thiosulfate Experimental: Slow first Sodium thiosulfate slow release formulation first, followed by fast and medium Drug: Sodium thiosulfate oral administration of thiosulfate Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Relative bioavailability of STS after oral administration based on urinary excretion of TS and sulfate [ Time Frame: 7 weeks ] Secondary Outcome Measures : Number of participants (...) with treatment-related adverse events [ Time Frame: 7 weeks ] TS excretion in urine [ Time Frame: 48 hours ] amount excreted within 48h and fraction (amount/dose) of administered thiosulfate TS excretion in urine: amount [ Time Frame: 48 hours ] amount excreted within 48h TS excretion in urine: fraction of administered TS [ Time Frame: 48 hours ] excreted / administered Sulfate excretion in urine: amount [ Time Frame: 48 hours ] amount excreted within 48h Sulfate excretion in urine: fraction of administered

2015 Clinical Trials

97. Dietary sodium adherence is poor in chronic heart failure patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dietary sodium adherence is poor in chronic heart failure patients. We sought to determine the rates and predictors of dietary sodium restriction and to evaluate the reliability of 24-hour urine collection as a tool to estimate dietary sodium intake in heart failure (HF) patients.We evaluated the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion of 305 outpatients with HF and reduced ejection fraction who were educated on following a <2 g sodium diet. The mean sodium excretion according to a single sample from (...) each participant was 3.15 ± 1.58 g, and 23% were adherent to the <2 g recommendation. One hundred sixty-eight participants provided 2 samples with urinary creatinine excretion within normative range. Averaging both resulted in a mean sodium excretion of 3.21 ± 1.20 g and lower adherence rates to the <2-gram diet: 14% versus 23% (P = .019). Multivariate logistic regression showed only male sex and higher body mass index (BMI) to be associated with nonadherence (male: odds ratio [OR] 2.20, 95

2015 Journal of cardiac failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

98. Competitive inhibition of SGLT2 by tofogliflozin or phlorizin induces urinary glucose excretion through extending splay in cynomolgus monkeys. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Competitive inhibition of SGLT2 by tofogliflozin or phlorizin induces urinary glucose excretion through extending splay in cynomolgus monkeys. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed a glucose lowering effect in type 2 diabetes patients through inducing renal glucose excretion. Detailed analysis of the mechanism of the glucosuric effect of SGLT2 inhibition, however, has been hampered by limitations of clinical study. Here, we investigated the mechanism of urinary glucose (...) /2 inhibitor. In a glucose titration study in cynomolgus monkeys under conditions of controlled plasma drug concentration, both tofogliflozin and phlorizin increased fractional excretion of glucose (FEG) by up to 50% under hyperglycemic conditions. By fitting the titration curve using a newly introduced method that avoids variability in estimating the threshold of renal glucose excretion, we found that tofogliflozin and phlorizin lowered the threshold and extended the splay in a dose-dependent

2014 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

99. Glycosuria-mediated urinary uric acid excretion in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glycosuria-mediated urinary uric acid excretion in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Plasma uric acid (PUA) is associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes but is less well understood in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to compare PUA levels and fractional uric acid excretion (FEUA) in patients with T1D vs. healthy controls (HC) during euglycemia and hyperglycemia. PUA, FEUA, blood pressure (BP), glomerular filtration (...) rate (GFR-inulin), and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF-paraaminohippurate) were evaluated in patients with T1D (n = 66) during clamped euglycemia (glucose 4-6 mmol/l) and hyperglycemia (9-11 mmol/l), and in HC (n = 41) during euglycemia. To separate the effects of hyperglycemia vs. increased glycosuria, parameters were evaluated during clamped euglycemia in a subset of T1D patients before and after sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition for 8 wk. PUA was lower in T1D vs. HC (228 ± 62

2014 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

100. Hepatocellular Exposure of Troglitazone Metabolites in Rat Sandwich-Cultured Hepatocytes Lacking Bcrp and Mrp2: Interplay between Formation and Excretion Full Text available with Trip Pro

and/or Bcrp do not appear to be risk factors for increased hepatocellular TS accumulation in rats, potentially because of a compensatory transporter(s) that excretes TS into bile. Further investigations revealed that the compensatory TS biliary transporter was not the bile salt export pump (Bsep) or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Interestingly, TGZ sulfation was significantly decreased in TR(-) compared with WT rat SCH (total recovery: 2.8 versus 5.0% of TGZ dose), resulting in decreased hepatocellular TS (...) accumulation, even though sulfotransferase activity in TR(-) rat hepatocyte S9 fraction was similar. Hepatocellular TG accumulation was significantly increased in TR(-) compared with WT rat SCH due to increased glucuronidation and negligible TG biliary excretion. These data emphasize that the interplay between metabolite formation and excretion determines hepatocellular exposure to generated metabolites such as TS and TG. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

2014 Drug Metabolism and Disposition

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