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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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41. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (Full text)

, the value of fractional excretion of potassium at CKD G5 was significantly higher than that at the other stages (30.63 ± 0.93%, P < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that urinary potassium excretion was independently associated with urinary sodium excretion (standardized coefficient, 0.499), the estimated glomerular filtration rate (0.281), and serum chloride concentration (-0.086).This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal (...) function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

2016 Kidney research and clinical practice PubMed

42. On the Adaptation in Sodium Excretion in Chronic Uremia. THE EFFECTS OF “PROPORTIONAL REDUCTION” OF SODIUM INTAKE (Full text)

in GFR. In the CSI group, absolute sodium excretion rate (U(Na)V) remained essentially unchanged as GFR fell, while fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)) increased progressively from a mean control value of 0.3% to a final value of 4.4%. In the PRS group, U(Na)V decreased with each reduction in GFR and salt intake, and FE(Na) remained constant throughout. In a second study, the fraction of serum that previously has been shown to possess natriuretic activity in studies of uremic patients was obtained (...) from a group of uremic dogs on the CSI and from another group on the PRS regimen, and the effects of the fraction was measured on sodium excretion in rats. The serum fractions from the dogs on the CSI regimen produced a significant increase in both U(Na)V and FE(Na) in the assay rats. The same serum fraction from the dogs on the PRS regimen failed to produce a significant increase in either U(Na)V or FE(Na). The data are consistent with the view that (a) The increase in FE(Na) in chronically uremic

1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed

43. Finding the cause of acute kidney injury: which index of fractional excretion is better? (PubMed)

Finding the cause of acute kidney injury: which index of fractional excretion is better? The fractional excretion of urea (FEU) is a useful index for differentiating the main categories of causes of acute kidney injury, ie, prerenal causes and intrinsic causes. It may be used in preference to the more widely used fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) in situations in which the validity of the latter is limited, such as in patients taking a diuretic.

2012 Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine

44. Effects of sodium nitrite on renal function and blood pressure in hypertensive vs. healthy study participants: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. (PubMed)

) and renal sodium and water regulation in patients with EHT compared with healthy control study participants (CON).In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused 240 μg NaNO2/kg/h or isotonic saline for 2 h in 14 EHT and 14 CON. During infusion, we measured changes in brachial and central BP, free water clearance, fractional sodium excretion, and urinary excretion rate of γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (U-ENaCγ), and aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2).Placebo-adjusted brachial SBP decreased 18 mmHg (...) (P < 0.001) during NaNO2 infusion in EHT and 12 mmHg (P < 0.001) in CON (Pbetween = 0.024). Brachial DBP and central SBP decreased equally in both groups during NaNO2. In EHT, we found a decrease in U-ENaCγ during NaNO2 infusion. In both groups, we observed a decrease in fractional sodium excretion, free water clearance, and U-AQP2 during NaNO2 infusion.This study demonstrated an augmented BP-lowering effect of NaNO2 in patients with EHT. We observed an antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effect

2017 Journal of Hypertension

45. The Efficiency and Safety of Sodium Bicarbonate on Uric Acid in Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia or Gout

No Intervention: No Intervention Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Serum uric acid [ Time Frame: 1 month after randomization ] Change from baseline serum levels of uric acid at 1 month Secondary Outcome Measures : Fraction excretion of uric acid [ Time Frame: 1 month after randomization ] Change from baseline fraction excretion of uric acid at 1 month Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal (...) The Efficiency and Safety of Sodium Bicarbonate on Uric Acid in Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia or Gout The Efficiency and Safety of Sodium Bicarbonate on Uric Acid in Patients With Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia or Gout - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2017 Clinical Trials

46. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein regulates sodium and potassium balance in the distal nephron. (Full text)

and potassium excretion by regulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity in the distal nephron. Gilz-/- mice have a higher plasma potassium concentration and lower fractional excretion of potassium than wild type mice. Furthermore, knockout mice are more sensitive to NCC inhibition by thiazides than are the wild type mice, and their phosphorylated NCC expression is higher. Despite increased NCC activity, knockout mice do not have higher blood pressure than wild type mice. However, during (...) Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein regulates sodium and potassium balance in the distal nephron. Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is an aldosterone-regulated protein that controls sodium transport in cultured kidney epithelial cells. Mice lacking GILZ have been reported previously to have electrolyte abnormalities. However, the mechanistic basis has not been explored. Here we provide evidence supporting a role for GILZ in modulating the balance of renal sodium

2017 Kidney International PubMed

47. The role of distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption in sunitinib-induced hypertension. (PubMed)

The role of distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption in sunitinib-induced hypertension. Antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) induce arterial hypertension which may limit their use. Renal fractional sodium excretion (FENa) is reduced in early RTKI-induced hypertension, whereas fractional lithium excretion is unaltered. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activated distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption contributes to RTKI-induced (...) hypertension.Amiloride-sensitive and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-sensitive fractional sodium reabsorption (FRNa) and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as well as sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundances were determined in sunitinib-treated and control rats. The antihypertensive effects of amiloride and HCTZ were investigated by radiotelemery.After 4 days of treatment, mean arterial pressure was 20 mmHg higher, FENa was lower (0.32 ± 0.08% vs. 0.65 ± 0.14%; P < 0.05), and renal medullary-ENaC protein

2017 Journal of Hypertension

48. External validation and comparison of formulae estimating 24-h sodium intake from a fasting morning urine sample. (PubMed)

of the 24-h urine collection was assessed by comparing creatinine clearance from this collection to the mean creatinine clearance from six fractionated urine samples. Only collections with creatinine clearance within ±15% of fractionated clearance were considered valid. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulae, using a morning fasting urine sample obtained upon admission, were compared with 24-h urine sodium excretion. The relationship between sodium intake, either measured or estimated, and blood (...) pressure was assessed.Amongst 2278 patients referred to our physiology department between September 2006 and August 2016, 1018 had complete 24-h urine collections and were included in this analysis. Mean age was 51 ± 14 years and mean sodium excretion was 3624 ± 1614 mg/day. The intraclass correlation coefficient was higher for the Kawasaki (0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.60), than for the INTERSALT (0.38; 0.33-0.42, P < 0.001), and Tanaka (0.42; 0.37-0.46, P < 0.001) formulae. The Kawasaki

2017 Journal of Hypertension

49. Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. (Full text)

patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min. We measured: GFR, urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaCγ), plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensinII (p-AngII (...) Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD.Eighteen

2017 BMC Nephrology PubMed

50. Association of Estimated Sodium Intake With Adverse Cardiac Structure and Function: From the HyperGEN Study. (Full text)

(Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network) study echocardiograms with available urinary sodium data (N = 2,996). We evaluated the associations among ESI and LS, circumferential strain, and e' velocity using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models (to account for relatedness among subjects) with linear splines (spline 1: ESI ≤3.7 g/day, spline 2: ESI >3.7 g/day based on visual inspection of fractional polynomial plots of the association between ESI and indices of strain and e' velocity). We (...) , study site, age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, daily blocks walked, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, and wall motion score index, ESI >3.7 g/day was associated with both strain parameters and e' velocity (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), but ESI ≤3.7 g/day was not (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). There were significant interactions by potassium excretion for circumferential strain. Mediation analysis suggested that systolic blood pressure

2017 Journal of the American College of Cardiology PubMed

51. Renal Handling of Ketones in Response to Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. (Full text)

urinary excretion of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), lactate, and sodium in 66 previously reported patients with type 2 diabetes and preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL · min-1 · 1.73 m-2) and in control subjects without diabetes at baseline and following empagliflozin treatment.With chronic (4 weeks) sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition, baseline fractional glucose excretion (<2%) rose to 38 ± 12% and 46 ± 11% (fasting vs. postmeal, respectively; P < 0.0001 (...) ) over a range of BMIs (range 23-41 kg/m2) and creatinine clearance (65-168 mL · min-1 · m-2). Excretion of β-HB (median [interquartile range]: 0.08 [0.10] to 0.31 [0.43] µmol · min-1), lactate (0.06 [0.06] to 0.28 [0.25] µmol · min-1), and sodium (0.27 [0.22] to 0.36 [0.16] mEq · min-1) all increased (P ≤ 0.001 for all) and were each positively related to glycosuria (P ≤ 0.001). These parameters changed in the same direction in subjects without diabetes, but changes were smaller than in the patients

2017 Diabetes Care PubMed

52. Analysing the Effect of Empagliflozin on Reduction of Tissue Sodium Content in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

intake and excretion and central systolic and pulse pressure as well as other vascular parameters will be assessed. In face of the upcoming studies with empagliflozin conducted in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction (two large-scale, prospective, doubleblind, placebo controlled studies planned by Boehringer Ingelheim as the sponsor), we thought that we focus on patients with chronic heart failure irrespective diabetic status. The hypothesis is that the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin (...) . Other Name: EMPA Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Skin sodium content [ Time Frame: 14 weeks ] Skin sodium content (23Na-MRI) assessed at the lower leg Secondary Outcome Measures : Muscle sodium content [ Time Frame: 14 weeks ] Sodium content of muscles Water content of skin and muscle [ Time Frame: 14 weeks ] Water content (1H) of skin and muscle Sodium excretion [ Time Frame: 14 weeks ] Sodium excretion as assessed by sodium creatinine ratio in spot urine 24-hour urine sodium

2017 Clinical Trials

53. Retrospective analysis of inferior vena cava collapsibility with point of care ultrasound and urine sodium and FENa in patients with early stage acute kidney injury (Full text)

) provide objective evidence of intravascular volume status when interpreted carefully and is helpful to delineate prerenal from intrinsic renal failure. In recent years point of care ultrasound has been used to assess volume status. Our team conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the association of inferior vena cava collapsibility by point of care ultrasound (POCUS) and urine electrolytes (urine sodium, fractional excretion of sodium) during early stage AKI (Stage 1-2 of KDIGO guidelines (...) ). We reviewed 150 cases based on the provisional diagnosis. 36 patients met the criteria for further review. Using bivariate analysis, we found a strong association between >50% IVC collapsibility with FENa < 0.4% with an odds ratio 5.3 (CI 1.1-24.5, p = 0.04), and urine sodium <20 meq/dl with an odds ratio of 6.7 (Cl 1.5-30, p = 0.02). Subsequently, multivariate analysis and Spearman correlation showed an inverse relation between IVC collapsibility and fractional excretion of sodium FENa (β = -0.4

2017 Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives PubMed

54. Dietary sodium induces a redistribution of the tubular metabolic workload (Full text)

Dietary sodium induces a redistribution of the tubular metabolic workload Body Na+ content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na+ excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na+ intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na+ intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na+ transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low (...) dietary Na+ intake increased Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments. High dietary Na+ intake decreased Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule and increased it in distal segments with lower energetic efficiency. The abundance of apical transporters and Na+ delivery are the main determinants of Na+ reabsorption along the kidney tubule. Tubular O2 consumption and the efficiency of sodium reabsorption are dependent on sodium diet.Na+ excretion

2017 The Journal of physiology PubMed

55. Effect of high and low sodium intake on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in healthy humans. (PubMed)

(300 mmol sodium/day; 17.5 g salt/day) and 4 days of low sodium (LS) intake (30 mmol sodium/day; 1.8 g salt/day) on u-AQP2, fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)), free water clearance (C(H2O)), urinary excretion of PGE(2) (u-PGE(2)) and cAMP (u-cAMP), and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), ANG II, aldosterone (Aldo), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a randomized, crossover study of 21 healthy subjects, during 24-h urine collection (...) Effect of high and low sodium intake on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in healthy humans. The degree of water transport via aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in renal collecting duct principal cells is reflected by the level of the urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2). In rats, the AQP2 expression varies with sodium intake. In humans, the effect of sodium intake on u-AQP2 and the underlying mechanisms have not previously been studied. We measured the effect of 4 days of high sodium (HS) intake

2012 American journal of physiology. Renal physiology

56. Effect of Renal Denervation on NO-mediated Sodium Excretion and Plasma Levels of Vasoactive Hormones

to Primary Outcome Measures : Fractional excretion of sodium after acute L-NMMA treatment [ Time Frame: 1 month before and after CRD ] Secondary Outcome Measures : Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) before and after L-NMMA treatment [ Time Frame: 1 month before and after CRD ] Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study (...) Effect of Renal Denervation on NO-mediated Sodium Excretion and Plasma Levels of Vasoactive Hormones Effect of Renal Denervation on NO-mediated Sodium Excretion and Plasma Levels of Vasoactive Hormones - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please

2012 Clinical Trials

57. Depression of fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog without sodium diuresis (Full text)

reabsorption during saline diuresis. Plasma volume increased 66% +/- SE 5.8 after infusion of albumin solution and 94% +/- SE 8.2 after infusion of dextran solution. Fractional sodium reabosorption by the proximal tubule was depressed after infusion of both of these hyperoncotic solutions. Nevertheless, changes in sodium excretion after infusion of albumin and dextran were small. In contrast, after infusions of isotonic sodium chloride solution, which increased plasma volume 61% +/- SE 5.8, a decrease (...) in fractional reabsorption of 50.7% +/- SE 7.2 was associated with large changes in sodium excretion.

1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation PubMed

58. Fractional Urate Excretion in Nonedematous Hyponatremia

years ] We will attempt to categorize the etiology of nonedematous hyponatremia by the following parameters in decreasing order of importance, total and extracellular water determinations, fractional urate excretion, plasma renin and aldosterone levels, urinary sodium concentration and urine osmolality. We will also determine total and extracellular water in a group suspected of having renal salt wasting by virtue of having increased fractional urate excretion and normal serum sodium concentrations (...) Fractional Urate Excretion in Nonedematous Hyponatremia Fractional Urate Excretion in Nonedematous Hyponatremia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Fractional Urate Excretion in Nonedematous

2011 Clinical Trials

59. Diagnostic performance of fractional excretion of urea in the evaluation of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a multicenter cohort study (Full text)

Diagnostic performance of fractional excretion of urea in the evaluation of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a multicenter cohort study Several factors, including diuretic use and sepsis, interfere with the fractional excretion of sodium, which is used to distinguish transient from persistent acute kidney injury (AKI). These factors do not affect the fractional excretion of urea (FeUrea). However, there are conflicting data on the diagnostic accuracy of FeUrea.We conducted

2011 Critical Care PubMed

60. Differential Response to Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure With Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction: Results From the ROSE AHF Trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure). (Full text)

. The effect of dopamine (interaction P=0.001) and nesiritide (interaction P=0.039) on urine volume varied by EF group. In heart failure with reduced EF, urine volume was higher with active treatment versus placebo, whereas in heart failure with preserved EF, urine volume was lower with active treatment. The effect of dopamine and nesiritide on weight change, sodium excretion, and incidence of AHF treatment failure also varied by EF group (interaction P<0.05 for all). There was no interaction between (...) Differential Response to Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure With Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction: Results From the ROSE AHF Trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure). The ROSE AHF trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure) found that when compared with placebo, neither low-dose dopamine (2 µg/kg per minute) nor low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg per minute without bolus) enhanced decongestion

2016 Circulation. Heart failure PubMed

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