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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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61. The Efficiency and Safety of Sodium Bicarbonate on Uric Acid in Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia or Gout

No Intervention: No Intervention Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Serum uric acid [ Time Frame: 1 month after randomization ] Change from baseline serum levels of uric acid at 1 month Secondary Outcome Measures : Fraction excretion of uric acid [ Time Frame: 1 month after randomization ] Change from baseline fraction excretion of uric acid at 1 month Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal (...) The Efficiency and Safety of Sodium Bicarbonate on Uric Acid in Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia or Gout The Efficiency and Safety of Sodium Bicarbonate on Uric Acid in Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia or Gout - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2017 Clinical Trials

62. Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min. We measured: GFR, urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensinII (p-AngII (...) Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD.Eighteen

2017 BMC Nephrology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63. Association of Estimated Sodium Intake With Adverse Cardiac Structure and Function: From the HyperGEN Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network) study echocardiograms with available urinary sodium data (N = 2,996). We evaluated the associations among ESI and LS, circumferential strain, and e' velocity using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models (to account for relatedness among subjects) with linear splines (spline 1: ESI ≤3.7 g/day, spline 2: ESI >3.7 g/day based on visual inspection of fractional polynomial plots of the association between ESI and indices of strain and e' velocity). We (...) , study site, age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, daily blocks walked, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, and wall motion score index, ESI >3.7 g/day was associated with both strain parameters and e' velocity (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), but ESI ≤3.7 g/day was not (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). There were significant interactions by potassium excretion for circumferential strain. Mediation analysis suggested that systolic blood pressure

2017 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

64. The role of distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption in sunitinib-induced hypertension. (Abstract)

The role of distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption in sunitinib-induced hypertension. Antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) induce arterial hypertension which may limit their use. Renal fractional sodium excretion (FENa) is reduced in early RTKI-induced hypertension, whereas fractional lithium excretion is unaltered. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activated distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption contributes to RTKI-induced (...) hypertension.Amiloride-sensitive and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-sensitive fractional sodium reabsorption (FRNa) and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as well as sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundances were determined in sunitinib-treated and control rats. The antihypertensive effects of amiloride and HCTZ were investigated by radiotelemery.After 4 days of treatment, mean arterial pressure was 20 mmHg higher, FENa was lower (0.32 ± 0.08% vs. 0.65 ± 0.14%; P < 0.05), and renal medullary-ENaC protein

2017 Journal of Hypertension

65. Two Pools of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids in Humans: Alterations in Salt-Sensitive Normotensive Subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids) were considered the total converted 14,15-urine pool. We report ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry plasma EETs, DHETs, and their sum (plasma total pool) for the 3 regioisomers (8,9-, 11,12-, 14,15-) and their sum (08,15-). In salt-resistant subjects, urine total pool was unchanged by HiNa, decreased by LoNa, and correlated with urine sodium excretion, fractional excretion of Na+, and Na+/K+ ratio for the 3 days of the experiment combined (P<0.03 (...) was lower than in salt-resistant subjects and did not correlate with blood pressures or aldosterone but did with catecholamines. We conclude that the urine total pool reflects a renal pool involved in regulation of natriuresis, whereas the plasma total pools are of systemic origin, uninvolved in Na+ excretion, perhaps contributing to regulation of vascular tone. Data suggest that abnormalities in EETs in salt-sensitive subjects participate in their renal or vascular dysfunction, which has potential

2017 Hypertension

66. Effects of sodium nitrite on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive vs. healthy study participants: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. (Abstract)

) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON).In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON. During infusion, we measured changes in brachial and central BP, free water clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary excretion rate of γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (U-ENaCγ), and aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2).Placebo-adjusted brachial SBP decreased 18 mmHg (...) (P < 0.001) during NaNO2 infusion in EHT and 12 mmHg (P < 0.001) in CON (Pbetween = 0.024). Brachial DBP and central SBP decreased equally in both groups during NaNO2. In EHT, we found a decrease in U-ENaCγ during NaNO2 infusion. In both groups, we observed a decrease in fractional sodium excretion, free water clearance, and U-AQP2 during NaNO2 infusion.This study demonstrated an augmented BP-lowering effect of NaNO2 in patients with EHT. We observed an antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effect

2017 Journal of Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

67. External validation and comparison of formulae estimating 24-h sodium intake from a fasting morning urine sample. (Abstract)

of the 24-h urine collection was assessed by comparing creatinine clearance from this collection to the mean creatinine clearance from six fractionated urine samples. Only collections with creatinine clearance within ±15% of fractionated clearance were considered valid. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulae, using a morning fasting urine sample obtained upon admission, were compared with 24-h urine sodium excretion. The relationship between sodium intake, either measured or estimated, and blood (...) pressure was assessed.Amongst 2278 patients referred to our physiology department between September 2006 and August 2016, 1018 had complete 24-h urine collections and were included in this analysis. Mean age was 51 ± 14 years and mean sodium excretion was 3624 ± 1614 mg/day. The intraclass correlation coefficient was higher for the Kawasaki (0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.60), than for the INTERSALT (0.38; 0.33-0.42, P < 0.001), and Tanaka (0.42; 0.37-0.46, P < 0.001) formulae. The Kawasaki

2017 Journal of Hypertension

68. Retrospective analysis of inferior vena cava collapsibility with point of care ultrasound and urine sodium and FENa in patients with early stage acute kidney injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

) provide objective evidence of intravascular volume status when interpreted carefully and is helpful to delineate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. In recent years point of care ultrasound has been used to assess volume status. Our team conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the association of inferior vena cava collapsibility by point of care ultrasound (POCUS) and urine electrolytes (urine sodium, fractional excretion of sodium) during early stage AKI (Stage 1-2 of KDIGO guidelines (...) ). We reviewed 150 cases based on the provisional diagnosis. 36 patients met the criteria for further review. Using bivariate analysis, we found a strong association between >50% IVC collapsibility with FENa < 0.4% with an odds ratio 5.3 (CI 1.1-24.5, p = 0.04), and urine sodium <20 meq/dl with an odds ratio of 6.7 (Cl 1.5-30, p = 0.02). Subsequently, multivariate analysis and Spearman correlation showed an inverse relation between IVC collapsibility and fractional excretion of sodium FENa (β = -0.4

2017 Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives

69. Dietary sodium induces a redistribution of the tubular metabolic workload Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dietary sodium induces a redistribution of the tubular metabolic workload Body Na+ content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na+ excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na+ intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na+ intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na+ transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low (...) dietary Na+ intake increased Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments. High dietary Na+ intake decreased Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule and increased it in distal segments with lower energetic efficiency. The abundance of apical transporters and Na+ delivery are the main determinants of Na+ reabsorption along the kidney tubule. Tubular O2 consumption and the efficiency of sodium reabsorption are dependent on sodium diet.Na+ excretion

2017 The Journal of physiology

70. Analysing the Effect of Empagliflozin on Reduction of Tissue Sodium Content in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

to approximately 100 g per day (and sometimes even more). The SGLT-2 inhibition does not only cause glucosuria but also natriuresis, since with each molecule of glucose one molecule of sodium is inhibited to be reabsorbed. Indeed, during the first week SGLT-2 inhibition causes clinically detectable natriuresis but its effect in the long run is not yet illustrated. Of course, a new sodium balance will be achieved after a certain time (otherwise the human body would be completely salt depleted), but total sodium (...) intake and excretion and central systolic and pulse pressure as well as other vascular parameters will be assessed. In face of the upcoming studies with empagliflozin conducted in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction (two large-scale, prospective, doubleblind, placebo controlled studies planned by Boehringer Ingelheim as the sponsor), we thought that we focus on patients with chronic heart failure irrespective diabetic status. The hypothesis is that the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin

2017 Clinical Trials

71. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein regulates sodium and potassium balance in the distal nephron. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and potassium excretion by regulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity in the distal nephron. Gilz-/- mice have a higher plasma potassium concentration and lower fractional excretion of potassium than wild type mice. Furthermore, knockout mice are more sensitive to NCC inhibition by thiazides than are the wild type mice, and their phosphorylated NCC expression is higher. Despite increased NCC activity, knockout mice do not have higher blood pressure than wild type mice. However, during (...) Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein regulates sodium and potassium balance in the distal nephron. Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is an aldosterone-regulated protein that controls sodium transport in cultured kidney epithelial cells. Mice lacking GILZ have been reported previously to have electrolyte abnormalities. However, the mechanistic basis has not been explored. Here we provide evidence supporting a role for GILZ in modulating the balance of renal sodium

2017 Kidney International

72. Renal Handling of Ketones in Response to Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

urinary excretion of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), lactate, and sodium in 66 previously reported patients with type 2 diabetes and preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL · min-1 · 1.73 m-2) and in control subjects without diabetes at baseline and following empagliflozin treatment.With chronic (4 weeks) sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition, baseline fractional glucose excretion (<2%) rose to 38 ± 12% and 46 ± 11% (fasting vs. postmeal, respectively; P < 0.0001 (...) ) over a range of BMIs (range 23-41 kg/m2) and creatinine clearance (65-168 mL · min-1 · m-2). Excretion of β-HB (median [interquartile range]: 0.08 [0.10] to 0.31 [0.43] µmol · min-1), lactate (0.06 [0.06] to 0.28 [0.25] µmol · min-1), and sodium (0.27 [0.22] to 0.36 [0.16] mEq · min-1) all increased (P ≤ 0.001 for all) and were each positively related to glycosuria (P ≤ 0.001). These parameters changed in the same direction in subjects without diabetes, but changes were smaller than in the patients

2017 Diabetes Care

73. Low-Sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Reduces Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low-Sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Reduces Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In salt-sensitive HFPEF animal models, diets low in sodium and high in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage (...) =0.02), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (12.4-11.0 m/s; P=0.03). Urinary F2-isoprostanes decreased by 31% (209-144 pmol/mmol Cr; P=0.02) despite increased urinary aldosterone excretion. The reduction in urinary F2-isoprostanes closely correlated with the reduction in urinary sodium excretion on the DASH/SRD. In this cohort of HFPEF patients with treated hypertension, the DASH/SRD reduced systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress. These findings are characteristic

2012 Hypertension

74. Inhibition of transepithelial sodium transport in the frog skin by a low molecular weight fraction of uremic serum Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of transepithelial sodium transport in the frog skin by a low molecular weight fraction of uremic serum An inhibitor of transepithelial sodium transport was found in a low molecular weight fraction obtained from serum of patients with far advanced chronic renal disease. In 18 nondialyzed patients, the mean inhibition of short circuit current (SCC) was 24.9 +/-2.2% (SE). With a comparable fraction from 11 normal subjects. SCC decreased by only 5.3 +/-1.5%. There was significantly (...) uremia in the former. The inhibitory fraction has characteristics identical with the uremic serum fraction which previously has been shown to inhibit p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake by rabbit kidney cortical slices. With gel filtration through Sephadex G-25, the active fraction appears after the major peaks of substances as small as urea and sodium; hence it may have been retarded on the column. But its ultrafiltration characteristics suggest that its molecular weight may be less than 1000

1971 Journal of Clinical Investigation

75. Resistance to hypertension and high Cl<sup>-</sup> excretion in humans with SLC26A4 mutations. (Abstract)

and biochemical data - including blood pressure and urinary electrolyte excretion - in patients with bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the left ventricular hypertrophy index were lower in subjects with pendrin mutations than in controls. In addition, fractional excretion of Na+ and Cl- was increased and serum renin, angiotensin I and II levels were higher in subjects with pendrin mutations as compared to controls. Thus, patients with impaired pendrin function are likely (...) to be resistant to high blood pressure due to enhanced urinary Na+ /Cl- excretion. These results suggest that pendrin may regulate blood pressure through increased urinary salt excretion.© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2016 Clinical Genetics

76. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

, the value of fractional excretion of potassium at CKD G5 was significantly higher than that at the other stages (30.63 ± 0.93%, P < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that urinary potassium excretion was independently associated with urinary sodium excretion (standardized coefficient, 0.499), the estimated glomerular filtration rate (0.281), and serum chloride concentration (-0.086).This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal (...) function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

2016 Kidney research and clinical practice

77. A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects

A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have (...) reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02663089 Recruitment

2016 Clinical Trials

78. The effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients.Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27). Fractional excretions of sodium (FENA), potassium (FEK) and urea nitrogen (FEUN) were measured in both groups during post-surgical hospitalization.Urine output was greater with tolvaptan (Group T) than without it (Group C), and some patients in Group C (...) groups, but it remained higher than its preoperative value only in Group C (all p < 0.01). Group T showed an initial increase in BUN, which peaked and then returned to its preoperative value within a week. The FEUN increased postoperatively in both groups, but the change was more pronounced in Group T (POD7, 52.7 ± 9.3 vs. 58.2 ± 6.5 %, p = 0.025).Renal excretion of sodium and potassium reflects the changes in serum concentration in patients treated with tolvaptan. Patients treated only with loop

2016 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

79. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans Full Text available with Trip Pro

Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (...) (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48

2015 Physiological reports

80. Clinical, Genetic, and Urinary Factors Associated with Uromodulin Excretion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

years old, with 51% women and eGFR of 9±14 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Uromodulin excretion was 25 (11-42) mg/g creatinine. Using linear regression, it was independently higher among patients with higher eGFR, the TT genotype of rs4293393, and the TT genotype of rs12446492. The fractional excretions of urate and sodium showed a strong positive correlation with uromodulin, likely linked to the extracellular volume status. The presence of glycosuria and the use of uricosuric drugs, which both increased (...) the fraction excretion of urate, were independently associated with a lower uromodulin excretion, suggesting novel interactions between uric acid and uromodulin excretion.In this large cohort, the excretion of uromodulin correlates with clinical, genetic, and urinary factors. The strongest associations were between uric acid, sodium, and uromodulin excretions and are likely linked to the extracellular volume status.Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

2015 Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

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