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Fractional Excretion of Sodium

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21. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

hypertension. • Use of potassium-containing salt substitutes in the diet to reduce sodium intake most likely reduces blood pressure in adults. • Increasing potassium intake most likely decreases blood pressure in adults with hypertension. • All-cause mortality may be associated with sodium intake. • Reduced sodium intake may decrease the risk for combined CVD morbidity and mortality.iii This report is based on research conducted by the RAND Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center under contract (...) is unclear regarding the effect of reducing sodium intake on the incidence of hypertension (because of the small number of trials). Prospective cohort studies suggest an association between lower urinary sodium excretion and reduced risk for hypertension (low SoE because of high RoB and lack of consistency). viii Only a small number of RCTs assessed the effects of sodium reduction on longer term chronic disease outcomes: Sodium reduction decreased the risk for the combined outcome of CVD mortality

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

22. Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

hypertension. • Use of potassium-containing salt substitutes in the diet to reduce sodium intake most likely reduces blood pressure in adults. • Increasing potassium intake most likely decreases blood pressure in adults with hypertension. • All-cause mortality may be associated with sodium intake. • Reduced sodium intake may decrease the risk for combined CVD morbidity and mortality.iii This report is based on research conducted by the RAND Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center under contract (...) is unclear regarding the effect of reducing sodium intake on the incidence of hypertension (because of the small number of trials). Prospective cohort studies suggest an association between lower urinary sodium excretion and reduced risk for hypertension (low SoE because of high RoB and lack of consistency). viii Only a small number of RCTs assessed the effects of sodium reduction on longer term chronic disease outcomes: Sodium reduction decreased the risk for the combined outcome of CVD mortality

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

23. Utility of fractional excretion of urea in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in children. (Abstract)

Utility of fractional excretion of urea in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in children. The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) has been used as an index for the differential diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and prerenal acute kidney injury (AKI). The reliability of this index, however, decreases with the use of the diuretic agent furosemide. The fractional excretion of urea nitrogen (FEUN) has been shown to be useful in such settings in adults. The objective

2016 Pediatric Nephrology

24. Fractional Excretion of Sodium

Fractional Excretion of Sodium Fractional Excretion of Sodium Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fractional Excretion (...) of Sodium Fractional Excretion of Sodium Aka: Fractional Excretion of Sodium , FENa II. Indications Assessment Prerenal III. Calculation FENa = ( Excretion x 100)/(total filtered load) Excretion = ( ) / ( ) Total filtered Load = ( ) / ( ) FENa = (uNa x sCr x 100) / (sNa x uCr) uNa is sCr is sNa is uCr is IV. Interpretation: Fractional Excretion of Sodium FENa <1%: Prerenal Consistent with spot <30 meq/L FENa >1-2%: Acute Intrinsic renal condition (e.g. ) Consistent with spot >30 meq/L FENa >4%: Post

2015 FP Notebook

25. The Synergistic Roles of Cholecystokinin B and Dopamine D5 Receptors on the Regulation of Renal Sodium Excretion Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Also, D5R and CCKBR colocalize and co-immunoprecipitate in BALB/c mouse RPTs and human RPT cells. CCKBR protein expression in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of renal cortex (PMFs) is greater in D5R-/- mice than D5R+/+ littermates and D5R protein expression in PMFs is also greater in CCKBR-/- mice than CCKBR+/+ littermates. High salt diet, relative to normal salt diet, increased the expression of CCKBR and D5R proteins in PMFs. Disruption of CCKBR in mice caused hypertension and decreased sodium (...) excretion. The natriuresis in salt-loaded BALB/c mice was decreased by YF476, a CCKBR antagonist and Sch23390, a D1R/D5R antagonist. Furthermore, the natriuresis caused by gastrin was blocked by Sch23390 while the natriuresis caused by fenoldopam, a D1R/D5R agonist, was blocked by YF476. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCKBR and D5R synergistically interact in the kidney, which may contribute to the maintenance of normal sodium balance following an increase in sodium intake.

2016 PloS one

26. Assessment of renal function by estimation of fractional excretion of sodium in asphyxiated newborns. (Abstract)

Assessment of renal function by estimation of fractional excretion of sodium in asphyxiated newborns. This case control study was conducted in Neonatal unit of Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital to assess the validity of fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) as a reliable renal function test in asphyxiated newborns. Seventy five appropriate newborns aged between 0-120 hours were randomized in two groups, (Group I; n=50, cases or study group) and (Group II; n=25, controlled group). Blood urea (...) in HIE stage 2 and 1% was in HIE stage 1. Elevated level of serum creatinine (130.0±60.0) and FENa (2.9±1.4) were found in dead patients. Oliguria (0.99±0.6) was also found in dead asphyxiated newborns. Increase in fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is shown to be directly related to the degree of renal impairment which is again directly related to the degree of asphyxia in the newborns. FENa can be used as an indicator of renal tubular dysfunction in the asphyxiated newborns.

2012 Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

27. The INDORSE Study: Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Outcomes on Renal Sodium Excretion

) or to placebo (1 tablet daily) for 28 days. Endpoints: Fractional excretion of sodium, renal function, and renal hemodynamics. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Type 2 Diabetes Drug: Sitaglitpin Other: Placebo Phase 4 Detailed Description: Background: DPP-4 inhibition improves glycemic control, modestly reduces blood pressure and may also reduce albuminuria in patients with Type 2 diabetes; effects which occur without significantly modifying heart rate or body weight. While preclinical (...) inhibitors including those within the kidney. Study Objectives: To determine effect(s) of DPP-4 inhibition on tubular sodium handling, renal hemodynamics, and renal function. Study Design: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, Phase IV. Study Patients: 32 patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Systolic Hypertension (SBP 120-160 mmHg). Endpoints: Fractional excretion of sodium, renal function (measured GFR), renal hemodynamics (effective renal plasma flow, filtration fraction, renal blood flow

2015 Clinical Trials

28. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo.In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet (...) and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1.25 mg or placebo twice a day for 4.5 d before each examination day. On the examination day, glomerular filtration rate was measured by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic

2015 World journal of nephrology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

29. Strimvelis (autologous CD34+ enriched cell fraction that contains CD34+ cells transduced with retroviral vector that encodes for the human ADA cDNA sequence) - evere combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID)

from the patient’s own CD34+ cells, which are transduced with retroviral vector GSK3336223 that encodes for the human enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) cDNA sequence. The finished product is presented as dispersion for infusion containing 1 – 10 million cells/ml of autologous CD34+ enriched cell fraction that contains CD34+ cells transduced with retroviral vector that encodes for the human ADA cDNA sequence. The cells are formulated in 0.9% sodium chloride. Strimvelis contains as other ingredients (...) only sodium chloride. Strimvelis is supplied in one or more sterile ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) bag, 50 mL nominal fill, with a Luer spike interconnector closed with a Luer lock cap. Assessment report EMA/CHMP/272303/2016 Page 12/95 2.2.2. Active Substance General information The active substance consists of autologous CD34+ enriched cell fraction that contains CD34+ cells transduced with retroviral vector GSK3336223 that encodes for the human ADA cDNA sequence. The section on the active substance

2016 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

30. Avibactam sodium / ceftazidime (Avycaz)

Avibactam sodium / ceftazidime (Avycaz) CENTER FOR DRUG EVALUATION AND RESEARCH APPLICATION NUMBER: 206494Orig1s000 MEDICAL REVIEW(S) Memo to File; NDA 206494, Ceftazidime-avibactam 2 NDA 206494, Ceftazidime-avibactam was submitted by Cerexa Inc. on June 25, 2014. The Applicant proposed the following indications: 1. Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), in combination with metronidazole (MTZ), caused by Escherichia coli (including cases with concurrent bacteremia), Klebsiella (...) Pentahydrate and Avibactam Sodium 22 Figure 2: Classes of ß-lactamases and BLI Activity 24 Figure 3: Proposed Molecular Mechanism of Action of Avibactam 27 Figure 4: Chemical Structures of Clavulanic Acid, Sulbactam, Tazobactam and Avibactam 27 Figure 5: Probability of Joint Target Attainment by MIC for Enterobacteriaceae 104 Figure 6: Study Design - Resistant Pathogen Study D4280C00006 111 Figure 7: Hy’s Law Plot – Max Bilirubin by ALT and AST (ALP MIC) is the most relevant PK/PD index for ceftazidime

2015 FDA - Drug Approval Package

31. Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure Full Text available with Trip Pro

of an elevation in BP for maintenance of normal Na balance). Reprinted with permission of Elsevier, Inc. from Laffer and Elijovich. Copyright © 2012, Elsevier, Inc.; permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. 1.The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: The group of MacGregor (Parfrey et al ) showed that SSBP (assessed by the fall in mean arterial pressure [MAP] per unit urine sodium excretion after dietary salt reduction) increased in prevalence from normotensive to mildly hypertensive (...) hypertensive subjects, perhaps reflecting sympathetic stimulation by the decrease in BP. , Renal natriuretic dopamine fails to be normally stimulated whereas renal norepinephrine fails to be normally inhibited during a salt load in SS hypertensive subjects, leading to an altered urine ratio between these catechols that may be related to impaired sodium excretion. The pressor response to exogenous norepinephrine is greater in SS than SR hypertensive subjects, whether on low- or high-salt intake

2016 American Heart Association

32. The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

outcomes were eGFR decline of 40% or more or chronic dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine or chronic dialysis, an over 5%/year loss of eGFR, progression of albuminuria, and hyperkalemia. Multinomial logit regression with multivariable fractional polynomials, adjusted for confounders, determined the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and renal outcomes, with death as a competing risk. The primary outcome occurred in 2,052 (7.6%) patients. There was no significant association (...) The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes. Patients are often advised to reduce sodium and potassium intake, but supporting evidence is limited. To help provide such evidence we estimated 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in 28,879 participants at high cardiovascular risk who were followed for a mean of 4.5 years in the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. The primary outcome was eGFR decline of 30% or more or chronic dialysis. Secondary

2014 Kidney International

33. Dietary Sodium's Effect on Urinary Sodium and Dopamine Excretion in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

Sodium's Effect on Urinary Sodium and Dopamine Excretion in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome Study Start Date : March 2012 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2019 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2019 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: High Salt Diet POTS and healthy controls will be randomly assigned the order of dietary sodium (...) Dietary Sodium's Effect on Urinary Sodium and Dopamine Excretion in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome Dietary Sodium's Effect on Urinary Sodium and Dopamine Excretion in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2012 Clinical Trials

34. What does sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 inhibition add: Prospects for dual inhibition. Full Text available with Trip Pro

What does sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 inhibition add: Prospects for dual inhibition. Epithelial glucose transport is accomplished by Na+ -glucose co-transporters, SGLT1 and SGLT2. In the intestine, uptake of dietary glucose is for its majority mediated by SGLT1, and humans with mutations in the SGLT1 gene show glucose/galactose malabsorption. In the kidney, both transporters, SGLT1 and SGLT2, are expressed and recent studies identified that SGLT2 mediates up to 97% of glucose reabsorption (...) . Humans with mutations in the SGLT2 gene show familial renal glucosuria. In the last three decades, significant progress was made in understanding the physiology of these transporters and their potential as therapeutic targets. Based on the structure of phlorizin, a natural compound acting as a SGLT1/2 inhibitor, initially several SGLT2, and later SGLT1 and dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors have been developed. Interestingly, SGLT2 knockout or treatment with SGLT2 selective inhibitors only causes a fractional

2019 obesity & metabolism

35. Association of Urinary Plasminogen-Plasmin with Edema and Epithelial Sodium Channel Activation in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome. (Abstract)

(p < 0.01). In patients who were treated and had serial samples, a decrease in uPLG-PL/C was identified as an independent influencing factor of edema remission (p < 0.01). Finally, the urinary fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) in patients was inversely correlated with the fractional excretion of potassium (FEK; p< 0.001), and FEK/FENa ratio was positively correlated with uPLG-PL/C (p < 0.001), suggesting a close association between uPLG-PL and ENaC activation.Our study identifies uPLG-PL (...) Association of Urinary Plasminogen-Plasmin with Edema and Epithelial Sodium Channel Activation in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome. Previous animal experiments and small human studies suggest that urinary plasmin can activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and contribute to sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome (NS), but this however is not well studied in clinical settings, and its relevance to edema formation is not well characterized in humans. We have investigated the association

2019 American journal of nephrology

36. Effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor on proximal tubular function and injury in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

C:creatinine ratio (UCCR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4) and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) were measured at baseline and study end.Baseline characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin-treated versus standard-treated patients showed reductions in HbA1c (-0.75 ± 0.21 versus -0.70 ± 0.25%; P = 0.882). There were significant between-group differences in the reduction in UACR {-23.3 [95% confidence interval (...) Effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor on proximal tubular function and injury in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Intensive glucose control reduces the risk for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to exert renoprotection beyond glycemic control, although their effects on the organs are not well known. There are limited data on SGLT2 inhibitors

2019 Clinical kidney journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

37. Prenatal Sildenafil Therapy Improves Cardiovascular Function in Fetal Growth Restricted Offspring of Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

sildenafil ameliorates cardiovascular and renal function in FGR offspring of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Sildenafil citrate (60 mg/kg per day) or control gel diet (containing 0.3% salt) was administered from gestational day ten until birth. In male and female offspring, the mean arterial pressure was measured by telemetry in 1 subset from week 5 until week twenty. Echocardiographic parameters, glomerular filtration rate, and fractional electrolyte excretion were determined in another subset at week 9 (...) Prenatal Sildenafil Therapy Improves Cardiovascular Function in Fetal Growth Restricted Offspring of Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and renal disorders in later life. Prenatal sildenafil improves birth weight in FGR animal models. Whether sildenafil treatment protects against long-term cardiovascular and renal disease in these offspring is unknown. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that prenatal

2019 Hypertension

38. Collecting Duct Prorenin Receptor Knockout Reduces Renal Function, Increases Na+ Excretion and Mitigates renal Responses in ANGII induced hypertensive mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

fractional Na+ excretion and lower ANG II levels in urine. After 14 days of ANG II infusion (400 ng·kg-1·min-1), the increases in systolic BP and diastolic BP were mitigated in CDPRR-KO mice. CDPRR-KO mice had lower abundance of cleaved αENaC and γENaC, as well as lower ANG II and renin content in urine compared with wild-type mice. In isolated CD from CDPRR-KO mice, patch-clamp studies demonstrated that ANG II-dependent stimulation of ENaC activity was reduced because of fewer active channels and lower (...) Collecting Duct Prorenin Receptor Knockout Reduces Renal Function, Increases Na+ Excretion and Mitigates renal Responses in ANGII induced hypertensive mice. Augmented intratubular angiotensin (ANG) II is a key determinant of enhanced distal Na+ reabsorption via activation of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and other transporters, which leads to the development of high blood pressure (BP). In ANG II-induced hypertension, there is increased expression of the prorenin receptor (PRR

2017 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

39. On the Adaptation in Sodium Excretion in Chronic Uremia. THE EFFECTS OF “PROPORTIONAL REDUCTION” OF SODIUM INTAKE Full Text available with Trip Pro

in GFR. In the CSI group, absolute sodium excretion rate (U(Na)V) remained essentially unchanged as GFR fell, while fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na)) increased progressively from a mean control value of 0.3% to a final value of 4.4%. In the PRS group, U(Na)V decreased with each reduction in GFR and salt intake, and FE(Na) remained constant throughout. In a second study, the fraction of serum that previously has been shown to possess natriuretic activity in studies of uremic patients was obtained (...) On the Adaptation in Sodium Excretion in Chronic Uremia. THE EFFECTS OF “PROPORTIONAL REDUCTION” OF SODIUM INTAKE Renal mass and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced from normal to approximately 15% of normal in two groups of dogs. One group received a constant salt intake (CSI) throughout the study. The second group was subjected to "proportional reduction" of sodium intake (PRS), a dietary regimen which involved the reduction of sodium intake in exact proportion to the decrement

1974 Journal of Clinical Investigation

40. Kynamro - mipomersen sodium

. Its molecular formula is C 230 H 305 N 67 O 122 P 19 S 19 Na 19 and its molecular weight is 7594.9 g/mol. Kynamro Page 9/114 The chemical name of mipomersen sodium is DNA, d(P-thio)([2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]rG-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]m5rC-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]m5r C-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]m5rU-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]m5rC-A-G-T-m5CT-G-m5C-T-T-m5C-[2 '-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]rG-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]m5rC-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]rA-[2'-O-(2-me thoxyethyl)]m5rC-[2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]m5rC), sodium salt (1 (...) Kynamro - mipomersen sodium London, 21 March 2013 EMA/305826/2013 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Kynamro Solution for injection 189mg International non-proprietary name: mipomersen Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/002429/0000 Assessment report as adopted by the CHMP with all information of a commercially confidential nature deleted. 7 Westferry Circus ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 4HB ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 7418 8400

2013 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

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