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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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41. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1-4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60-62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl (...) supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding

2017 PLoS ONE

42. Visualizing Vascular Mechanisms of Salt Sensitivity

high-salt diet compared to low-salt diet Secondary Outcome Measures : Tissue sodium content of the legs [ Time Frame: At baseline ] Measured by sodium MRI Fat fraction of the legs [ Time Frame: At baseline ] Measured by conventional MRI, in units of fat/water volume ratio Kidney blood perfusion rate [ Time Frame: At baseline ] Measured by conventional noninvasive MRI Lymphatic stasis of the legs [ Time Frame: At baseline ] Measured by noninvasive MR lymphangiography Urinary sodium excretion [ Time (...) with baseline tissue sodium storage, and elevated in persons with salt sensitivity. Secondary hypotheses will address whether the SSBP response is related to fat storage, lymphatic vascular function, renal vascular function, and impaired target organ responses to salt loading, including decreased urinary sodium excretion, and less suppression of plasma renin and serum aldosterone. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 20

2018 Clinical Trials

43. The effect of sodium nitrite infusion on renal function, brachial and central blood pressure during enzyme inhibition by allopurinol, enalapril or acetazolamide in healthy subjects: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

aimed to examine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure, fractional sodium excretion (FENa), free water clearance (CH2O) and GFR, after pre-inhibition of xanthine oxidase, carbonic anhydrase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. The latter as an approach to upregulate endothelial NO synthase activity.In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 16 healthy subjects were treated, in a randomized order, with placebo, allopurinol 150 mg twice daily (TD), enalapril 5 mg TD, or acetazolamide (...) The effect of sodium nitrite infusion on renal function, brachial and central blood pressure during enzyme inhibition by allopurinol, enalapril or acetazolamide in healthy subjects: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) causes vasodilation, presumably by enzymatic conversion to nitric oxide (NO). Several enzymes with nitrite reducing capabilities have been discovered in vitro, but their relative importance in vivo has not been investigated. We

2018 BMC Nephrology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

44. Renal and Blood Pressure Response to a High-Salt Diet in Mice With Reduced Global Expression of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Full Text available with Trip Pro

with enhanced 24 h production. GR+/+ mice increased fractional sodium excretion and reduced renal vascular resistance during the high salt challenge, retaining neutral sodium balance. In contrast, sodium excretion and renal vascular resistance did not adapt to high salt in GRβgeo/+ mice, resulting in transient sodium retention and sustained hypertension. With high-salt diet, Slc12a3 and Scnn1a mRNAs were higher in GRβgeo/+ than controls, and this was reflected in an exaggerated natriuretic response (...) , salt excretion and renal blood flow in GRβgeo/+mice. Basal BP was ∼10 mmHg higher in male GRβgeo/+ mice than in GR+/+ littermates. This modest increase was amplified by ∼10 mmHg following a high-salt diet in GRβgeo/+ mice. High salt reduced urinary aldosterone excretion but increased renal mineralocorticoid receptor expression in both genotypes. Corticosterone, and to a lesser extent deoxycorticosterone, excretion was increased in GRβgeo/+ mice following a high-salt challenge, consistent

2018 Frontiers in physiology

45. Vanadate-Induced Renal cAMP and Malondialdehyde Accumulation Suppresses Alpha 1 Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Protein Levels Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and hypophosphatemia. Fractional excretions of all studied electrolytes were increased with vanadate administration. These in vivo findings demonstrate that vanadate might suppress renal α1-Na, K-ATPase protein functionally by enhancing cAMP and structurally by augmenting lipid peroxidation. (...) Vanadate-Induced Renal cAMP and Malondialdehyde Accumulation Suppresses Alpha 1 Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Protein Levels It has been demonstrated that vanadate causes nephrotoxicity. Vanadate inhibits renal sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase) activity and this is more pronounced in injured renal tissues. Cardiac cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by vanadate, while increased cAMP suppresses Na, K-ATPase action in renal tubular cells

2018 Toxicological research

46. Renal sodium handling and blood pressure changes in gestational protein-restricted offspring: Role of renal nerves and ganglia neurokinin expression. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) during their entire pregnancy period. Male NP or LP offspring underwent bilateral surgical renal denervation before the 8-week renal functional test and blood pressure measurements. Immunofluorescence staining in DRG cells was assessed in optical sections by confocal laser scanning microscope.The current data demonstrated a sustained rise in blood pressure associated with a decrease in fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) by reducing post-proximal tubule sodium rejection in 16-wk old LP rats (...) Renal sodium handling and blood pressure changes in gestational protein-restricted offspring: Role of renal nerves and ganglia neurokinin expression. Considering long-term changes in renal sodium handling and blood pressure in maternal protein-restricted (LP) offspring, we assumed that the development of LP hypertension results from abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurokinin expression associated with impaired responsiveness of renal sensory receptors, promoting a reduced urinary excretion

2017 PLoS ONE

47. Depression of fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog without sodium diuresis Full Text available with Trip Pro

reabsorption during saline diuresis. Plasma volume increased 66% +/- SE 5.8 after infusion of albumin solution and 94% +/- SE 8.2 after infusion of dextran solution. Fractional sodium reabosorption by the proximal tubule was depressed after infusion of both of these hyperoncotic solutions. Nevertheless, changes in sodium excretion after infusion of albumin and dextran were small. In contrast, after infusions of isotonic sodium chloride solution, which increased plasma volume 61% +/- SE 5.8, a decrease (...) in fractional reabsorption of 50.7% +/- SE 7.2 was associated with large changes in sodium excretion.

1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

48. Finding the cause of acute kidney injury: which index of fractional excretion is better? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Finding the cause of acute kidney injury: which index of fractional excretion is better? The fractional excretion of urea (FEU) is a useful index for differentiating the main categories of causes of acute kidney injury, ie, prerenal causes and intrinsic causes. It may be used in preference to the more widely used fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) in situations in which the validity of the latter is limited, such as in patients taking a diuretic.

2012 Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine

49. Renal response to intravascular volume expansion in euvolemic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: Mechanistic insights and clinical implications. (Abstract)

within the range of healthy and the other half demonstrating a significantly decreased response (1.4±0.4 vs 0.5±0.2g/3h; p<0.001). Natriuresis was associated with glomerular filtration function (eGFR), NT-proBNP and tubular fractional sodium excretion (FENa). Loop diuretic efficiency was significantly lower in HFrEF patients compared to healthy subjects (3.4±0.7 vs 2.6±1.1g/2h; p=0.044) but was only related to eGFR (R2=0.47; p<0.001) and independent of FENa (R2=0.07; p=0.20). Loop diuretics increased (...) FENa similarly in healthy subjects and HFrEF patients (9.1±2.4 vs 9.3±3.3%; p=0.64).The ability of the kidneys to remove excess intravascular volume is decreased in a substantial amount of euvolemic and optimally treated HFrEF patients. Renal response relates to filtration function and tubular sodium handling. In contrast, loop diuretics can surmount decreased renal tubular sodium excretion but remain dependent on eGFR.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2017 International journal of cardiology

50. Effect of Renal Denervation on NO-mediated Sodium Excretion and Plasma Levels of Vasoactive Hormones

to Primary Outcome Measures : Fractional excretion of sodium after acute L-NMMA treatment [ Time Frame: 1 month before and after CRD ] Secondary Outcome Measures : Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) before and after L-NMMA treatment [ Time Frame: 1 month before and after CRD ] Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study (...) Effect of Renal Denervation on NO-mediated Sodium Excretion and Plasma Levels of Vasoactive Hormones Effect of Renal Denervation on NO-mediated Sodium Excretion and Plasma Levels of Vasoactive Hormones - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please

2012 Clinical Trials

51. Effect of high and low sodium intake on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in healthy humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(300 mmol sodium/day; 17.5 g salt/day) and 4 days of low sodium (LS) intake (30 mmol sodium/day; 1.8 g salt/day) on u-AQP2, fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)), free water clearance (C(H2O)), urinary excretion of PGE(2) (u-PGE(2)) and cAMP (u-cAMP), and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), ANG II, aldosterone (Aldo), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a randomized, crossover study of 21 healthy subjects, during 24-h urine collection (...) Effect of high and low sodium intake on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in healthy humans. The degree of water transport via aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in renal collecting duct principal cells is reflected by the level of the urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2). In rats, the AQP2 expression varies with sodium intake. In humans, the effect of sodium intake on u-AQP2 and the underlying mechanisms have not previously been studied. We measured the effect of 4 days of high sodium (HS) intake

2012 American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

52. Relationship between glucose and sodium excretion in the new-born dog Full Text available with Trip Pro

with the glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.54 and 0.73 respectively, P < 0.01 for both).3. In the puppy, as the fraction of filtered sodium excreted (C(Na)/C(In)) increased from 0.05 to 0.45, the ratio, renal tubular glucose transport divided by glomerular filtration rate at saturating glucose loads, (T(G)/GFR)(m), decreased from 3.7 to 1.7 mg/ml. (r = -0.75, P < 0.01). In the adult C(Na)/C(In) was below 0.08 in all experiments and (T(G)/GFR)(m) was within the 95% confidence limits predicted by regression (...) proximal sodium reabsorption more than does the adult and thus depresses tubular glucose reabsorption to a greater extent. The lower values of maximal glucose transport rates found in new-born animals may be related, therefore, to the higher fractional sodium excretion rates during glucose diuresis rather than to a diminished intrinsic glucose transport capacity in the new-born kidney.

1974 The Journal of physiology

53. Effects of Dietary Sodium and of Acute Saline Infusion on the Interrelationship between Dopamine Excretion and Adrenergic Activity in Man Full Text available with Trip Pro

to 209 or 259 meq/day, urinary dopamine increased to 195+/-20 mug/day (P<0.01) whereas urinary norepinephrine decreased to 21.1+/-3.0 mug/day (P<0.01). Infusion of saline in seven subjects increased sodium excretion and urinary dopamine (from 2.18+/-0.22 to 2.79+/-0.19 mug/20 min, P<0.01), but decreased plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase by 33% and urinary norepinephrine insignificantly. The clearance of inulin and p-aminohippurate did not change significantly and filtration fraction was the same (...) Effects of Dietary Sodium and of Acute Saline Infusion on the Interrelationship between Dopamine Excretion and Adrenergic Activity in Man The effects of dietary sodium and of saline infusion on urinary dopamine and norepinephrine and on the relationship of these catecholamines to adrenergic activity were determined. In seven normal subjects on a 9-meq sodium intake, urinary dopamine and norepinephrine were 136+/-18 (SE) and 37.4+/-5.3 mug/day, respectively. When sodium intake was increased

1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

54. Studies on the control of sodium excretion in experimental uremia Full Text available with Trip Pro

a constant known amount of sodium chloride and 0.1 mg of 9 alpha-fluorohydrocortisone twice daily throughout the study. In a group of dogs fed 3 or 5 g of salt per day, sodium excretion by the remnant kidney averaged 6.5 muEq/min while the intact kidney was present and 53.7 muEq/min when the animals became uremic after the intact kidney was removed. The increased sodium excretion per nephron by the remnant organ often occurred within 18 hr after contralateral nephrectomy and persisted despite (...) experimentally induced acute reductions in the glomerular filtration rate to below prenephrectomy levels. A second group of animals studied in the same manner but receiving 1 g of salt per day or less failed to develop a natriuresis after contralateral nephrectomy despite high grade uremia. Thus an increased impermeable solute load per nephron was not a regulatory factor in the production of the natriuresis. The increased rate of sodium excretion per nephron in uremia resembles that after saline loading

1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

55. Effect of hypotonic expansion on sodium, water, and urea excretion in late pregnancy: the influence of posture on these results Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of hypotonic expansion on sodium, water, and urea excretion in late pregnancy: the influence of posture on these results Mineralocorticoid-treated, normotensive third trimester subjects positioned in lateral recumbency were studied before and during the infusion of 300 mEq of hypotonic saline. Urinary sodium excretion increased in all subjects from a mean value of 199 to 416 muEq/min. In 12 maximally hydrated subjects free water clearance (C(H2O)) and urine flow (V) increased from means (...) of 7.54 and 9.50 to 11.6 and 14.5 ml/100 ml of glomerular filtrate (GFR) Also the ratio of urea to inulin clearance (C(urea)/C(inulin)) increased from 0.59 to 0.64. The changes in the renal handling of water and urea suggest that fractional sodium reabsorption decreased at proximal nephron sites. The subjects then assumed a supine position, and the results were compared to those obtained during the lateral recumbent control periods. Filtered sodium decreased in 11 experiments, but in five studies

1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

56. Fluid reabsorption in Henle's loop and urinary excretion of sodium and water in normal rats and rats with chronic hypertension Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fluid reabsorption in Henle's loop and urinary excretion of sodium and water in normal rats and rats with chronic hypertension The function of the short loops of Henle was investigated by micropuncture technique in normal rats, in rats with spontaneous hypertension, and in the untouched kidney of rats with experimental renal hypertension. All animals received a standard infusion of 1.2 ml of isotonic saline per hr. With increasing arterial blood pressure (range from 90 to 220 mm Hg (...) ), a continuous decrease in transit time of Lissamine green through Henle's loop from 32 to 10 sec was observed. Fractional water reabsorption along the loop declined progressively from 26 to 10%, and fractional sodium reabsorption decreased from 40 to 36% of the filtered load. The fluid volume in Henle's loop calculated from transit time and mean flow rate also decreased with increasing blood pressure. There was no change in superficial single nephron filtration rate but there was a slight increase in total

1970 Journal of Clinical Investigation

57. Effects of hematocrit on renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion in hydropenic and volume-expanded dogs Full Text available with Trip Pro

the experiments by the adjustment of a suprarenal aortic clamp. During hydropenia, a decrease in hematocrit was associated with an increase in sodium and potassium excretion and solutefree water reabsorption. These changes were accompained by an increase in renal plasma flow and renal blood flow and a decrease in renal vascular resistance. Glomerular filtration rate was unchanged and filtration fraction was significantly decreased as hematocrit was lowered. Increasing hematocrit during hydropenia had (...) that acute changes in hematocrit may significantly affect sodium excretion and renal hemodynamics during both hydropenia and volume expansion. The changes in solute-free water reabsorption and potassium excretion suggest that the alterations in hematocrit may affect primarily the reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule. The concommitant effects of hematocrit on renal vascular resistance and filtration fraction may mediate this change in sodium reabsorption by altering hydrostatic and oncotic

1970 Journal of Clinical Investigation

58. Evidence That an Acute Increase in Glomerular Filtration Has Little Effect on Sodium Excretion in the Dog unless Extracellular Volume is Expanded Full Text available with Trip Pro

using each of the four techniques were comparable. The results were the same whether mineralocorticoid activity was high or low. In contrast, during saline loading, sodium excretion increased more than 800 muEq per minute with equal or lesser changes in GFR. These results demonstrate that acute increases in GFR per se have little effect on sodium excretion. We suggest that, due to constant fractional sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule (glomerulotubular balance) and increased distal (...) Evidence That an Acute Increase in Glomerular Filtration Has Little Effect on Sodium Excretion in the Dog unless Extracellular Volume is Expanded The concept that acute increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will cause large concomitant increases in sodium excretion has been re-examined. In previous work, GFR was elevated by volume expansion, usually with saline infusions. Recent evidence shows that tubular reabsorption is depressed during saline loading; hence, the independent effect

1967 Journal of Clinical Investigation

59. Studies on the characteristics of the control system governing sodium excretion in uremic man Full Text available with Trip Pro

Studies on the characteristics of the control system governing sodium excretion in uremic man Sodium excretion was studied in a group of patients with chronic renal disease, (a) on constant salt intakes of varying amounts with and without mineralocorticoid hormone administration and, (b) after acute extracellular fluid volume expansion. The lower the steady-state glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the greater was the fraction of filtered sodium excreted on both a 3.5 and 7.0 g salt diet (...) ; and the lower the GFR, the greater was the change in fractional excretion in the transition from the 3.5 to the 7.0 g salt diet. This regulatory capacity did not appear to be influenced by mineralocorticoid hormone administration. After acute expansion of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, the increment in sodium excretion exceeded the concomitant increment in filtered sodium in six of nine studies and in the remaining three studies, the increment in excretion averaged 59% of the Delta filtered load (i.e

1968 Journal of Clinical Investigation

60. Some determinants of the effects of VAL-5-angiotensin II amide on glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion in dogs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Some determinants of the effects of VAL-5-angiotensin II amide on glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion in dogs In 12 dogs anesthetized with chloralose, angiotensin (angiotensin II amide) given intravenously increased the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of an ischemic kidney while simultaneously having little effect on the GFR of the contralateral kidney. In the ischemic kidney, in 14 of 30 observations, increments of GFR greater than 100% of mean control GFR (9 ml/min) occurred (...) in response to angiotensin. The magnitude of the increase in GFR produced by angiotensin was independent of dose (range 0.005-0.050 mug/kg per min), the degree of accompanying pressor response, and alterations in renal blood flow (RBF) (electromagnetic flow-meter). In the ischemic kidney, increments of GFR could be produced by sub-pressor doses of angiotensin. Dissociations between increments of GFR and sodium excretion occurred. Equivalent increments of GFR in the ischemic kidney in dogs receiving either

1969 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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