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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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61. Low-Sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Reduces Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. (PubMed)

Low-Sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Reduces Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In salt-sensitive HFPEF animal models, diets low in sodium and high in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage (...) =0.02), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (12.4-11.0 m/s; P=0.03). Urinary F2-isoprostanes decreased by 31% (209-144 pmol/mmol Cr; P=0.02) despite increased urinary aldosterone excretion. The reduction in urinary F2-isoprostanes closely correlated with the reduction in urinary sodium excretion on the DASH/SRD. In this cohort of HFPEF patients with treated hypertension, the DASH/SRD reduced systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress. These findings are characteristic

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2012 Hypertension

62. Evidence That an Acute Increase in Glomerular Filtration Has Little Effect on Sodium Excretion in the Dog unless Extracellular Volume is Expanded (PubMed)

using each of the four techniques were comparable. The results were the same whether mineralocorticoid activity was high or low. In contrast, during saline loading, sodium excretion increased more than 800 muEq per minute with equal or lesser changes in GFR. These results demonstrate that acute increases in GFR per se have little effect on sodium excretion. We suggest that, due to constant fractional sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule (glomerulotubular balance) and increased distal (...) Evidence That an Acute Increase in Glomerular Filtration Has Little Effect on Sodium Excretion in the Dog unless Extracellular Volume is Expanded The concept that acute increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will cause large concomitant increases in sodium excretion has been re-examined. In previous work, GFR was elevated by volume expansion, usually with saline infusions. Recent evidence shows that tubular reabsorption is depressed during saline loading; hence, the independent effect

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1967 Journal of Clinical Investigation

63. Fluid reabsorption in Henle's loop and urinary excretion of sodium and water in normal rats and rats with chronic hypertension (PubMed)

Fluid reabsorption in Henle's loop and urinary excretion of sodium and water in normal rats and rats with chronic hypertension The function of the short loops of Henle was investigated by micropuncture technique in normal rats, in rats with spontaneous hypertension, and in the untouched kidney of rats with experimental renal hypertension. All animals received a standard infusion of 1.2 ml of isotonic saline per hr. With increasing arterial blood pressure (range from 90 to 220 mm Hg (...) ), a continuous decrease in transit time of Lissamine green through Henle's loop from 32 to 10 sec was observed. Fractional water reabsorption along the loop declined progressively from 26 to 10%, and fractional sodium reabsorption decreased from 40 to 36% of the filtered load. The fluid volume in Henle's loop calculated from transit time and mean flow rate also decreased with increasing blood pressure. There was no change in superficial single nephron filtration rate but there was a slight increase in total

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1970 Journal of Clinical Investigation

64. Studies on the control of sodium excretion in experimental uremia (PubMed)

in that it may occur without an increase in glomerular filtration rate or a reduction in mineralocorticoid stimulation. It follows that an additional factor or factors must be involved in the genesis of the natriuresis. In contrast to the natriuresis that is seen in normal animals subjected to saline loading, these uremic animals were found not to have a detectable increase in extracellular fluid volume or blood volume in the presence of high fractional sodium excretion rates. Sodium excretion in response (...) Studies on the control of sodium excretion in experimental uremia A study of the mechanisms governing the high rate of sodium excretion per nephron characteristic of patients with chronic renal disease has been made in dogs. A "remnant kidney" was produced by 85% infarction of the left kidney while the right kidney was left intact. A bladder-splitting procedure allowed simultaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate and the rate of sodium excretion by each kidney. The animals were fed

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1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

65. Effect of hypotonic expansion on sodium, water, and urea excretion in late pregnancy: the influence of posture on these results (PubMed)

Effect of hypotonic expansion on sodium, water, and urea excretion in late pregnancy: the influence of posture on these results Mineralocorticoid-treated, normotensive third trimester subjects positioned in lateral recumbency were studied before and during the infusion of 300 mEq of hypotonic saline. Urinary sodium excretion increased in all subjects from a mean value of 199 to 416 muEq/min. In 12 maximally hydrated subjects free water clearance (C(H2O)) and urine flow (V) increased from means (...) of 7.54 and 9.50 to 11.6 and 14.5 ml/100 ml of glomerular filtrate (GFR) Also the ratio of urea to inulin clearance (C(urea)/C(inulin)) increased from 0.59 to 0.64. The changes in the renal handling of water and urea suggest that fractional sodium reabsorption decreased at proximal nephron sites. The subjects then assumed a supine position, and the results were compared to those obtained during the lateral recumbent control periods. Filtered sodium decreased in 11 experiments, but in five studies

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1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

66. Effects of hematocrit on renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion in hydropenic and volume-expanded dogs (PubMed)

the experiments by the adjustment of a suprarenal aortic clamp. During hydropenia, a decrease in hematocrit was associated with an increase in sodium and potassium excretion and solutefree water reabsorption. These changes were accompained by an increase in renal plasma flow and renal blood flow and a decrease in renal vascular resistance. Glomerular filtration rate was unchanged and filtration fraction was significantly decreased as hematocrit was lowered. Increasing hematocrit during hydropenia had (...) that acute changes in hematocrit may significantly affect sodium excretion and renal hemodynamics during both hydropenia and volume expansion. The changes in solute-free water reabsorption and potassium excretion suggest that the alterations in hematocrit may affect primarily the reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule. The concommitant effects of hematocrit on renal vascular resistance and filtration fraction may mediate this change in sodium reabsorption by altering hydrostatic and oncotic

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1970 Journal of Clinical Investigation

67. Some determinants of the effects of VAL-5-angiotensin II amide on glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion in dogs (PubMed)

Some determinants of the effects of VAL-5-angiotensin II amide on glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion in dogs In 12 dogs anesthetized with chloralose, angiotensin (angiotensin II amide) given intravenously increased the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of an ischemic kidney while simultaneously having little effect on the GFR of the contralateral kidney. In the ischemic kidney, in 14 of 30 observations, increments of GFR greater than 100% of mean control GFR (9 ml/min) occurred (...) in response to angiotensin. The magnitude of the increase in GFR produced by angiotensin was independent of dose (range 0.005-0.050 mug/kg per min), the degree of accompanying pressor response, and alterations in renal blood flow (RBF) (electromagnetic flow-meter). In the ischemic kidney, increments of GFR could be produced by sub-pressor doses of angiotensin. Dissociations between increments of GFR and sodium excretion occurred. Equivalent increments of GFR in the ischemic kidney in dogs receiving either

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1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

68. Studies on the characteristics of the control system governing sodium excretion in uremic man (PubMed)

Studies on the characteristics of the control system governing sodium excretion in uremic man Sodium excretion was studied in a group of patients with chronic renal disease, (a) on constant salt intakes of varying amounts with and without mineralocorticoid hormone administration and, (b) after acute extracellular fluid volume expansion. The lower the steady-state glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the greater was the fraction of filtered sodium excreted on both a 3.5 and 7.0 g salt diet (...) ; and the lower the GFR, the greater was the change in fractional excretion in the transition from the 3.5 to the 7.0 g salt diet. This regulatory capacity did not appear to be influenced by mineralocorticoid hormone administration. After acute expansion of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, the increment in sodium excretion exceeded the concomitant increment in filtered sodium in six of nine studies and in the remaining three studies, the increment in excretion averaged 59% of the Delta filtered load (i.e

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1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

69. Relationship between glucose and sodium excretion in the new-born dog (PubMed)

with the glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.54 and 0.73 respectively, P < 0.01 for both).3. In the puppy, as the fraction of filtered sodium excreted (C(Na)/C(In)) increased from 0.05 to 0.45, the ratio, renal tubular glucose transport divided by glomerular filtration rate at saturating glucose loads, (T(G)/GFR)(m), decreased from 3.7 to 1.7 mg/ml. (r = -0.75, P < 0.01). In the adult C(Na)/C(In) was below 0.08 in all experiments and (T(G)/GFR)(m) was within the 95% confidence limits predicted by regression (...) proximal sodium reabsorption more than does the adult and thus depresses tubular glucose reabsorption to a greater extent. The lower values of maximal glucose transport rates found in new-born animals may be related, therefore, to the higher fractional sodium excretion rates during glucose diuresis rather than to a diminished intrinsic glucose transport capacity in the new-born kidney.

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1974 The Journal of physiology

70. Effects of Dietary Sodium and of Acute Saline Infusion on the Interrelationship between Dopamine Excretion and Adrenergic Activity in Man (PubMed)

to 209 or 259 meq/day, urinary dopamine increased to 195+/-20 mug/day (P<0.01) whereas urinary norepinephrine decreased to 21.1+/-3.0 mug/day (P<0.01). Infusion of saline in seven subjects increased sodium excretion and urinary dopamine (from 2.18+/-0.22 to 2.79+/-0.19 mug/20 min, P<0.01), but decreased plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase by 33% and urinary norepinephrine insignificantly. The clearance of inulin and p-aminohippurate did not change significantly and filtration fraction was the same (...) Effects of Dietary Sodium and of Acute Saline Infusion on the Interrelationship between Dopamine Excretion and Adrenergic Activity in Man The effects of dietary sodium and of saline infusion on urinary dopamine and norepinephrine and on the relationship of these catecholamines to adrenergic activity were determined. In seven normal subjects on a 9-meq sodium intake, urinary dopamine and norepinephrine were 136+/-18 (SE) and 37.4+/-5.3 mug/day, respectively. When sodium intake was increased

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1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

71. Role of the renal sympathetic nerves in renal sodium/potassium handling and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (PubMed)

). The RDNX group excreted significantly more sodium than the sham group during the 2-week observation period (P<0.05). Following bilateral renal denervation, the fractional lithium excretion was elevated in the RDNX group compared with the sham group, but no significant effect was observed of renal denervation on the fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium or the fractional excretion of potassium. Furthermore, the glomerular injury score and the wall-to-lumen ratio of the interlobular artery were (...) Role of the renal sympathetic nerves in renal sodium/potassium handling and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats Renal sympathetic nerve activity has an important role in renal disease-associated hypertension and in the modulation of fluid homeostasis. In the present study, changes in renal function and renal sodium/potassium handling were investigated in groups of 12-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats with renal denervation (RDNX group) or sham denervation (sham group

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2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

72. Clarifying Optimal Sodium Intake Project

to be associated with abnormal renal sodium excretion, including the following: Bartter syndrome SIADH Diabetes insipidus Serum sodium <125mmol Severe heart failure defined as NYHA Class III/IV OR left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤30% High-dose loop or thiazide diuretic therapy, exceeding a total daily dose of frusemide 80mg, bumetanide 2mg, hydrochlorothiazide 50mg, bendroflumethiazide 2.5mg, indapamide 2.5mg, metolazone 2.5mg or the use of both a loop and thiazide diuretic Unable to follow (...) by (Responsible Party): Dr Andrew Smyth, University College Hospital Galway Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) globally, accounting for 25-35% of the population-attributable fraction. Sodium (salt) intake is a key determinant of blood pressure, and reducing sodium intake has emerged as an important target for population-based interventions to prevent CVD. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the optimal level

2016 Clinical Trials

73. Significant natriuretic and antihypertensive action of the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride in diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. (PubMed)

on standardized NaCl intake (200 mmol/day) with (n = 15) and without diabetic nephropathy (control, n = 12), urinary Na excretion in response to oral amiloride (20 or 40 mg/day for 2 days) was compared.A total of 27 patients completed the study and nine diabetic nephropathy and eight control study participants were compliant (24-h urine Na excretion of 200 mmol ± 30%). Amiloride increased significantly total and fractional Na excretion in both groups. Total natriuresis and weight loss were significantly (...) larger in the control group compared with diabetic nephropathy at day 1 of amiloride, whereas fractional Na excretion did not differ. Amiloride intervention increased plasma renin concentration only in diabetic nephropathy group; it reduced SBP in both groups, whereas DBP was reduced in diabetic nephropathy group only. Albuminuria was reduced significantly by amiloride in diabetic nephropathy group. Urine total amiloride concentration was not different between groups (12 ± 1 and 16 ± 1 μmol/l

2016 Journal of Hypertension

74. Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Tubular Integrity and Sodium Handling in the Kidney (PubMed)

, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium excretion fraction (FENa+) were also increased in Pla2g5-/- mice. The increased FENa+ observed in Pla2g5-/- mice was correlated to alterations in cortical (Na+ + K+) ATPase activity/ expression. In addition, the kidney from Pla2g5-/- mice showed accumulation of matrix in corticomedullary glomeruli and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. These data suggest GV sPLA2 is involved in the maintenance of tubular cell function and integrity, promoting sodium retention through (...) Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Involved in Tubular Integrity and Sodium Handling in the Kidney Group V (GV) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a member of the family of secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes. This enzyme has been identified in several organs, including the kidney. However, the physiologic role of GV sPLA2 in the maintenance of renal function remains unclear. We used mice lacking the gene encoding GV sPLA2 (Pla2g5-/-) and wild-type breeding pairs in the experiments. Mice were individually

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2016 PloS one

75. Urine sodium concentration to predict fluid responsiveness in oliguric ICU patients: a prospective multicenter observational study (PubMed)

Acute Physiology Score II score 40 ± 20) were included. Most patients (72 %) were not cardiac responders (CRs), and 50 % were renal responders (RRs) to fluid challenge. Patient characteristics were similar between CRs and cardiac nonresponders. uNa(+) (37 ± 38 mmol/L vs 25 ± 75 mmol/L, p = 0.44) and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa(+)) (2.27 ± 2.5 % vs 2.15 ± 5.0 %, p = 0.94) were not statistically different between those who did and those who did not respond to the fluid challenge. Areas under (...) the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were 0.51 (95 % CI 0.35-0.68) and 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39-0.73) for uNa(+) and FENa(+), respectively. Fractional excretion of urea had an AUROC curve of 0.70 (95 % CI 0.54-0.86, p = 0.03) for CRs. Baseline UO was higher in RRs than in renal nonresponders (1.07 ± 0.78 ml/kg/3 h vs 0.65 ± 0.53 ml/kg/3 h, p = 0.01). The AUROC curve for RRs was 0.65 (95 % CI 0.53-0.78) for uNa(+).In the present study, most oliguric patients were not CRs and half were not renal

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2016 Critical Care

76. Inhibition of transepithelial sodium transport in the frog skin by a low molecular weight fraction of uremic serum (PubMed)

Inhibition of transepithelial sodium transport in the frog skin by a low molecular weight fraction of uremic serum An inhibitor of transepithelial sodium transport was found in a low molecular weight fraction obtained from serum of patients with far advanced chronic renal disease. In 18 nondialyzed patients, the mean inhibition of short circuit current (SCC) was 24.9 +/-2.2% (SE). With a comparable fraction from 11 normal subjects. SCC decreased by only 5.3 +/-1.5%. There was significantly (...) uremia in the former. The inhibitory fraction has characteristics identical with the uremic serum fraction which previously has been shown to inhibit p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake by rabbit kidney cortical slices. With gel filtration through Sephadex G-25, the active fraction appears after the major peaks of substances as small as urea and sodium; hence it may have been retarded on the column. But its ultrafiltration characteristics suggest that its molecular weight may be less than 1000

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1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

77. Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase

Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase (14C) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02640755 Recruitment Status : Completed

2015 Clinical Trials

78. Clinical, Genetic, and Urinary Factors Associated with Uromodulin Excretion. (PubMed)

years old, with 51% women and eGFR of 9±14 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Uromodulin excretion was 25 (11-42) mg/g creatinine. Using linear regression, it was independently higher among patients with higher eGFR, the TT genotype of rs4293393, and the TT genotype of rs12446492. The fractional excretions of urate and sodium showed a strong positive correlation with uromodulin, likely linked to the extracellular volume status. The presence of glycosuria and the use of uricosuric drugs, which both increased (...) the fraction excretion of urate, were independently associated with a lower uromodulin excretion, suggesting novel interactions between uric acid and uromodulin excretion.In this large cohort, the excretion of uromodulin correlates with clinical, genetic, and urinary factors. The strongest associations were between uric acid, sodium, and uromodulin excretions and are likely linked to the extracellular volume status.Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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2015 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

79. Mutation in the Monocarboxylate Transporter 12 Gene Affects Guanidinoacetate Excretion but Does Not Cause Glucosuria. (PubMed)

with the glucosuria phenotype did not support a pathogenic role of the mutation in the kidney. Here, we examined MCT12 in the kidney and found that it resides on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Patients with MCT12 mutation exhibited reduced plasma levels and increased fractional excretion of guanidinoacetate, but normal creatine levels, suggesting that MCT12 may function as a guanidinoacetate transporter in vivo However, functional studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that MCT12 transports creatine (...) Mutation in the Monocarboxylate Transporter 12 Gene Affects Guanidinoacetate Excretion but Does Not Cause Glucosuria. A heterozygous mutation (c.643C>A; p.Q215X) in the monocarboxylate transporter 12-encoding gene MCT12 (also known as SLC16A12) that mediates creatine transport was recently identified as the cause of a syndrome with juvenile cataracts, microcornea, and glucosuria in a single family. Whereas the MCT12 mutation cosegregated with the eye phenotype, poor correlation

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2015 Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

80. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans (PubMed)

Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (...) (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48

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2015 Physiological reports

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